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首页 [韩]徐炳国: 契丹帝国史(韩国学术 2006)

[韩]徐炳国: 契丹帝国史(韩国学术 2006)

[韩]徐炳国: 契丹帝国史(韩国学术 2006)

Stlnz
2008-11-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[韩]徐炳国: 契丹帝国史(韩国学术 2006)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

서병국교수정년기념역사저서⑦서병국지음거란제국의지나인통치성공이유거란제국사연구THESTUDYONHISTORYOFKHITANEMPIRE이저서는학년도대진대학교교내학술연구비지원에의한것임서병국교수정년기념역사저서⑦거란제국사연구거란제국의지나인통치성공이유서병국지음THESTUDYONHISTORYOFKHITANEMPIRE중국은점점이웃민족과국가를무시하고있다(동북공정)이의좋은예가중국이라는국호의사용이다중국의무례함을반대한다는뜻에서중국을지나(China의음역)로바꿨다러시아는지나를키타이(Kitai:거란)라부르고있다거란은지나를식민지로통치한북방민족(국가)이다차례硏究序說·······················································第章序論··················································第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙·········第節迭剌部內의專制化와漢族의勸誘············第節漢城遷徙와經濟力確保···························第節創業과漢族의寄與問題···························第章遼初의漢族統治·······························第節契丹의石敬瑭擁立···································第節遼의支那直接統治企圖····························第章支那的統治體制로의轉換················第節漢官의支那逃歸와商業政策의擡頭·······第節支那的統治體制의導入···························第節契丹的統治體制의克服···························第章支那的帝權의强化··························第節韓德讓의科擧制導入····························第節韓德讓의契丹官僚推薦···························第節宋俘虜의起用과澶淵의盟····················第節韓德讓系의長期執權과그弊害의克服···第章遼의農業政策과漢族의態度·········第節遼의農業政策········································第節李處溫에依한遼의兩分························第節漢族의對遼態度·····································第章結論················································參考文獻···················································찾아보기····················································英文表紙···················································英文槪要···················································英文目次···················································부록契丹帝國의支那人統治理解·····················머리말·······················································Ⅰ總論····················································北魏의統治··················································遼나라의統治···············································金나라의統治···············································元나라의統治···············································淸나라의統治···············································Ⅱ契丹의支那統治··································契丹의歷史槪觀···········································官僚制度······················································軍事制度······················································經濟政策······················································宗敎政策······················································年表··························································契丹帝國의疆域地圖································부록英文目次···········································硏究序說지나(China:중국)의장성(長城)이본래지니고있는역사적의미가사라지게된것은북방족의반복적인집단남하에따른이주가주된요인으로작용되어서였다지나의농경민과북방의유목민을화이(華夷)의구분이라는말로영구히갈라놓으려는지나인의의도가담겨져있는장성의인위적구분은당(唐)나라의영토확장으로허물어졌다특히오대시대에거란족의신흥세력을등에업고지나의황제가되려는군벌들이계속나타나면서거란족의세력을장성이남으로불러들여화이의구분은거란족에의해완전히사라지게되었다한족(漢族)과북방족의생활터전을한족이일방적으로갈라놓은장성의인위성은이렇듯유지되기어렵게되어현재장성은한때화이의인위적구분이있었음을말해주는상징물로남아있다장성의인위적구분이한족과북방족으로부터인정을받지못함에따라양자의교류는급속히진행되어혼거(混居)는당연하다하겠으나각기풍속을달리하다보니마찰과대립은일정기간반복되었다결국두민족은화합하게되는데각기다른풍속과생활방법을지나인의그것으로합일시키려는노력이있었기때문이다두민족의화합을서두른첫북방국가인북위(北魏)는선비족(鮮卑族)의호응을얻지못해분열하거나멸망을재촉하였으나서두르지않은거란족의요(遼)나라는정권을오래유지하였다북아시아의역사에서요나라를전형적인‘정복왕조’라고하는데설득력이있는듯하다Wittfogel은요나라의지나인통치와관련하여요나라를성공한정복국가라고표현하였다한족과북방족의교류가본격화되면서대립이화합으로전환된다이의전형적인모습을거란족의지나통치에서찾아볼수있다는데서요나라는성공한정복왕조라할수있다이러한요나라이긴하지만한족과거란족의풍속과생활을제도적으로보존하기위해정책적으로정치와경제면에서이중체제를유지하였다그러다가이의일원화를거란족관료가건의하였다이는거란적요소와지나적요소의양립이더이상지속될명분이사라졌음을뜻한다거란족관료가발해유민의독립전쟁을예방하기위해이들이전통적으로무술을연마하는데수단으로이용되어온격구(擊毬)의금지를풀어준것도같은맥락에서이루어진것이었다이런상황이므로거란족관료와지나인관료의구분까지없어져지나인관료가거란족관료를상위직에추천할정도였으며더나아가거란족의생계수단인방목지를과감하게농경지로바꾸어놓아거란족관료에게방목지도분배할수없을정도로요나라의전역에걸쳐농경지의확대를주도해나갔다농경민의자연재해를구제하는구휼시책또한국가적관심사로자리가잡혀요나라말기에도지나인은이민족(거란족)통치하에서의생활을불편하게여기지않았다여진군의침공으로거란족의요나라가멸망한것을지나인이거란족보다더안타깝게여겼던것도거란족의지나통치에서만볼수있는특징이다이민족의통치하에서는눈치빠른일부관료의반민족적행위를볼수있다그러나이시대의지나인관료는지나인농민위주의농업정책을추진한요나라를이민족의정권이라고보지않고자신들의국가라고믿어지나를통일한송나라의구양수(歐陽修)가거란의역사를신오대사(新五代史)에부전(附傳)시킨것에대해크게분개하는등오히려송나라를적대시하였으며어쩔수없이천조제(天祚帝)를대신하여여진군에게항복한지나인관료들이같은지나인관료에의해처형당하기까지하였다발해국의유민들이거란족의통치를받아대요(對遼)태도면에서지나인과다를바없다고여길수도있겠으나지나인통치에서찾아볼수없는면도있다그것은요나라의멸망시까지여러차례독립전쟁을일으켰다는것이다발해유민도농경민이므로지나인처럼생활면에서불편을느끼지말아야할것이나지나인과의관계가불편하다보니이들의민족적불만과불평은거란정권으로비화될수밖에없었다그리하여발해유민은그불만을발해국의독립이라는명분과연결지어독립전쟁으로발산하였다발해유민과지나인의민족적인갈등이나타난것은발해국과당나라의관계가표면상평온한듯보이지만근본적으로반목현상이청산되지않은데서비롯되었다아무튼거란족의지나진출에따른지나인통치와관련하여발해유민이기여한바가있으나거란족의발해유민통치는성공을거두지못하였다반면지나인통치는금(金)․원(元)․청(淸)등후대의정복왕조와달리성공적이었음을밝혀둔다거란족의지나통치가성공했음을잘보여주는것은지나인이요나라를이민족의정권이라고보지않고‘아조(我朝)라고표현한것이다이는요나라가거란족의국가만이아니고거란족의통치하에있는지나인모두의국가이기도하였음을뜻한다이글을통해지나인이거란족의통치를받음으로써그만큼땅이장성동쪽으로넓혀지고요나라의이중체제가일원화됨으로써거란족이한족화되어그만큼지나인의수가늘어났음을살필수있다끝으로거란족의정권이름이요(遼)나라인데거란제국으로표현한것은지나식의요나라라는국호이전의국호가거란이며또한거란족이세운국가가지나의역사상제국의대열에들어있는데다가거란족이지나를식민지로만들고지나인을성공적으로통치했기때문임을밝혀둔다第章序論第章序論지나의역사상정복왕조의효시라는평가를받고있는요나라(∼)는거란족등유목적인종족과지나인․발해인등의농경민이양대구성분자로이루어져그사회와문화는이중적요소를유지하기마련이다거란의건국당시는물론그초기부터지나인지식층과많은농민들이태조야율아보기(耶律阿保機)에의해거란의내지로강제이주되어거란족과생활한관계로이중성은제도상요나라와운명을같이할수밖에없다소박한유목생활과문화를지니고있는거란족이지나인의우월한생활과문화로부터받게될문화적침탈현상을예방하기위해제도적으로마련한것이이중성의유지이다거란족은자신들의고유한생활을지키려했으나그지배층은지나인과어울려생활함으로써고유한생활과문화의폭을축소시킴에따라지나인의생활과문화의영역이확대되었다지나인이요나라의피통치자인데거란족은이들의생활과문화를따르는추세였다그러므로요나라의지나인통치는거란역사의발전면에서비중이크다고하겠다이와관련하여지나인통치를세가지측면에서살펴보려한다거란족의통치계급이정치적필요에따라지나인을거란의내지로강제이주시킨이후에이들을어떻게통치했으며거란족의정권이안정됨에따라요나契丹帝國史硏究라에대한지나인의태도가어떻게달라지며또한지나인을통치하는방법이변화했는지가관심사이다이를구체적으로말하면)요나라의초기부터지나인통치는지나인관료와어떠한관련성이있는가)지나인은요나라의통치에순응했는가,저항했는가)저항했다면외적인요인으로발생했는가)저항은지나인통치에어떤영향을주었는가)지나인의요나라에대한태도는변화를일으켰는가)변화가있다면지나인관료와어떤관련성을갖고있는가)관련성이있다면지나인과지나인관료의요나라에대한태도는동질시해도좋은가)동질성은요나라의지나인통치의성패를가늠하는기준이된다고보아도좋은가등이다이러한여러문제가반영된지나인통치연구는요제국(遼帝國)의여러특성을이해하는데하나의기초작업이될것이다요제국의특성과관련된종래의연구에서는다수의지나인을수용함에따라나타나는정치적현상이중점적으로다루어져밝혀진것이요나라의이중성이라고하겠다)이와관련하여요나라의전제권이지나인관료의기여로확립되었다는인식아래지나인관료의기능과역할을밝혀보려는시도가과거의연구업적에서나타나있다이러한제연구는거란사회의전제화가지나인관료라는외적요인으로이루어졌다는견지에서출발하여지나인관료의기여를강조하는예정된결과만을보게하였다분명히말해두지만요나라를창업한그주체세력이거란족이며건국초기부터보이는전제화경향을거란사회에내재하는역사의발전단계라고이해한다면외적인영향의결과라고보기어려울것이다이러한견해는우치다긴푸(內田吟風)와오가와히로토(小川裕人)두사람에의해제기되었는데관심을받을만하다))津田左右吉,「遼の制度の二重體係」(滿鮮地理歷史硏究報告,)小川裕人,「遼の建國に就いて」(東洋史硏究,))小川裕人,「遼室君主權の成立に關する-考察」(東洋史硏究,)第章序論일반적으로전제화의경향을농경성에서이해하고있는듯하다요제국의경우요사(遼史)에서만보게되는거란족의설화적인전승기록가운데농경에관한기록도있는데대체적으로종래의연구에서는무시당한것이사실이다요사에서보게되는태조이전의농경기록이인정된다면거란사회의전제화경향이농경성에바탕을두었다는도식이성립될가능성도전혀없지않다)아무튼필자는선배학자의연구를바탕으로거란족의전제화경향이거란족의사회에내재하는하나의발전단계라는문제에보다가까이접근해보려한다전제화가요나라의창업에없어서는안된다면이질적인지나인통치의성패는요제국의발전여부를가늠한다고볼수있다거란족을주축으로하여지나인과함께이룬요나라의특성이종래의제연구에서밝혀진것은큰수확이라하겠으나아직해결되지않은점이적지않다는것은이분야의전공자들이통감하고있다그두드러진한예가지나인통치와요제국발전의관련성이소홀하게다루어진점이라하겠다이에필자는제장에서거란사회의전제화를주도한일라부(迭剌部)가추진한전제화과정과지나인통치의요체를검토하여이의실마리를찾아보려한다지나인통치와관련된요제국의경제적관심은창업을전후한시기에지나인과직접접촉함으로써나타났다창업하기직전에경제적관심도를뜻하는것이이른바‘한성천사(漢城遷徙)’이므로이에대한검토가철저하게이루어져야할것이다태종이지나를직접통치하려한것은지나적경제체제에로의전환상불가피한현상으로이해되지만거란족과지나인의경제적마찰은이의실패요인으로작용했음을제장에서중점적으로고찰하려한다田村實造,「遼初史釋疑三題」(東洋史硏究,)「遼代に於ける徙民政策と都市州縣制の成立」(滿蒙史論叢,)若城久治郞,「遼代に於ける漢人と刑法に關する-考察」(滿蒙史論叢,)「遼の樞密院に就いて」(上同,))小川裕人,「橋本增吉氏の遼の建國年代に就いてを讀む」(東洋史硏究,)內田吟風,「北朝政局に於ける鮮卑及諸部族係貴族の地位」(東洋史硏究,)契丹帝國史硏究지나로진출한이후요제국의경제구조에지나적인요소가수용되어목종(穆宗)시대에오면지나적경제구조로의전환이현저하게나타났다제장에서는이의전환이지나인통치에한몫을담당하였는지또한이로말미암아지나인관료의기능이나타났는지등에관해철저하게검토하고이어제장에서는경종(景宗)초기에요제국의조야에서정책의전환을요망하거니와그에따른지나인관료의관심과이에대한기여등의문제를다루어보려한다성종(聖宗)시대에오면지나인통치의성패를가늠하는경제시책이농업면에서정착되었다이시기에정책의전환이지나인관료에의해어떻게추진되었는가를제장에서다루어보려한다지나인통치를적극적으로주도한농업정책은흥종(興宗)과도종(道宗)시대에도지속되어특히도종시대에는요제국의농업생산량의최고기록이세워졌다요제국시대농업정책의시대적발전단계는물론도종시대의농업정책과관련하여지나인관료가요제국에대해갖고있는태도와의식까지제장에서다루어보고자한다요제국은마지막천조제시대에도농업정책을추진하여제국내의지나인은경제적으로풍요를누렸으며이에따라번․한관(蕃․漢官),즉거란족관료와지나인관료의기능상구분도거의철폐되다보니지나인관료가요제국을주도하였다이의좋은한예는요제국이이들지나인관료에의해둘로갈라진것이라하겠다특히일반지나인까지요제국을적극적으로지지하고나선것은여러대에걸쳐시행된농업정책이가져다준필연적결과일것이다지나인과지나인관료의요제국에대한태도와의식면에서동질성을발견할수있는지에대해서는제장에서충분히검토할것이다끝으로동질성이발견된다면지나인과지나인관료의요제국에대한전폭적인지지가다른정복왕조에서도나타났는가를아울러비교함으로써정복국가로서요제국(거란제국)의성격이밝혀질수있으리라고본다第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙第節迭剌部內의專制化와漢族의勸誘거란족을비롯하여북방에서살았던유목적부족이갖고있었던정치적구조는씨족적민주주의에바탕을두고있었다특히거란족의경우년질립제(迭立制:選擧制)가이에해당된다할것이다그러므로태조야율아보기의창업이갖는역사적의미는씨족적민주체제를따르지않고군주전제를확립했다는면에서찾아볼수있다아보기가즉위하기이전에거란의부족은부로구분되었으며선거제는제부에의해잘지켜져내려오다가일라부가이를폐지시킴으로써거란사회의변혁이일어나기에이르렀다과연일라부는어떤부족이며부와의관계는어떠하였는가그리고일라부에의해주도된새로운정치적경향이부에의해용납되었는가이와관련하여먼저밝혀둘것은일라부가거란족의주체를이루고있었던부의구성분자가아닐가능성이많다는것이다)아무튼아보기의일라부가처음부터부와합류했다면아보기는쉽게선거)遼史권,太祖紀契丹帝國史硏究제를폐지시키지못했을것같다이런면에서일라부와부의관계를살피지않을수없다이와관련하여부가있었던본거지를살피는것이가장효과적일것이다일라부의영역은부의영역인시라무렌(西喇木倫:SiraMuren)과노합하(老哈河)가합류하는지점부근에서약간서쪽으로떨어진조주(祖州)의세리몰리(世里沒里)라는곳을본거지로삼고있었다)원래부와본거지를달리했던일라부가부와정치적관계를맺은것은어쩌면아보기의아버지인덕조(德祖)살라적(撒剌的)이모종의세력을가졌던때부터인듯하다)아버지의정치적세력을계승한아보기는천복원년()에칸위(汗位)에오른흔덕칸(痕德可汗)밑에서일라부의이리근(夷離菫)으로서실위(室韋)․돌궐(突厥)․해(奚)등의제부를경략하는데전념하고같은년에는우월(于越)에임명되어군국사(軍國事)를총관함으로써군무(軍務)의총지휘관에취임한듯하다)‘우월’이라하면요나라시대최고의벼슬인데아보기는이에임명되어아버지또는백부인석로(釋魯)처럼국정에임하고군무를총관함으로써최고의권력을장악했으리라고본다)아무튼이에취임한이후아보기는독재권을수립하여일라부의세력을증강하려고기도함으로써아보기와제부장))祖州天成軍上節度本遼右八部世沒里地太祖秋獵多於此始置西樓後因建城獻號祖州以高祖昭烈皇帝曾祖莊敬皇帝祖考簡獻皇,皇考宣簡星帝所生土地故名(遼史권,地理志))德祖世爲契丹遙輦氏之夷離菫執其政柄伯父當國(遼史권,太祖紀))遼史권,太祖紀,위책권,耶律曷魯)田村實造,「遼初史釋疑三題」p(東洋史硏究,))시대에따라성질을달리하는部의大人은세개의유형으로나눌수있다(內田吟風)「北朝政局に於ける鮮卑及諸北族系貴族の地位」pp∼(東洋史硏究,)①고대東胡의부대인은세습이허용되지않은지도자였다부장인부대인은용건하여투쟁과소송을잘해결하며무기․모직․의료등의기술에정통한부인가운데서선출되었다(후한말∼삼국전기)(後漢書烏桓傳,삼국지의魏書참조)②拓跋氏의부대인은강대한씨족이세습하였다흉노의전면적인패퇴와지나의대혼란으로東胡族이대두함과동시에원시적자치제가폐기되어강대한씨족이부대인을세습하여국정에참여한동시에이전의부대인은그신하가되었다(北魏書北史帝第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙또는일라부와제부의대립이첨예화되었으나새로일어나는일라부를배경으로아보기는요연흔덕칸(遙輦痕德可汗)을대신하여즉위하였다)아보기가즉위한사정을말해주는기록은‘八部之人以爲遙輦不任事選於其衆以阿保機代之’(新五代史)라는것이다특히‘其衆’에대해하시모도마스키치(橋本增吉)는부의사람들이라고보았으나오가와히로토는요연과아보기를일라부출신이라고하였다)아보기의집안사람가운데실존성이가장많은인물은백부인석로인듯하다遼史의태조기와야율갈로전(耶律曷魯傳)(권)에따르면석로는아보기의소년시절에거란의국정에임한바있다그런데요연이집권한함통말년부터광계중반까지습이지(習爾之)라는인물이거란주의자리에있었던것처럼당서거란전에서보인다당서의장종열전(莊宗列傳)․資治通鑑(권)․遼史(권)의세표를보게되면습이지는습이라고기록되어있다)오가와히로토는습이와석로의발음이유사하다는데주목하여둘을같은사람이라고보아습이는아보기의백부로서일라부출신의사람이라고주장하였다)다시말해오가와히로토는흔덕을습이의족인이라고보아거란의부가아닌일라부紀참조)③북위의부대인은拓跋氏의重臣으로서제부의대인을통할하였다이후부족이해산된후에국무대신도大人(예,天部大人)이라고하였다(위서북사참조)대인의세유형에비추어볼때아보기와첨예하게대립했던제부장으로서의대인은두번째유형에해당된다하겠다)遙輦의출신부에대해田村實造는제부의세력을대표했다고보았다(「遼初史釋疑三題」p)小川裕人는신당서와구오대사에의거하여요연과흔덕을같은인물이라보고이의근거로虜廷雜記의‘八部落主愛其雄勇遂退其舊主遙輦氏歸本部立太祖爲王’이라는기록을인용하여요연은부이외의別部의長이라고보는것이타당하다고하여일라부출신이라고보았다(橋本增吉氏の遼の建國年代に就いてを讀む))橋本增吉,「遼の建國年代に就いて」(史潮),小川裕人「橋本增吉氏の遼の建國年代に就いてを讀む」p(東洋史硏究,))舊五代史의契丹傳에는習爾之가錫里濟로改譯되어있다)小川裕人,앞의논문과같음契丹帝國史硏究사람이라고보았다그렇다면습이가거란주에오른이후에거란주는계속일라부에서나왔다는셈이며씨족제적년선거제는일라부에의해지켜지지않은것으로보인다다음의기록은이를추측하는데시사하는바가크다하겠다凡立王則衆部酋長皆集會議其有德行功業者立之或災害不生群牧孶盛人民安堵則王更不替行苟不然其諸酋長會衆部別選一名爲王)위기록에따르면일라부도원칙적으로년선거제를준수할수밖에없었을것같다그런데도습이이래거란주가계속일라부에서나왔음은선거제의기본정신이일라부에의해지켜지지않았음을뜻하는것이아닌가한다그런면에서위기록은두가지측면에서시사성을갖고있는듯하다특히아보기가년동안거란주자리에있었던것은재해가발생하지않고목축물의사육이번성하여백성들의생활이안정을보게되었다는말로풀이할수있는원칙에의거하였다고하겠으나물러난것은이원칙과관계없이장기집권한것이그주된이유인듯하다아무튼이기록은아보기의장기집권을보게만든원인이어디에있었는가를보여주고있다하겠으나물러난배경을시원하게설명하였다고는보기가어렵다오가와히로토는이기록이아보기가일라부출신으로서거란주에오르게된배경을설명하였다고풀이하였다)그렇다면한고조실록에서보게되는년선거제는일라부가거란의제부와합류하기이전의것으로보이며가위(賈緯)등이이를알게된것은거란에사신으로갔던당시에직접거란인으로부터전해들은것이라하겠다아보기가중앙으로진출하는데계기를만들어준우월에취임한이래그는거점으로보이는용화주(龍化州)의건치를확대하려고기도하는동시에)虜廷雜記)小川裕人,앞의논문pp∼第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙야율갈로(耶律曷魯)와야율고(耶律古)등심복인물을이끌고하동(河東)의이극용(李克用)과운중(雲中)에서회맹하였는데이는보유한세력을배경으로칸처럼제부를통제하고있었음을보여주는것이라고보아도좋을듯하다아보기의건국설화중에서볼수있듯이지나의제왕(帝王)은교체되는일이없다는지나인의말을듣고아보기가더욱거란의제부를위압적으로통제함은물론다른거란인에게자신의자리를내주기를거부하였다는기록)은이를반증하는것이아닌가한다습이이래거란주는계속일라부에서나와아보기의즉위를보게해주었다하겠으나당시거란사회에는본질적으로서로다른정치적기류가양립되었음을엿볼수있다씨족제를존속하려는것과전제권을수립하려는것이그것이다이의양립은新五代史(권)에서보이는데,分爲八部部之長號大人而常推一大人建旗鼓以通八部至其歲久或其國有災疾而富牧衰則八部聚議以旗鼓立其次而代之被代者以爲約本如此不敢爭……其立九年諸部以其久不代立共責誚之阿保機不得已傳其旗鼓라고했듯이아보기의장기집권에대해제부의추장들은공동으로강력하게맞서집권의상징물인깃발과북을반환하라고아보기에게강요하였다이기록이말해주고있듯이씨족제와전제권이라는두정치적기류가흐르고있었으나역시우세한것은씨족제였음을알수있다다시말해씨족제를고수해온제부는아보기에의해기도되고있는전제화경향을용납하지않았던것이라하겠다아무튼전제화경향은아보기가꿈꾸고있는세습제의확립과관련하여전단계적조치에해당하는것이아닌가한다그러나아보기가중심인물로되어있는遼史에는이러한기록이나와있지않다)阿保機立漢人敎阿保機曰中國之王無代立者由是阿保機益以威制諸部而不肯代(漢高祖實錄契丹帝國史硏究따라서조심스럽게다루어야할것은아보기의첫건원인신책원년까지아보기가중심인물로된遼史의제기록과건국설화가일치하고있느냐라는것이라하겠다먼저검토할것은후양개평원년()에아보기가즉위했다는遼史의기록이사실이냐에관한것이다이는편의상제차즉위라고말해둔다왜냐하면후양정명원년()에신책이라는연호를정하고용화주(龍化州)에제단을쌓고존호를받았다는기록이마치두번째의즉위처럼보이기때문이다그런데건국설화에의거하여제차즉위에대해아보기가한성(漢城)으로이주하여여기에따로한부를세워자립하였음을말하는것이라고보려는견해가있다)거란제부의입장에서보면이는아보기에의해계획된전제권이후퇴한것이라고하겠으나아보기의입장에서보게되면즉위한것이틀림없다할것이다그렇다면년동안의전제권이무너진이후遼史에서말하듯이제차즉위가이루어진셈이며아보기가제부의대인을살해한것은제차즉위이후에발생한것이라고보아야할것이다아보기의전제화경향은그가중심인물로되어있는일라부안팎으로물의를일으켰다위에서보았듯이거란제부의공동저항과아보기형제가일으킨반란이그것이다제부의추장들이깃발과북을반환하라는요구를아보기가일단받아들임으로써제부와의정면적인대결을의도적으로회피하였다이는흔덕에서아보기에로의계승이제부의합의하에서이루어지긴했으나선거제의전통적인정신이건재하였음을뜻하는것이되기도한다그런데유의할것은아보기로부터깃발과북을반환받은인물이漢高祖實錄에나와있지않다는점이다그렇다면깃발과북의반환은실제아보기의실력을능가하는실력자의영향으로기인된것이아니고어디까지나제부가전통적인선거제를고수하겠다는측면에서비롯되었다고보아야할것같다그러므로이선거제는거란제부의동족의식을전통적정신으로한유목적)田村實造,앞의논문p第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙민주의식이아닐수없다하겠다아보기가깃발과북을반환했던당시까지만해도거란제부의민주적경향과일라부에서보게되는실력본위경향의두기류가양립되긴했으나대결보다조화가추구된것같다다시이를구체적으로말해주는것은습이․흔덕․아보기등거란주가일라부에서나왔으나깃발과북이반환되기이전에제부의대인을살해한사건이발생하지않은것이그것이라하겠다아보기가고(古)한성을자신의새로운거점으로확보하려했던것은지나적인정치사상에의거하여전제권의영속화를기도한데서비롯되었다그러나아보기는깃발과북을반환하기직전에전제권의확립과관련하여좌절감을느낀것으로보인다가장믿을만한심복부하인야율갈로를후양으로파견하여자신의책립을요구했으나실패함으로써좌절감을맛보게되었다제부의대인은책립이실패한것을아보기가시도하는전제권의확립야욕을붕괴시킬수있는좋은기회로이용한것같다따라서어쩌면아보기스스로한성을새로운거점으로만들려는계획을본격화하고서제부대인의요구에순응한것이아닌가한다다음기록은이를이해하는데도움이될듯하다阿保機擊黃頭室韋還七部劫之於境上求如約阿保機不得已傳旗鼓且曰我爲王九年得漢人多請帥種落居古漢城與漢人守之別自爲一部七部許之)이에따르면아보기는황두실위(黃頭室韋)를치고)돌아오는길에제부)資治通鑑권,개평원년월)요제국이나타나기훨씬이전부터내륙아시아의실위와奚안에서비교적일찍금속을가공하는기술이전문화되었다일라부의추장은UighurTurk의혈통(뒤에蕭)과인척관계를맺었다Turk는唐이전부터유명한鐵加工人이었으며이의支族인Uighur는半農에다비교적고도의철가공기술을보유하였다일라부는이들Uighur와접촉하여철제품의사용을보게되어아보기의아버지시대에산업의혁신이일어나제련소가설치되어금속이주조되기시작하였다그리하여아보기시대에금속을가공하는실위를정복하기에이契丹帝國史硏究로부터압력을받고깃발과북을반환했던것이다아보기가한성으로본거지를옮겨간역사적의미는전제권을영속화시키려는발판으로한성을꼽은데있었으나거란의본부에서영구히떨어져나가지않고다시거란부족의땅으로되돌아온것이라하겠다만약그가거란부족으로다시돌아오지않았다면마치중원의한갓절도사처럼되었을가망이매우크다또한귀환하지않고전제권의영속화에만관심을쏟았다면북위나후당처럼지나인중심의국가를이루었을것같다신당서의사타전(沙陀傳)을보면아보기는중원의번진(藩鎭)처럼취급받았음이눈에띈다)이러한사정으로아보기는천우원년()태원의후진왕(後晋王)이극용의부름을받고변경(汴京)의후양왕(後梁王)주전충(朱全忠)에대한협공을약속했으나지나식의군주권을확립하는데유리한후양(後梁)에대해자신의책봉을구하였다이로본다면아보기는군주권의확립에만전념한듯하지만거란의제부를의식하면서이의확립을추진해나가고있었다아보기에의해거란제부의대인(大人)이살해당한것은이러한인식위에서이해되어야할것이다그런데도新五代史의사이부록(四夷附錄)에서보게되는제부대인의살해사건을건국설화라고인식하고있는경향이다하지만좀더깊이있게살펴보면대인의살해사건은아보기의황후인술율씨(述律氏)의계획에따라빚어졌을가능성을배제하기어렵다아보기는대지나관계와관련하여문화적으로나군사적으로나적극적태도였음에반해르렀다실위로부터금속가공기술을받았다고해서Uighur의영향을받지않았다고보는것은아니며Uighur의영향으로실위와지나의기술도입이촉진되었을것이다그런데도실위로부터영향을받았다는설이거부당하고있는데그것은아보기와지나인이주자의관계가요나라의건국직전에이루어져거란인이지나적경제생활과접촉했다는것이강조되고있기때문이다(Wittfogel,KAFengChinasheng馮家昇,HistoryofChineseSociety,Liao(TransactionoftheAmericanPhilosophicalSocietyvol,phil,)pp,Industry))李克用顧蕃鎭皆附汴不可與共功惟契丹阿保機尙可用乃卑辭召之第章耶律阿保機의建國과漢城遷徙술율씨는매우보수적태도를가지고있었다오왕(吳王)이보낸사신의권유를받고아보기가유주(幽州)를정벌할때술율씨는실패한다고염려하였고또한아보기가왕욱(王郁)의권유에따라진주(鎭州)의장문체(張文體)를정벌할때도술율씨는그위험부담을지적한동시에서루(西樓)에서누리고있는유목적풍요에만족하라고역설한것은물론이고태종이후진을남정할때에도이를간곡하게반대하는등술율씨의성격은보수적이었음을알수있다이렇듯술율씨는시종아보기로하여금거란족의주권자로서만족케하여중원진출을극력반대하는태도였던것이다그러므로술율씨가제부대인의살해를건의하여드디어거란제부의절대적주권자의자리에오르게한것도술율씨의보수적경향의결과라고보면좋을것이다아무튼遼史에서제부대인의살해에따른그병합이말살된것은아보기의즉위와건원을합법화하려는의도적조치인듯하다제부대인의살해사건과관련하여지금까지의견해는일치되어있지않은실정이다먼저마츠이히토시(松井等)는이들을살해함으로써군주권을확립하였다는新五代史의기록을역사적사실이라고받아들였다)이에반해다무라지츠조우(田村實造)와오가와히로토두사람은이를설화적인것으로이해하였다)그런가하면하시모도마스키치(橋本增吉)는상반된견해와다르게살해사건을후인의조작이라고단정하였다그러므로하시모도는아보기의제부통일에관한구오대사의기록을사실에가까운것이라고보는입장을취하였던것이다))아보기가天皇帝라칭하고神冊이라고건원한것은거란의제부를병합했기때문이며제부의대인을살해한것은당년이거나전년일것이라는데서역사성이운운된것이다엄밀한의미로보면松井等는대인의살해를후인의조작이라고보았다(「契丹勃興史」p,p(滿鮮地理歷史硏究報告,))田村實造,앞의논문p小川裕人,「遼室君主權の成立に關する一考察」p(東洋史硏究,))橋本增吉,「遼の建國年代に就いて」p(史潮)契丹帝國史硏究살해사건을설화성으로이해하면서도술율씨의계획에서나왔을가능성을배제하지않은오가와히로토의견해는술율씨의강한유목적보수성으로보아탁견이라하겠다아무튼살해사건은아보기가한성을자신의본거지로만든역사적사실과직접적인관련이있다고본다그렇다면新五代史에아보기가제부의저항을만나일라부의본족에서분리하여지나인만을이끌고한성으로이주하였다는기록은수긍하기어려울것이다다음의두기록은아보기가한성으로이주할때결코일라부를저버리지않았을것이라는견해를뒷받침해주고있다가)太祖以迭剌部之衆代遙輦氏起臨潢建皇都(遼史권,지리지)나)二月戊午以從弟迭栗底爲迭烈府夷離菫(遼史태조기,즉위년)아보기는거란의제부에서한성으로이주한이후자신이지배하고있는지나인과굳게결속함으로써거란의사회가큰변혁을보게한것은사실이다그것은살해사건을분수령으로하여제부를병합하고또한부족인을나누고합한끝에새로부를이룬것이라하겠다그러나그부장은종래의부족가운데서나오지않고아보기의일족또는심복중에서임명되었음으로임기제에의한관료임에분명하다만약아보기가중원과의결속에만힘을기울여새로부족을조직하지않았거나살해라는비상수단에의하지않고제부족을통일했다면그의군주세습권은확립되었다해도제부의대인은종전처럼부족인을통치하여지배계층으로남아있거나대부분의거란인은지배종족또는지배계층으로서피정복종족위에군림했을것이다한인과결속하여나타난큰흐름은씨족적인연합체인제부보다한발먼저군주

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[韩]徐炳国: 契丹帝国史(韩国学术 2006)

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