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首页 [美]詹姆斯·艾尔金斯:绘画与眼泪:一部关于向画而泣之人的历史(劳特里奇 2004)

[美]詹姆斯·艾尔金斯:绘画与眼泪:一部关于向画而泣之人的历史(劳特里奇 2004)

[美]詹姆斯·艾尔金斯:绘画与眼泪:一部关于向画而泣之人的历史…

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2008-11-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]詹姆斯·艾尔金斯:绘画与眼泪:一部关于向画而泣之人的历史(劳特里奇 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PicturesTearsPicturesTearsAHistoryofPeopleWhoHaveCriedinFrontofPaintingsJamesElkinsRoutledgeNewYorkandLondonExcerptsfrom“ARake’sProgress”byWHAudenCopyright©byWHAuden“OntheDeathofHisWife”byMeiYaoCh’en,translatedbyKennethRexroth,and“ADreamatNight”byMeiYaoCh’en,translatedbyKennethRexroth,fromOneHundredPoemsfromtheChinese,editedbyKennethRexroth,copyright©byKennethRexrothReprintedbypermissionofNewDirectionsPublishingCorpPublishedinpaperbackinbyRoutledgeMadisonAvenueNewYork,NYwwwroutledgenycomPublishedinGreatBritainbyRoutledgeNewFetterLaneLondonECPEEwwwroutledgecoukCopyright©byJamesElkinsRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”AllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataElkins,James,–Picturesandtears:ahistoryofpeoplewhohavecriedinfrontofpaintingsJamesElkinspcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk)PaintingAppreciationVisualperceptionPsychologicalaspectsITitleNDE’,’–dcISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(pbk)ContentsColorplatesvPrefaceviAcknowledgmentsviiiCryingatnothingbutcolorsCryingnoonecanunderstandCryingfromchromaticwavesCryingbecauseyou’vebeenhitbyalightningboltWeepingoverbluishleavesTheivorytoweroftearlessnessFalsetearsoveradeadbirdCryingbecausetimepassesWeeping,watchingtheMadonnaweepCryingatGodSobbinginlonelymountainsCryingattheemptyseaoffaithEnvoi:HowtolookandpossiblyevenbemovedAppendix:ThirtytwolettersSourcesIndexColorplatesMarkRothko,interioroftheRothkochapel,–PhotobyHickeyRobertsonCourtesyoftheRothkochapel,HoustonCaravaggio,YoungBacchus,c–Florence,UffiziAlinariArtResource,NewYorkJeanBaptisteGreuze,YoungWomanWhoWeepsoverHerDeadBird,lateeighteenthcenturyEdinburgh,NationalGalleryofScotlandCourtesyNationalGalleryofScotlandGiovanniBellini,TheEcstasyofStFrancis,midsNewYork,FrickCollectionDiericBouts,Materdolorosa,cChicago,ArtInstitutePhoto©TheArtInstituteofChicagoAnonymous,NachiWaterfall,latethirteenthcentury,KamakuraperiodJapan,NezuInstituteofFineArtsCasparDavidFriedrich,MemoriesoftheRiesengebirge,StPetersburg,HermitagePrefaceTHISISABOOKaboutthewaysthatpicturescanmoveusstrongly,unexpectedly,andeventotearsMostofus,Ithink,havenevercriedinfrontofpaintings,orevenfeltanythingverystrongPicturesmakeushappyThey’rebemusingSomearelovelyandrelaxingtolookatThebestaregorgeous,mesmerizinglybeautifulbutreallyonlyforaminuteortwo,andthenwe’reofftoseesomethingelseOurlackofintensityisafascinatingproblemI’dliketounderstandwhyitseemsnormaltolookatastonishingachievementsmadebyunapproachablyambitious,luminouslypious,strangelyobsessedartists,andtossthemoffwithafewwrycommentsArepicturesreallynothingmorethanspotsofbeautyonthewall,or(inthecaseofpeopleinmylineofwork)indexcardsforintellectualdebatesWhatdoesitmeantosaythatyoulovepaintings(andevenspendyourlifelivingamongthem,asprofessionalsdo)andstillfeelsolittleIfpaintingsaresoimportantworthsomuch,reproduced,cherished,andvisitedsooftenthenisn’tittroublingthatwecanhardlymakeemotionalcontactwiththemTheplaywrightGeorgBüchnerhasawonderfullineabouthowdrypeoplehavebecome,andhowparsimonioustheyarewiththelittlebitsthattheydomanagetofeel“Wewillhavetostartmeasuringoutourspiritinliqueurglasses,”oneofhischaracterssays,raisingatinyaperitifBüchnerisright:mostofushavesofewreallyimportant,movingexperienceswithartthattheystandoutagainsttheparadeofroutineafternoonsinmuseumsThesedaysavisittothemuseumisanopportunitytolearnsomething,andtakealittlesipofpleasurehereandthereForsomeart,that’sjustfineButmanyartists,frommanyperiods,wouldbeentirelydisgustedwithusThatneednotbesoPaintingsrepaytheattentiontheyaregiven,asIhopetoshowinthisbook:themoreyoulook,themoreyoufeelThisisn’tamanualoftearsthere’snowaytoteachstrongreactions,letalonecryingbutIhavetriedtocapturetheframesofmindthathaveledpeopletocryPaintingscanexerciseastrangegripontheimagination,butittakestimeandanopennesstounusualexperiencesIdon’tmeanthatjustanypicturecouldbringyoutotears,orthatit’sagoodideatowalkaroundmuseumswithahandkerchiefinyourhandPictureshavemanythingstosay,andthereispleasureineventhemostsoberhistorylessonFrombooksonMonetyoucanlearnthathebeganbydrawingcaricatures(aninterestingbusinessforsomeonewholaterspurnedthehumanfigure),andyoucanevenlearnthatthelittleriverthatrunsthroughhisgarden,whichhepaintedmanytimes,isnamedtheEpteIlovehistory,andIwouldn’tgiveupanyofitsrichnessButpaintingscanalsoworkdifferently,inawaythatisn’teasilyputintowords,thatslidesinandoutofawareness,thatseemstoworkupwardtowardtheheadfromsomewheredownbelow:awaythatchangesthetemperatureofyourthinkinginsteadofalteringwhatyousayThatotherkindofexperiencecantunnelintoyourthoughtsandbringtearstoyoureyesIt’stheoneIwanttofindinthisbookHappily,thereisnolackofevidencethatpeoplehavehadstrongresponsestopicturesItturnsoutthatviewerscriedinfrontofpaintingsinthelateMiddleAgesandearlyRenaissance,andagainintheeighteenthcentury,andagaininthenineteenth,eachtimefordifferentreasonsandwithdifferentpicturesFewcenturies,itseems,areasdeterminedlytearlessasoursSomepeoplestilldocryoverpaintingsasmallgroup,nearlyinvisibleinthemassesofunmovedmuseumvisitorsTofindthem,Ipostedinquiriesinnewspapersandjournals,askingforstoriesfromanyonewhohadrespondedtoapaintingwithtearsIwrotemycolleaguesandpeopleIknewwhocaredforartIsupposeIdidn’texpectmanyreplies(Imightnothaverespondedtosuchalettermyself),butIwassurprised:intheendIgotmorethanfourhundredcalls,emails,andlettersMostareconfessionsfrompeopleIdon’tknowaremarkablegesture,giventhatinmanyinstancesthewritershadseldomsharedtheirexperiences(Somehadtoldtheirhusbandsandwives,butnooneelseuntilIhadasked)Thelettersareaninvaluablesource,becausetheyshowthatthereasonspeoplecriedinpastcenturiesarestillwithus,eventhoughtheyaremutedbycollectivedisapprovalIrefertothelettersthroughoutthebook,andI’veputanumberofthemintheAppendixInitially,Ithoughtthatcryingwouldprovetobeverypersonal,andthatitwouldcomeinasmanyvarietiesastherearepeopleAgainIwassurprised,becausethescatteredstoriesstartedfallingintopatternsIsawthatpeoplecryforparticularreasonsRoughlyhalfthecasesconvergeontwokindsofexperiencethatareveryclosetoeachother,andyetcompletelyopposedInone,peoplecrybecausepicturesseemunbearablyfull,complex,daunting,orsomehowtooclosetobeproperlyseenIntheother,theycrybecausepicturesseemunbearablyempty,dark,painfullyvast,cold,andsomehowtoofarawaytobeunderstoodFromtheretheroadbeginstotwist,andIdon’twanttogiveitallaway(Ittakestimetoacclimatetotears)Thestoryprogressesinstages:everyotherchapter,startingwiththefirst,exploresasinglepaintingandsomeonewhowasmovedbyitThealternatechapters(theevennumberedones)aremeditationsonthoseencountersThatisthebestwayIknowtoshowhowpicturescanbemoving,anditletsmeedgemywayslowlytowardthecentralproblemofournearlyperfecttearlessnessJamesElkinsviiAcknowledgmentsMANYSPECIALISTSHAVEhelpedmerounduptheavailablefactsIwantespeciallytomentionAnnAdams,LeahGarchik,D’ArcyGrigsby,ElizabethHonig,MargarettaLovell,MarilynLavin,TomLutz,RichardLowry,DavidMorgan,LorenPartridge,andTomašVlčekFrankTarboxhelpedreorientthemuchrewrittenprefaceBertrandRougéwrotemeaseriesofbriefletterswithoutpreparation,onthespurofthemoment:allthemoreamazing,then,thattheyhavecrystallizedsomanyofthethoughtsthatfollowPatriciavanderLeunshowedmehowtobreakupthejostlingpiecesofmyprose,whichwereclatteringagainsteachotherlikeicebergs:shehelpedmeltthemintosomethingmorefluidGarySchwartzputmyquestion(“Whohascriedinfrontofpaintings”)onhislistserveontheInternet,andinHetFinancieeleDagblad,aDutchnewspaper(TheinquiryalsoranintheNewYorkReviewofBooks)SomeofthelettersIquotewerewrittentobothofus,ordirectlytoGaryhegetsspecialthanksfortirelesslycollecting,copying,andforwardingthoselettersThanksaswelltomyeditor,BillGermano,whogavemeanotheryeartotryonceagain!tofindtherighttonebetweenforensicdetachmentandmaudlinmistButmostofallIowethemanypeople,fromallwalksoflife,whoansweredmyrequestsformemoriesofcryingWithoutthem,thisbookwouldhavehadnopresentdaywitnessestoverifyitshistoryCryingatnothingbutcolorsAllthroughthedarkthewindlooksforthegriefitbelongstoWSMerwin,“NightWind”TEARS!tears!tears!Inthenight,insolitude,tearsOnthewhiteshoredripping,dripping,suck’dinbythesandTearsnotastarshiningalldarkanddesolateMoisttearsfromtheeyesofamuffledhead:Owhoisthatghostthatforminthedark,withtearsWhatshapelesslumpisthat,bent,crouch’dthereonthesand…away,atnight,asyoufly,nonelookingOthentheunloosen’docean,Oftears!tears!tears!WaltWhitman,LeavesofGrassThescarletwouldpassawayfromhislipsandthegoldstealfromhishairThelifethatwastomakehissoulwouldmarhisbodyHewouldbecomedreadful,hideous,anduncouthAshethoughtofit,asharppangofpainstruckthroughhimlikeaknifeandmadeeachdelicatefibreofhisnaturequiverHiseyesdeepenedintoamethyst,andacrossthemcameamistoftearsHefeltasifahandoficehadbeenlaiduponhisheart“Don’tyoulikeit”criedHallwardatlast,stungalittlebythelad’ssilence,notunderstandingwhatitmeant“Ofcoursehelikesit,”saidLordHenry“Whowouldn’tlikeitItisoneofthegreatestthingsinmodernartIwillgiveyouanythingyouliketoaskforitImusthaveit”OscarWilde,ThePortraitofDorianGrayMARKROTHKOLEANEDBACKinhisarmchair,studyingherthroughhisthickglassesHislipswerepursed,hiseyeshalfclosedinasmoker’ssquintShesteppedforwardItwasalateafternoonattheendofNovember,andthelightwasfailingEvenatmidday,theOldFireHousestudioonEastSixtyninthStreetwasadarkplace,andRothkohadmadeitgloomierbyhangingaparachuteovertheskylightHewantedamutedeffect,sohecouldstudythefaintmottledsurfacesofhispaintingswithexactingprecisionAtfirsthisvisitorcouldbarelyseeThen,slowly,outofthedarkness,shefoundtheoutlinesofseveralhugeunfinishedcanvasesForaminuteshestoodstill,lookingupanddowntheheightofthepaintingsTheywerealmostfifteenfeettall,darkandemptyliketheopendoorwaysofsomecolossaltempleAshereyesgotusedtothehalflight,shebegantoseetheirsurfacesdull,blank,nearlyblackShewalkeduptooneItwastarblack,veiledwithwashesofdeepmaroonThepaintwasnotflatlikeawall:youcouldlookintoit,andithadakindofwaterymotionAsshestared,themattecanvasmoved,andfloweredintoshiftingplanesofdarknessItwasentrancing,andperplexingRothkoremainedquietevenwhenshebroughtherfaceuptowithinafewinchesofthecanvasUlrichMiddeldorf,herprofessorattheUniversityofChicago,hadgottenherintothehabitofalwayscarryingamagnifyingglasswhenshewenttoseepaintingsbutshecouldn’tbringherselftotakeitoutwiththeartistsittingrightthereYettherewassomethinginthosesurfaces,somethingwaitingtobeseenTheywereelusivebutmysteriouslycomforting“Ifeltasifmyeyeshadfingertips,”shewroteinherjournalthenextmorning,“movingacrossthebrushedtexturesofthecanvases”Themoreshestared,themoreshefeltathomeThenshewascrying,andthetwoofthemremainedthatwayforseveralminutes:thearthistorianlookingatthecanvasesthroughabluroftears,andthepaintersmoking,watchingherItwasamoment,shetoldme,of“verystrangefeelings,”butmostlyofrelief,ofperfectease,ofpurepeacefulnessandjoyAfterafewmoreminutesshedriedhereyesandwentovertobegintheinterviewToday,JaneDillenbergerisretiredfromtheGraduateTheologicalUnionatBerkeleyShewastrainedasaconservator,butherintereststookhertowardthereligioussideofartherbusinesscardsreadJANEDILLENBERGER,ARTHISTORIANANDTHEOLOGIANWhensheinterviewedRothko,shewasamemberofareligiousdiscussiongroupthatincludedAlfredBarr,thendirectoroftheMuseumofModernArt,andPaulTillich,theProtestanttheologianThegroupwascalledARCforArt,Religion,andContemporaryCultureThefirstthingshewantedtoknowthatafternoonwasifRothkohadeverattendedNo,hesaid,hethoughtitwouldallbeveryboringSheknewthepaintingshadsomereligioussignificance,sincetheyweregoingtobeshippedtoachapelinTexas,andbecausetherewerefourteenofthemthesamenumberastheCatholicstationsofthecrossTherehadbeentalkofPICTURESANDTEARSassigningeachpaintingtoaspecificstationOnewouldsay“Crucifixion,”andanother“Deposition,”eventhoughtheywereallemptyblankrectanglesDidhethinkofhispicturesthatway,asabstractstationsofthecrossRothkotoldherhedidnotwanttitles,butthathehadproposedputtingnumberedplaquesonthefloorinfrontofeachpaintingItwasn’tclearwhatwouldhappen,hesaid,butitlookedasiftheplaquesweregoingtobeputontheoutsidewallsofthechapel,sonoonewouldknowwhichpaintingstoodforwhichstation(Asitturnedout,nolabelswereused,insideorout)Janewonderedwhattoasknext:ifhewasn’tinterestedinwhatotherpeopleweresayingaboutartandreligion,andifhedidn’tcarewhetherhispaintingswereidentifiedwiththestationsofthecross,thenhowdidhethinkofhisworkSheknewthathewasafriendofBarnettNewman’s,andthattheyhadoftenbeencomparedtooneanotherHadheseenNewman’sseriesoftheFourteenStationsoftheCrossNo,hehadintentionallyavoidedtheminordertoremain,asheputit,“withinmyownexperience”WashethenareligiousmanWhenhefirstgotthecommissionforthechapel,hetoldthemhewasnot“MyrelationwithGodwasnotverygood,”hetoldher,“andithasgottenworsedaybydayIstartedoutthinkingthepaintingsshouldhaveareligioussubjectmatter,buttheybecamedark,ontheirown”Anoddidea,thatpaintingswouldgetdarkerinordertoavoidbeingreligiousShethoughtagainofthestrangefeeling,andhertearsMaybeshecoulddrawhimoutbytakingaboutthepaintingsthemselvesShepraisedthem,sayingtheywere“darklyluminous,”andwonderedhowhegavesomeasilverygleam,andmadeothersvelvetydarkButhewasnotabouttotellherwhathewasdoing“It’sjustthepaint,”herepliedSheremainedawhilelonger,talkingabouttrivialthingshisgallery,therentonthestudioandleftwhentheafternoongavewaytonightTwoyearsafterthatinterview,inFebruary,RothkoslithiswristsinalittlebathroomjustofftheroomwheretheyhadbeentalkingAlmostexactlyayearafterthat,thechapelwasdedicatedinHoustonRothkonevervisitedhischapel,andnoonewilleverknowwhathewouldhavethoughtPeoplesaidthepictureslookedbleachedandflatJaneattendedtheopeningandfeltonlya“blastofTexaslight”AvisittoadampchapelThereisnosurveytoproveit,butitislikelythatthemajorityofpeoplewhohaveweptovertwentiethcenturypaintingshavedonesoinfrontofRothko’spaintingsAndofallRothko’spaintings,peoplehavebeenmovedmostbythefourteenhugecanvaseshemadeforthechapelthatnowbearshisname(TherunnerupwouldbePicasso’sGuernicaIthinkitwouldcomeinadistantsecond)It’shardtogetasenseoftheplacefromphotographs,andIdecidedifIwasgoingtounderstandwhatpeoplehavesaidaboutit,IhadbetterspendsometimethereIbookedaflightforearlyAprilsoIwouldn’tbeCRYINGATNOTHINGBUTCOLORSdistractedbytheTexassummerheat(Houstonhasespeciallylongsummers,andthecityhasbeenknowntoprovideoutdoorairconditioningforvisitingpoliticians)Thechapelisinaquietneighborhood,withclapboardhousesandbrokensidewalksshadedbyoverarchingtreesOntheoutside,thereisnotmuchtoseeIt’sallbrick,withnowindowsthekindofbuildingthatwouldlookathomeatthefarendofavacantlotWhenIvisited,thegrasswasovergrownfromspringrains,andthegroundsalreadyhadtheexhaustedlooksoutherntownsgetwhentheyhavebeenbeatenallsummerbyheatandhumidityOfficially,theRothkochapelisaninterfaithchurch,hostingarangeofdenominationsincludingthelocalchapterofZoroastriansBetweenscheduledevents,itisopenasaoneroommuseum,givingitanunusualmixtureofreligiousandartisticpurposesThere’sasmallfoyerwithareceptiondeskandashelfoftheholywritingsofvariousfaithsFromthefoyertwodoorways,oneoneitherside,leaddirectlyintothechapel’smainroom,anoctagonalspacewithRothko’spaintingshungallaround(seecolorplate)WhenIfirstwalkedin,itwaswarmandhumidandverystillFourpeopleweremeditating,twoinlotuspositionOnewaslookingatastretchofwhitewallbetweentwoofthepaintingsAnotherhadhiseyesclosedAnattendant,anelderlywoman,satonafoldingchairreadingabookAmourningdovecalledfromsomewhereoutsideItstonelessvoiceseemedtocomefromthewallitself,asifithadseepedthroughtheagingbricksIwassurprisedatthesimplicityofit,thewaterstainedwallsandthestraycobwebsandthegiantpaintingsInphotographsliketheoneIamreproducinghere,thepaintingshavelusciousdarksurfaces,fullofshineandmysteryTheylookveryprofessionalJane’sstoryhadledmetothinkIwasinforamesmerizingexperience,andwho

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[美]詹姆斯·艾尔金斯:绘画与眼泪:一部关于向画而泣之人的历史(劳特里奇 2004)

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