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首页 [英]安格斯·麦克凯&戴维·狄屈克:欧洲中古地图集(劳特里奇 2007)

[英]安格斯·麦克凯&戴维·狄屈克:欧洲中古地图集(劳特里奇 2007)

[英]安格斯·麦克凯&戴维·狄屈克:欧洲中古地图集(劳特里奇 …

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简介:本文档为《[英]安格斯·麦克凯&戴维·狄屈克:欧洲中古地图集(劳特里奇 2007)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ATLASOFMEDIEVALEUROPEATLASofMEDIEVALEUROPEEDITEDBYANGUSMACKAYWITHDAVIDDITCHBURNLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYFirstpublishedinpaperbackRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,Introduction©AngusMacKaySelectionandeditorialmatter,bibliography©AngusMacKayandDavidDitchburnIndividualmapsandtexts©ThecontributorsAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)vPrefaceviiiContributorsxPHYSICALEUROPEWesternEurope:PhysicalFeaturesTHEEARLYMIDDLEAGES(toc)PoliticsTheRomanEmpireinADBarbarianMigrationsoftheFourthandFifthCenturiesBarbarianKingdomsintheFirstHalfoftheSixthCenturyMerovingianGaul,cTheEmpireofJustinian,–TheExpansionofIslamintheMediterraneanArea(th–thcenturies)ItalyintheEighthCenturyTheCarolingianEmpireunderCharlemagne,–DivisionoftheCarolingianEmpire,TheByzantineEmpireundertheMacedonianDynasty(th–thCenturies)VikingsMagyarsTheEastEuropeanStates,cFranceanditsPrincipalities,cEnglandBeforetheNormansTheSpanishandPortugueseReconquesttocTheOttonianEmpire,ReligionChristianityandPaganismintheWest,c–EarlyMonasticismtoNorthernEuropeanMonasticismByzantineMissionsamongtheSlavsTenthandEleventhCenturyCentresofReformEpiscopalSeesinEuropeattheEndoftheTenthCenturyTheInfluxofRelicsintoSaxonyGovernment,SocietyandEconomyRoyalCarolingianResidentialVillasBurhsandMintsinLateAngloSaxonEnglandRoyalItineraries:EleventhCenturyFranceandGermanyEnglandunderWilliamIHamwic:AngloSaxonSouthamptonDorestadConstantinopleEarlyMedievalRomeRavennaTradeRoutesoftheCarolingianEmpireTheEconomyofSanVincenzoalVolturnoCultureIrishandAngloSaxonCentresontheContinentintheEarlyMiddleAgesBede’sWorldTHECENTRALMIDDLEAGES(c–c)PoliticsAngevinsandCapetiansintheLateTwelfthCenturyFrederickBarbarossaandGermany,–FrederickBarbarossaandtheLombardLeagueCONTENTSviTheEmpireoftheComneni,–AngloNormanPenetrationofWalesandIrelandScotlandintheCentralMiddleAgesTheNormansinSouthernItalyandSicilyWhereDidtheCrusadersComeFromTheRoutesoftheFirstCrusadeTheSecondandThirdCrusadesTheCrusadesoftheEmperorFrederickIIandStLouisTheCrusaderStatesTheTemplarNetworkCrusaderJerusalemCrusaderAcreFrederickII,thePapacyandItalyItalyintheSecondHalfoftheThirteenthCenturyTheOstsiedlungScandinavia,theGermansandtheBalticThePremyslideHabsburgConflictinCentralEuropeTheMongolTatarInvasionsoftheThirteenthCenturyandTheirImpactontheWestFranceintheReignofPhiliptheFairTheSpanishandPortugueseReconquestDuringtheTwelfthandThirteenthCenturiesReligionLatinEpiscopalSeesattheEndoftheThirteenthCenturyCistercians,PremonstratensiansandOthersMendicantsBéguinesandBeghardsThePapacyandtheConciliarFathersofShrinesandRevivals:PopularChristianity,c–cHeresy,theAlbigensianCrusadeandtheInquisition,c–cGovernment,SocietyandEconomyProvisioningWarintheTwelfthCenturyTheRiseofRepresentativeAssembliesEuropeanFairsandTradeRoutesTheAlpinePassesTheLargerTownsofEuropeFamiliesofTownLawTheContadoofLuccaintheTwelfthCenturyCommunalMovementsSettlementPatternsinMedievalItalyTheHuertaofValenciaTheThirteenthCenturyRepopulationofAndalusiaAntiSemitism,–CultureTheTwelfthCenturyRenaissance:TranslationandTransmissionRomanesqueEuropeGothicEuropeTheTravelsofVillarddeHonnecourtTheSpreadoftheOldFrenchEpicTroubadours:CentresofCreativityandTravelsofthePoetsLanguages,cTHELATEMIDDLEAGES(c–c)PoliticsTheHundredYearsWarTheGrowthoftheBurgundianStateTheScottishWarsofIndependenceWales:ThePrincipalityandtheMarchesIreland:EnglishandGaelicLordship,cTheEmergenceofSwitzerlandLateMedievalScandanavia:UnityandDisunityEmperorsandPrinces:GermanyintheLaterMiddleAgesNorthernItalyfromtheRiseoftheSignoritothePeaceofLodiTheExpansionoftheCrownofAragonTheWarsoftheRosesLateMedievalScotland:CrownandMagnates,candcLateMedievalIberiaTheAdvanceoftheTurksandtheCrusadeintheLaterMiddleAgesTheRiseofMuscovyandtheUnionofLithuaniaandPolandviiReligionTheAvignonPapacyandPapalFiscalityTheGreatSchismandtheCouncilsThePapalStatesByzantineCulturalandMonasticCentresTheBohemianLandsandtheHussiteWars,–Government,SocietyandEconomyTheGrowthofRoyalFiscalityandAdministrationinFranceBurgundianAdministrationCastilianCorregidoresRepresentationattheCastilianCortes,–ParliamentaryRepresentationinLaterMedievalEnglandTheGovernmentofLaterMedievalGermanyTheSpreadoftheBlackDeathTheGermanHanseFinancialCentresinWesternEuropeLateThirteenthCenturyBrunswickIstanbulNovgorodintheLaterMiddleAgesTheSwabianTownLeagueLateMedievalSevilleDesertedEnglishVillagesLateMedievalTranshumanceinWesternEuropeEuropeanExpansionattheEndoftheMiddleAgesTheJacquerieThePeasants’RevoltofChristians,JewsandConversosinLateMedievalIberiaConsequencesoftheBlackDeath:PogromsinGermanyCultureKnightlyJourneysMargeryKempeTheSpreadofPrintingJourneysofMajorItalianArtistsBetweencandcTheRediscoveryofClassicalTextsTheRiseofUniversitiesFurtherReadingIndexviiiThepreparationofanatlasofthehistoryofEuropeduringtheMiddleAgespresentsnumerousandcomplexdifficultiesInthefirstplacetheperiodtobecoveredstretchesfromthelatefourthcenturydowntothelatefifteenth(orevenearlysixteenth)centuryInaddition,however,anatlasofthiskindevidentlycannotbeconfinedtoWesternEurope:ByzantiumandEasternEuropehavetobeincluded,asindeeddosuchimportantmattersastheexploitsofcrusadingEuropeansoverseas,theimpactofMuslimsorMongols,travelabroad,andtheearlyvoyagesofdiscoveryIntermsofsocialgroupingsequallyformidableproblemspresentthemselvesObviouslythemainpoliticaleventsfromthefalloftheRomanEmpiredowntothebattlesandtreatiesoftheHundredYearsWarhavetobeincluded,butsotoodotheactivitiesofotherprotagonistsforexample,popesandantipopes,thosewhoattendedandparticipatedinthegreatChurchCouncilsorinparliamentaryassemblies,ItalianandHanseaticmerchants,taxcollectors,women,colonists,peasants,shepherds(andtheirsheep),JewsandNewChristians,heretics,writersandtranslators,troubadours,andarchitectsandartistsDespitethedifficultiesinherentinsuchatask,however,theinclusionofsuchvariedfacetsofferssomepositiveadvantagesForinadditiontotheemperors,kings,princesandgreatnobles,theartisansandpeasantswhoparticipatedintheFrenchJacquerieortheEnglishrevoltoflefttheirmarkontheperiod,asindeeddidthehumbleBéguinesandBeghardsAnatlasisanessentialtoolforthestudyofmedievalhistoryThishaslongbeenrecognized,butIbelievethatnoadequatesolution,specificallydesignedforthispurpose,existsWhenIwasastudent,whichwasadmittedlyalongtimeago,wewereadvisedtouseaGermanatlaswhichwasincrediblydetailedandwellnighincomprehensibleThepresentatlasdoesnotaimatminutedetailcompressedintoafewclutteredmapsOnthecontrary,themainobjectivehasbeenclarity,andeachmapisaccompaniedbyanexplanatorytextUsingnearlymaps,theatlasspanstheentiremedievalperiodTheactualselectionofmapstobeincludedwasprimarilydeterminedbytheyearsofundergraduateteachingexperiencedbytheeditorandcontributorsIamextremelygratefultoallthosecolleagueswhohavehelpedinpreparingthisvolumeThosewhohavecontributedthemaps,theaccompanyingtextsandsuggestionsforfurtherreading(containedinthebibliography)havesufferedfrommyincessantdemands,requestsforclarificationandadvice,andallthedelaysinevitableinbringingsuchacooperativeenterprisetoitsconclusionIoweaspecialdebttoDavidDitchburnwhoseefficiencyandversatiletalentshavefrequentlymademeashamedofmyownshortcomingsItwasRichardStonemanwhooriginallyconceivedoftheproject,andhisconstantencouragementandexemplarypatiencehavebeenmuchappreciatedHissuccessiveassistantsAnitaRoy,JackieDias,KateMorrallandparticularlyVictoriaPetershavealldisplayedcharitableforbearancewhendealingwithmyabsentmindednessFinally,specialthanksareduetothecartographer,JayneLewin,forherskillinPREFACEixconvertingroughdraftsorevenmeresketchesintoclearmaps,dealingpatientlywithlatechanges,andinresolvingcontradictionsimplicitinsomeofthedifficultinstructionssentinbycontributorsIhopethatuniversityundergraduates,seniorschoolpupilsandprofessionalhistorianswillfindtheatlasusefulandrewardingIalsoimaginethatenlightenedtouristsinterestedinthehistoryandcultureofthecountriestheyarevisitingmaybenefitfromthemapsandcommentariesprovidedbytheexpertcontributorsAngusMacKayDepartmentofHistoryUniversityofEdinburghFrancesAndrews,UniversityofStAndrewsMichaelJAngold,UniversityofEdinburghMalcolmCBarber,UniversityofReadingRobertJBartlett,UniversityofStAndrewsIanBeavan,UniversityofAberdeenPhilipBennett,UniversityofEdinburghLouiseMBourdua,UniversityofAberdeenThomasSBrown,UniversityofEdinburghSimonCoates,UniversityofEdinburghAntonioCollantesdeTerán,UniversityofSevilleMGaryDickson,UniversityofEdinburghDavidDitchburn,UniversityofAberdeenMarilynDunn,UniversityofGlasgowRobinFrame,UniversityofDurhamManuelGonzálezJiménez,UniversityofSevilleAnthonyGoodman,UniversityofEdinburghAlexanderGrant,UniversityofLancasterPhilipHersch,UniversityofEdinburghJohnCHiggitt,UniversityofEdinburghRichardAHodges,UniversityofSheffieldMichaelCEJones,UniversityofNottinghamDerekLomax,UniversityofBirmingham(deceased)RaymondMcClusky,GlasgowMartinMcLaughlin,UniversityofOxfordNormanMacleod,UniversityofEdinburghMalynDDNewitt,UniversityofExeterRichardOram,UniversityofAberdeenRichardRose,UniversityofGlasgowMichaelLRyder,UniversityofEdinburghRossSamson,GlasgowRogerTarr,UniversityofEdinburghAlfredThomas,RutgersUniversityElspethMTurner,UniversityofEdinburghIanWei,UniversityofBristolChristopherJWickham,UniversityofBirminghamCONTRIBUTORSPHYSICALEUROPETHEEARLYMIDDLEAGES(toc)TheRomanEmpireinADByADtheRomanEmpirehadchangedconsiderablysincethetimeofitsfirstemperorAugustus(BC–AD)Increasedexternalpressures,deterioratingeconomicconditionsandpoliticaldisorderaggravatedbydynasticinsecurityandtheambitionsofgeneralsledtotheabandonmentofoutlyingprovincesandaperiodofprolongedupheavalinthethirdcenturyAmajorreorganizationintroducedbyDiocletian(–)andcontinuedbyConstantine(–)sawtheelevationoftheemperorintoaremoteautocratalongEasternlines,thecreationofalargebureaucracyandadivisionofthearmyintoatwotierforceconsistingofelitemobileunitsandpoorerqualitylocaltroopsInanattempttoimprovelocalefficiencyandtominimizetheriskofrevoltDiocletiandoubledthenumberofprovincesandgroupedthemintodiocesesundervicarii,whileConstantineestablishedaseparationofpowersbetweencivilgovernorsandmilitarycommandersAfterdefeatinghisopponentsattheMilvianBridge(),ConstantinebecameaChristianandpromotedwhathadbeenaminorityfaithbyappointingChristianstokeypositionsandendowingtheChurchwithlandsandbuildingsTheologicaldivisionsremainedacute,however,andpaganriteswerenotproscribeduntilthereignofTheodosiusI(–)Constantine’stransferofthecapitaltothestrategicsiteofByzantium,renamedConstantinoplein,reflectedbothhiscommitmenttohisnewfaithandtheincreasingimportanceoftheEastintheempireThesechangesproducedameasureofpoliticalandeconomicstabilityalthoughConstantine’sdynastywasrivenbyfamilydisputesanditdiedoutafterthedeathoftheshortlivedpaganemperorJulianfightingthePersiansinDuringthereignsofthesucceedingemperorsbarbarianpressureonthefrontiersincreased,partlyasaresultofthearrivaloftheHunnomadsinEuropeinthesTheVisigothssuccessfullyrequestedasylumintheempirein,butilltreatmentledthemtoturnagainsttheRomansandtowipeoutaRomanarmyatthebattleofAdrianople(),inwhichtheemperorValenswaskilledThisdefeatwasagreatblowtoRomanprestige,butthedirecteffectswerelimitedTheGothsweregrantedlandsintheBalkansasfoederati(allies)andorderwasrestoredbythestaunchlyChristianSpanishemperorTheodosiusIFollowingTheodosius’deathinacriticalstageinthetransformationoftheRomanworldoccurredwiththedivisionoftheempirebetweenhissonsHonorius(West)andArcadius(East)Whilethemythofimperialunitywasmaintained,tensiongrewbetweenthetwocourtsTheEasternempireremainedrelativelypowerfulasaresultofitsgreaterwealthandpopulationanditsrelativeimmunityfrombarbarianpressureandthedangerousinfluencewhichGermanmercenariesexercisedintheWestChristianitybecamestronglyentrenched,and,despitebitterchristologicalcontroversies,servedtoreinforceimperialauthoritybytreatingtheempireasaninstrumentofdivinepolicyIntheWest,however,fundamentaleconomicandsocialweaknesseswereaggravatedbycourtintrigues,theselfinterestofthesenatorialeliteandfrequentrevoltsbyusurpersWhileRomanadministration,societyandcultureremainedresilientatthehighestlevels,thedecentralizationoftheparsoccidentaliswasreflectedinthegrowthofnonRomancultures(asinBritainandNorthAfrica)andtheriseoflocalpoliticalallegiances(asinGaul)evenbeforethefulleffectsofthebarbarianmigrationswerefeltinthefifthcenturyTSBrownPOLITICSBarbarianMigrationsoftheFourthandFifthCenturiesThepressurefrom‘barbarians’(mostlyGermans)whichtheRomanEmpirehadexperiencedfromthelatesecondcenturybecamemoreintenseinthelatefourthcenturyThisVolkerwanderung(wanderingofthepeoples)involvedunstableamalgamsofdiversegroups,manyofwhomsettledgraduallyandrelativelypeacefullyThepressureofsteppenomadssuchastheHunsfromcplayedarole,butprobablymoreimportantwererivalriesamongtheGermanicpeoples,theformationofconfederaciesunderaggressivemilitaryleadersfromthethirdcenturyandtheopportunitiespresentedtobootyhungrywarleadersandtheirretinuesbyRome’spolitical,militaryandfinancialweaknessesandtheincreasingalienationofRomanprovincialsfromcentralizedruleThefirstseriouscaseofGermanicpenetrationoccurredafter,asVisigothicandOstrogothictribeslivingbeyondtheDanubesoughtrefugeasRomanallies(foederati)withintheempireTensionledtothebattleofAdrianopleinwhichalargelyVisigothicforcedefeatedaRomanarmyandkilledtheemperorValensAlthoughatreatywassoonarrangedtheVisigothscontinuedtoravageGreeceandIllyricumuntil,in,theyenteredItalyundertheleadershipofAlaricAcatandmousegametookplacewhiletheimperialgovernmentinRavennaprevaricatedinthefaceofGothicdemandsforlandandgoldFinallyAlaric’sexasperationledtothesackofRomeinAugustanenormousblowtoRomanmoraleAlaricdiedsoonafterwardsandhisbrotherinlawAtaulfledtheGothstosouthernGaul,wheretheywererecognizedasfoederatibyatreatyinUndertheirkingsTheodoricIandIIandEuric,theybuiltupapowerfulstatebasedonToulousewhichhadgenerallygoodrelationswiththeRomanaristocracyandestablishedoverlordshipinSpainTheGermanpeopleswhohadremainednorthoftheDanube(Herules,Gepids,Rugi,SkiriandOstrogoths)becamesubjectsoftheHuns,whobuiltupatributaryempireunderAttila(–)WhilelaunchingregularattacksontheeastRomanprovincesintheBalkans,AttilaremainedfriendlywithAetius,thedominantforceinthewest,untilhewasinducedtolaunchinconclusiveraidsintoGaul(checkedbyhisdefeatatChalonsin)andnorthernItalyThecollapseoftheHunempirefollowingAttila’sdeathinledtorenewedpressurebyGermanicbands(Ostrogoths,Rugiandothers)ontheDanubefrontierMeanwhilenorthernGaulhadbeenthrownintoconfusionbytheruptureoftheRhinefrontierinlatebyamixedbarbarianforcedominatedbyVandals,SueviandAlansWhilesomeAlansbecameRomanalliesinGaul,othersjoinedtheVandalinvasionofSpaininTheSuevisetuparobberkingdombasedonGaliciawhichlasteduntilInthefaceofVisigothpressuretheVandalssailedtoAfricainandweregrantedthewesternprovincesbyatreatyofTheirableking,Geiseric,seizedCarthagein,occupiedtherestofRomanAfricaandlaunchedaseriesoflucrativenavalraids,occupyingSicily,SardiniaandCorsicaandsackingRomeinFollowinghisdeathintheaggressiveandconfiscatorypoliciestowardstheRomanaristocracyandtheCatholicChurchgavewaytoagenerallymoreconciliatoryandRomanizingregimeThecollapseoftheRhinefrontierinhadwiderepercussionsBritainsawitsRomangarrisonwithdrawnandtheassumptionofpowerbyrivalBritishchieftainsuntiltheAngloSaxoninvasionsinthelatesTheBurgundianswerepermittedtosetupakingdomontheupperRhineinTransferredasfederatestotheJuraLakeGenevaareain,theybuiltupaRomanizedkingdomincorporatingtheLyonandVi

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[英]安格斯·麦克凯&戴维·狄屈克:欧洲中古地图集(劳特里奇 2007)

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