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首页 大学英语自学教程 下册

大学英语自学教程 下册

大学英语自学教程 下册

静待花开
2008-11-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《大学英语自学教程 下册doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

大学英语自学教程(下)电子版大学英语自学教程(下)AWhatIsaDecisionAdecisionisachoicemadefromamongalternativecoursesofactionthatareavailableThepurposeofmakingadecisionistoestablishandachieveorganizationalgoalsandobjectivesThereasonformakingadecisionisthataproblemexists,goalsorobjectivesarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthemThusthedecisionmakingprocessisfundamentaltomanagementAlmosteverythingamanagerdoesinvolvesdecisions,indeed,somesuggestthatthemanagementprocessisdecisionmakingAlthoughmanagerscannotpredictthefuture,manyoftheirdecisionsrequirethattheyconsiderpossiblefutureeventsOftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleaspossibletochance,hutsinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere,riskaccompaniesdecisionsSometimestheconsequencesofapoordecisionareslightatothertimestheyareseriousChoiceistheopportunitytoselectamongalternativesIfthereisnochoice,thereisnodecisiontobemadeDecisionmakingistheprocessofchoosing,andmanydecisionshaveabroadrangeofchoiceForexample,astudentmaybeabletochooseamonganumberofdifferentcoursesinordertoimplementthedecisiontoobtainacollegedegreeFormanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,andthelikeTheseconstraintsexistatalllevelsoftheorganizationAlternativesarethepossiblecoursesofactionfromwhichchoicescanbemadeIftherearenoalternatives,thereisnochoiceand,therefore,nodecisionIfnoalternativesareseen,oftenitmeansthatathoroughjobofexaminingtheproblemshasnotbeendoneForexample,managerssometimestreatproblemsinaneitherorfashionthisistheirwayofsimplifyingcomplexproblemsButthetendencytosimplifyblindsthemtootheralternativesAtthemanageriallevel,decisionmakingincludeslimitingalternativesaswellasidentifyingthem,andtherangeisfromhighlylimitedtopracticallyunlimitedDecisionmakersmusthavesomewayofdeterminingwhichofseveralalternativesisbestthatis,whichcontributesthemosttotheachievementoforganizationalgoalsAnorganizationalgoalisanendorastateofaffairstheorganizationseekstoreachBecauseindividuals(andorganizations)frequentlyhavedifferentideasabouthowtoattainthegoals,thebestchoicemaydependonwhomakesthedecisionFrequently,departmentsorunitswithinanorganizationmakedecisionsthataregoodforthemindividuallybutthatarelessthanoptimalforthelargerorganizationCalledsuboptimization,thisisatradeoffthatincreasestheadvantagestooneunitorfunctionbutdecreasestheadvantagestoanotherunitorfunctionForexample,themarketingmanagermayargueeffectivelyforanincreasedadvertisingbudgetInthelargerschemeofthings,however,increasedfundingforresearchtoimprovetheproductsmightbemorebeneficialtotheorganizationThesetradeoffsoccurbecausetherearemanyobjectivesthatorganizationswishtoattainsimultaneouslySomeoftheseobjectivesaremoreimportantthanothers,buttheorderanddegreeofimportanceoftenvaryfrompersontopersonandfromdepartmenttodepartmentDifferentmanagersdefinethesameproblemindifferenttermsWhenpresentedwithacommoncase,salesmanagerstendtoseesalesproblems,productionmanagersseeproductionproblems,andsoonTheorderingandimportanceofmultipleobjectivesisalsobased,inpart,onthevaluesofthedecisionmakerSuchvaluesarepersonaltheyarehardtounderstand,evenbytheindividual,becausetheyaresodynamicandcomplexInmanybusinesssituationsdifferentpeople'svaluesaboutacceptabledegreesofriskandprofitabilitycausedisagreementaboutthecorrectnessofdecisionsPeopleoftenassumethatadecisionisanisolatedphenomenonButfromasystemspointofview,problemshavemultiplecauses,anddecisionshaveintendedandunintendedconsequencesAnorganizationisanongoingentity,andadecisionmadetodaymayhaveconsequencesfarintothefutureThustheskilledmanagerlookstowardthefutureconsequencesofcurrentdecisionsBSecretsofSuccessatanInterviewThesubjectoftoday'stalkisinterviewsThekeywordsherearepreparationandconfidence,whichwillcarryyoufarDoyourhomeworkfirstFindoutallyoucanaboutthejobyouareapplyingforandtheorganizationyouhopetoworkforManyoftheemployersIinterviewedmadethesamecriticismofcandidates"TheyhavenoideawhatthedaytodayworkofthejobbringsaboutTheyhavevaguenotionsof"furtheringthecompany'sprospects’orof'servingthecommunity',buthavenevertakenthetroubletofindouttheactualtaskstheywillberequiredtodo”DonotletthisbesaidofyouItshowsanunattractiveindifferencetoyouremployerandtoyourjobTakethetimetoputyourselfintotheinterviewer'splaceHewantssomebodywhoishardworkingwithapleasantpersonalityandarealinterestinthejobAnythingthatyoufindoutabouttheprospectiveemployercanbeusedtoyouradvantageduringtheinterviewtoshowthatyouhavebotheredtomastersomefactsaboutthepeoplewhoyouhopetoworkforWritedown(andremember)thequestionsyouwanttoasktheinterviewer(s)sothatyouarenotspeechlesswhentheyinviteyourquestionsMakesurethatholidaysandpayarenotthefirstthingsyouaskaboutIfallyourquestionshavebeenansweredduringtheinterview,reply:"Infact,Ididhaveseveralquestions,butyouhavealreadyansweredthemall”Donotbeafraidtoaskforclarificationofsomethingthathasbeensaidduringtheinterviewifyouwanttobesurewhatwasimplied,butdobepoliteJustbeforeyougototheinterview,lookagainattheoriginaladvertisementthatyouanswered,anycorrespondencefromyourprospectiveemployer,photocopiesofyourletterofapplicationorapplicationformandyourresumeThenyouwillrememberwhatyousaidandwhattheywantThisisveryimportantifyouhaveappliedformanyjobsinashorttimeasitiseasytobecomeconfusedandgiveanimpressionofinefficiencyMakesureyouknowwhereandwhenyouhavetoreportfortheinterviewGotothebuilding(butnotinsidetheoffice)adayortwobefore,ifnecessary,tofindouthowlongthejourneytakesandwhereexactlytheplaceisAimtoarrivefiveortenminutesearlyfortheactualinterview,thenyouwillhavealittletimeinhandandyouwillnotpanicifyouaredelayedYoustartatadisadvantageifyouarriveworriedandtenminuteslateDressinclean,neat,conservativeclothesNowisNOTthetimetoexperimentwiththepunklookor(girls)towearlowcutdresseswithminiskirtsMakesurethatyourshoes,handsandhair(andteeth)arecleanandneatHavetheletterinvitingyouforaninterviewreadytoshowincasethereisanydifficultyincommunicationYoumayfindyourselffacingoneinterviewerorapanelThelatterisfarmoreintimidating,butdonotletitworryyoutoomuchTheinterviewerwillprobablyhaveatableinfrontofhimherDonotputyourthingsorarmsonitIfyouhaveabagoracase,putitonthefloorbesideyourchairDonotclutchitnervouslyor,worsestill,dropit,spillingeverythingShakehandsiftheintervieweroffershishandfirstThereislittlelikelihoodthatapaneloffivewantstogothoughtheprocessofallshakinghandswithyouinturnSoyoudonotbeupsetifnooneoffersShakehandsfirmlyaweakhandsuggestsaweakpersonality,andacrushinggripisobviouslypainfulDonotdropthehandassoonasyourshastoucheditasthiswillseemtoshowyoudonotliketheotherpersonSpeakpolitelyandnaturallyevenifyouarefeelingshyThinkbeforeyouansweranyquestionsIfyoucannotunderstand,ask:"Wouldyoumindrephrasingthequestion,please"ThequestionwillthenberepeatedindifferentwordsIfyouarenotdefinitelyacceptedorturneddownonthespot,ask:"WhenmayIexpecttoheartheresultsofthisinterview"Ifyoudoreceivealetterofferingyouthejob,youmustreplybyletter(keepaphotocopy)assoonaspossibleGoodluck!ABlackHolesWhatisablackholeWell,it'sdifficulttoanswerthisquestion,sincethetermswewouldnormallyusetodescribeascientificphenomenonareinadequatehereAstronomersandscientiststhinkthatablackholeisaregionofspace(notathing)intowhichmatterhasfallenandfromwhichnothingcanescapenotevenlightSowecan'tseeablackholeAblackholeexertsastronggravitationalpullandyetithasnomatterItisonlyspaceorsowethinkHowcanthishappenThetheoryisthatsomestarsexplodewhentheirdensityincreasestoaparticularpointtheycollapseandsometimesasupernovaoccursFromearth,asupernovalookslikeaverybrightlightintheskywhichshineseveninthedaytimeSupernovaewerereportedbyastronomersintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesSomepeoplethinkthattheStarofBethlehemcouldhavebeenasupernovaThecollapseofastarmayproduceaWhiteDwarforaneutronstarastar,whosematterissodensethatitcontinuallyshrinksbytheforceofitsowngravityButifthestarisverylarge(muchbiggerthanoursun)thisprocessofshrinkingmaybesointensethatablackholeresultsImaginetheearthreducedtothesizeofamarble,butstillhavingthesamemassandastrongergravitationalpull,andyouhavesomeideaoftheforceofablackholeAnymatterneartheblackholeissuckedinItisimpossibletosaywhathappensinsideablackholeScientistshavecalledtheboundaryareaaroundtheholethe"eventhorizon"WeknownothingabouteventswhichhappenonceobjectspassthisboundaryButintheory,mattermustbehaveverydifferentlyinsidetheholeForexample,ifamanfellintoablackhole,hewouldthinkthathereachedthecenterofitveryquicklyHoweveranobserverattheeventhorizonwouldthinkthatthemanneverreachedthecenteratallOurspaceandtimelawsdon'tseemtoapplytoobjectsintheareaofablackholeEinstein'srelativitytheoryistheonlyonewhichcanexplainsuchphenomenaEinsteinclaimedthatmatterandenergyareinterchangeable,sothatthereisno"absolute"timeandspaceTherearenoconstantsatall,andmeasurementsoftimeandspacedependonthepositionoftheobserverTheyarerelativeWedonotyetfullyunderstandtheimplicationsoftherelativitytheorybutitisinterestingthatEinstein'stheoryprovidedabasisfortheideaofblackholesbeforeastronomersstartedtofindsomeevidencefortheirexistenceItisonlyrecentlythatastronomershavebegunspecificresearchintoblackholesInAugust,asatellitewaslaunchedtogatherdataaboutthemillionblackholeswhicharethoughttobeintheMilkyWayAndastronomersareplanninganewobservatorytostudytheindividualexplodingstarsbelievedtobeblackholes,ThemostconvincingevidenceofblackholescomesfrownresearchintobinarystarsystemsBinarystars,astheirnamesuggests,aretwinstarswhosepositioninspaceaffectseachotherInsomebinarysystems,astronomershaveshownthatthereisaninvisiblecompanionstar,a"partner"totheonewhichwecanseeintheskyMatterfromtheonewhichwecanseeisbeingpulledtowardsthecompanionstarCouldthisinvisiblestar,whichexertssuchagreatforce,beablackholeAstronomershaveevidenceofafewotherstarstoo,whichmighthaveblackholesascompanionsThestoryofblackholesisjustbeginningSpeculationsaboutthemareendlessTheremightbeamassiveblackholeatthecenterofourgalaxyswallowingupstarsataveryrapidrateMankindmayonedaymeetthisfateOntheotherhand,scientistshavesuggestedthatveryadvancedtechnologycouldonedaymakeuseoftheenergyofblackholesformankindThesespeculationssoundlikesciencefictionButthetheoryofblackholesinspaceisacceptedbymanyseriousscientistsandastronomersTheyshowusaworldwhichoperatesinatotallydifferentwayfromourownandtheyquestionourmostbasicexperienceofspaceandtimeBWorldswithinWorldsFirstofallletusconsidertheearth(thatistosay,theworld)asaplanetrevolvingroundthesunTheearthisoneofnineplanetswhichmoveinorbitroundthesunThesenineplanets,togetherwiththesun,makeupwhatiscalledoursolarsystemHowthiswonderfulsystemstartedandwhatkeptitworkingwithsuchwonderfulaccuracyislargelyamysterybutastronomerstellusthatitisonlyoneofmillionsofsimilarsystemsinspace,andoneofthesmallestThestarswhichweseeglitteringintheskyonadarkandcloudlessnightarealmostcertainlythesunsofothersolarsystemsmoreorlesslikeourown,buttheyaresofarawayinspacethatitisunlikelythatweshallevergettoknowverymuchaboutthemAboutourownsolarsystem,however,wearelearningmoreeverydayBeforetheAmericanandRussianastronautsmadetheirthrillingjourneysintoouterspaceitwasdifficultforustorealisewhatourearthlookedlikefromhundredsofthousandsofmilesaway,butthephotographswhichtheastronautswereabletotakeshowustheearthinspacelookingnotverydifferentfromwhatthemoonlookslikewhenwelookatitfromtheearthTheearthis,however,verydifferentfromthemoon,whichtheAmericanastronautshavefoundtobewithoutlifeorvegetation,whereasourearthisverymuchaliveineveryrespectThemoon,bytheway,iscalledasatellitebecauseitgoesroundourearthaswellasroundthesunInotherwords,itgoesroundthesunwithourearthThesurfaceofourearthiscoveredbymassesoflandandlargerareasofwaterLetusconsiderthewaterareasfirstThetotalwaterareaisaboutthreetimesaslargeasthelandareaTheverylargeseparateareasofwaterarecalled"oceans”andthelesserareasarecalled"seas”Inmostoftheoceansandseassomeofthewaterisfoundtobeflowinginaparticulardirectionthatistosay,fromoneparttowardsanotherpartoftheoceanorseaconcernedThewaterwhichisflowinginthismannerissaidtobemovingasa"current"Therearemanythousandsofcurrentsinthewatersoftheoceansandseas,butonlycertainofthestrongerandbettermarkedcurrentsarespeciallynamedandofgreatimportanceThesecurrentsareimportantbecausetheyaffecttheclimateofthelandareasclosetowheretheyflowandalsobecausetheycarrylargequantitiesofmicroscopicanimalandvegetablelifewhichformsalargepartofthefoodforfishesThenatureandcharacteristicsofthesurfaceofthelandareasoftheearthvaryagreatdealfromareatoareaandfromplacetoplaceThesurfaceofsomeareasconsistslargelyofhighmountainsanddeepvalleyswhilst,inotherareas,mostofthesurfaceconsistsofplainsIfonemadeajourneyovertheContinentsonewouldfindeverykindofsurfaceincludingmountainranges,plains,plateaux,deserts,tropicalforestlandsandemptyareascoveredpermanentlybyiceandsnowWhenthinkingandlearningabouttheworldweshouldnotforgetthatourworldisthehomeofaverygreatmanydifferentpeoplepeopleswithdifferentcolouredskins,livingverydifferentlivesandhavingverydifferentideasaboutagreatmanyimportantthingssuchasreligion,government,educationandsocialbehaviourThecircumstancesunderwhichdifferentpeoplelivemakeagreatdifferencebetweenthewayinwhichtheyliveandthewayinwhichwelive,anditoughttobeourbusinesstotrytounderstandthosedifferentcircumstancessothatwecanbetterunderstandpeopleofotherlandsAboveall,weshouldavoiddecidingwhatwethinkaboutpeopledifferentfromourselveswithoutfirsthavinglearnedagreatdealaboutthemandthekindoflivestheyhavetoliveItistruetosaythatthemorewelearnaboutotherpeople,thebetterweunderstandtheirideasand,asarule,thebetterwelikethosepeoplethemselvesAEuthanasia:ForandAgainst"Wemustn'tdelayanylongerswallowingisdifficultandbreathing,that'salsodifficultThosemusclesareweakeningtoowemustn'tdelayanylonger”ThesewerethewordsofDutchmanCeesvanWendeldeJoodeaskinghisdoctortohelphimdieAffectedwithaseriousdisease,vanWendelwasnolongerabletospeakclearlyandheknewtherewasnohopeofrecoveryandthathisconditionwasrapidlydeterioratingVanWendel'slastthreemonthsoflifebeforebeinggivenafinal,lethalinjectionbyhisdoctorwerefilmedandfirstshownontelevisionlastyearintheNetherlandsTheprogrammehassincebeenboughtbycountriesandeachtimeitisshown,itstartsanationwidedebateonthesubjectTheNetherlandsistheonlycountryinEuropewhichpermitseuthanasia,althoughitisnottechnicallylegalthereHowever,doctorswhocarryouteuthanasiaunderstrictguidelinesintroducedbytheDutchParliamenttwoyearsagoareusuallynotprosecutedTheguidelinesdemandthatthepatientisexperiencingextremesuffering,thatthereisnochanceofacure,andthatthepatienthasmaderepeatedrequestsforeuthanasiaInadditiontothis,aseconddoctormustconfirmthatthesecriteriahavebeenmetandthedeathmustbereportedtothepolicedepartmentShoulddoctorsbeallowedtotakethelivesofothersDrWilfredvanOijen,CeesvanWendel'sdoctor,explainshowhelooksatthequestion:"Well,it'snotasifI'mplanningtomurderacrowdofpeoplewithamachinegunInthatcase,killingistheworstthingIcanimagineButthat'sentirelydifferentfrommyworkasadoctorIcareforpeopleandItrytoensurethattheydon'tsuffertoomuchThat'saverydifferentthing”Manypeople,though,aretotallyagainstthepracticeofeuthanasiaDrAndrewFerguson,ChairmanoftheorganisationHealthcareOpposedtoEuthanasia,saysthat"inthevastmajorityofeuthanasiacases,whatthepatientisactuallyaskingforissomethingelseTheymaywantahealthprofessionaltoopenupcommunicationforthemwiththeirlovedonesorfamilythere'snearlyalwaysanotherquestionbehindthequestion”BritainalsohasastrongtraditionofhospicesspecialhospitalswhichcareonlyforthedyingandtheirspecialneedsCicelySaunders,PresidentoftheNationalHospiceCouncilandafoundermemberofthehospicemovement,arguesthateuthanasiadoesn'ttakeintoaccountthattherearewaysofcaringforthedyingSheisalsoconcernedthatallowingeuthanasiawouldunderminetheneedforcareandconsiderationofawiderangeofpeople:"It'sveryeasyinsocietynowfortheelderly,thedisabledandthedependenttofeelthattheyareburdens,andthereforethattheyoughttooptoutIthinkthatanythingthatlegallyallowstheshorteningoflifedoesmakethosepeoplemorevulnerable”Manyfindthisprohibitionofanindividual'srighttodiepaternalisticAlthoughtheyagreethatlifeisimportantandshouldberespected,theyfeelthatthequalityoflifeshouldnotbeignoredDrvanOijenbelievesthatpeoplehavethefundamentalrighttochooseforthemselvesiftheywanttodie:"Whatthosepeoplewhoopposeeuthanasiaaretellingmeisthatdyingpeoplehaven'ttherightAndthatwhenpeopleareveryill,weareallafraidoftheirdeathButtherearesituationswheredeathisafriendAndinthosecases,whynotBut"whynot"isaquesti

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