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首页 [美]罗杰姆·克莱尔&伯纳德·巴拉赫:神秘心灵:中世纪神秘家与苦修者的心态(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]罗杰姆·克莱尔&伯纳德·巴拉赫:神秘心灵:中世纪神秘家与苦修者的心态(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]罗杰姆·克莱尔&伯纳德·巴拉赫:神秘心灵:中世纪神秘家与…

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简介:本文档为《[美]罗杰姆·克莱尔&伯纳德·巴拉赫:神秘心灵:中世纪神秘家与苦修者的心态(劳特里奇 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

shanthimFileAttachmentceecovervbjpgTHEMYSTICMINDTheMysticMindistheresultofafascinatingcollaborationbetweenamedievalhistorianandaprofessorofpsychiatry,applyingmodernbiologicalandpsychologicalresearchfindingstothelivesofmedievalmysticsandasceticsThisilluminatingstudyexaminestherelationshipbetweenmedievalmysticalexperiences,andthereligiouspracticesofmortificationofthebodyLacerationoftheflesh,sleepdeprivation,andextremestarvation,whileundoubtedlyrelatedtoculturalandreligiousmotivations,directlyproduceddramaticeffectsuponthebodyandbrainfunctioningoftheheroicascetics,thatinturnbroughtaboutalteredstatesofconsciousnessApplyingmodernunderstandingsofphysiology,theauthorsdemonstratehowheroicasceticismcouldbeusedtoobtainadesiredmysticalstate,aswellasexamininganddisputingmuchcontemporarywritingaboutthepoliticalandgendermotivationsinthemedievalquestforclosenesswithGodDrawinguponadatabaseof,medievalholypersonsaswellasindepthstudiesofindividualsaints,TheMysticMindisessentialreadingforallthosewithaninterestinmedievalreligionortheeffectsofselfinjuriousbehavioronthemindJeromeKrollisProfessorofPsychiatryattheUniversityofMinnesotaMedicalSchoolHeistheauthorofTheChallengeoftheBorderlinePatient(),PTSDBorderlinesinTherapy()andcoauthor,withSirMartinRoth,ofTheRealityofMentalIllness()HeisthecurrentpresidentoftheAssociationfortheAdvancementofPhilosophyandPsychiatryBernardBachrachisProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofMinnesotaHehaswrittenoreditedfifteenbooksandoveronehundredarticlesonmedievalhistory,includingseveralstudiesonmedievalmentalillnessincollaborationwithJeromeKrollTHEMYSTICMINDThePsychologyofMedievalMysticsandAsceticsJeromeKrollandBernardBachrachFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYSimultaneouslypublishedintheUKbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©JeromeKrollandBernardBachrachAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKroll,JeromeThemysticmind:thepsychologyofmedievalmysticsandasceticsJeromeKrollandBernardBachrachpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesMysticism–PsychologyAsceticism–PsychologyMystics–PsychologyAscetics–PsychologyChurchhistory–MiddleAges,–Psychology,ReligiousIBachrach,BernardS,–IITitleBLK′′–dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN–––(hbk)ISBN–––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”TothehiddenKathleenWhoseestheunseenToDeborahforhersupportOverthemanyyearsCONTENTSPrefaceixAcknowledgmentsxiIntroductionPARTIPsychologyandbiologyHeroicasceticismandselfinjuriousbehaviorMysticismandalteredstatesofconsciousnessPainandlacerationofthefleshSleepdeprivationFastingandstarvationPARTIIHistoryHistoricalmethods:selectingadatabasePathwaystoholinessRadegundBeatriceofNazarethBeatriceofOrnacieuxHenrySusoviiMentalillness,hysteria,andmysticismConclusionAppendix:statisticalanalysesNotesBibliographyIndexCONTENTSviiiPREFACEThisbookhasbeenaninterdisciplinaryendeavorand,assuch,theauthorshavebenefitedfrommanyrichdiscussions,insights,andcritiquesofcolleaguesandfriendsInparticular,wewouldliketothankthelateRogerDeGanck,ChaplaintoOurLadyoftheRedwoodsMonasteryforhisclosefriendship,support,andlovingconversationsWealsothankthelateformerAbbessMyriamDardennesandtheCisterciancommunityofOurLadyoftheRedwoodsMonasteryforopeningtheirheartsandtheircommunitytousWehavebeenenrichedbydiscussionswithProfessorNoelDermotO’DonoghueofEdinburghUniversity,ProfessorColumbaStewartofStJohnsUniversityinCollegeville,Minnesota,DaraMalloyandTessHarperoftheAranIslands,andtheReverendMarcusLosackofCeileDeinGlendalough,IrelandMarySchaffer,CuratoroftheArcaArtiumResearchCollectionofStJohn’sUniversity,Collegeville,wasmostgenerousofhertimeandexpertiseinlocatingmedievalillustrationsandsupplyingtextualbackgroundfortheimagesthatgracethisbookDiscussionswithprofessorsLukeDemaitreandStanleyJacksonprovideduswithinsightandclarityintothehistoryofmedicineintheMiddleAgesAttheUniversityofMinnesota,ourcolleaguesgaveustheirexpertiseinvariousphysiologicalandpsychologicalareas:absorptionandalteredstatesofconsciousness(AukeTellegen),pain(DonaldSimone),sleep(MarkMahowaldandTomHurwitz),andfastingandstarvation(JamesMitchell)PaulThurasandJoelHechtnerprovidedthestatisticalanalysesforourstudiesWethankoureditorsinthehistorysectionatRoutledge,VickyPetersandJaneBlackwell,fortheirhelpandinsightsinkeepingtheprojectontrack,aswellasProfessorUrsulaKingoftheUniversityofBristol,EnglandandananonymousreviewerfortheirthoughtfulcritiquesofearlierdraftsofthemanuscriptthatpropelledusintomorejudiciousrevisionsWeespeciallyappreciatethecomputerexpertiseandpatienceofJohnHopwoodattheUniversityofMinnesota,whoconvincedusthatthereweresystemsolutionsotherthanthrowingtheequipment(and,withit,theelectronicmanuscript)outthewindowWealsothankJenniferSummerArmstrongforunstintingdataentryservicesandMaryDeWitt,JanetHolland,JanetBockenstedtandGloriaWolfforclericalandadministrativesupportixFinally,JKwishestoexpresshisdeepthankstoKathleenCareyforhercontinuoussupport,encouragement,andcriticalandperceptivereadingsofthemanuscriptPREFACExACKNOWLEDGMENTSExcerptsfromHenrySuso:TheExemplar,withTwoGermanSermons,translatedandeditedandintroducedbyFrankTobinprefacebyBernardMcGinnfromTheClassicsofWesternSpirituality,Copyright©byFrankTobin,PaulistPress,Inc,NewYorkMahwah,NJUsedwithpermissionofPaulistPress<wwwpaulistpresscom>AnearlierversionofChapterappearedinMentalHealth,ReligionandCulture(:–,),reprintedwithpermissionofTaylorandFrancisLtd<wwwtandfcouk>Reproductionsoftheengravings,woodblockprints,andmanuscriptilluminationsarecourtesyoftheSaintJohn’sRareBookLibraryandtheKacmarcikCollectionofArcaArtiumRareBookLibrary,SaintJohn’sUniversity,Collegeville,MinnesotaReproductionsofDominicusLoricatus,Guthlacum,andZoerardearefromtheSylvaesacreImagesbyMartendeVosengravingsbyJohannandRaphaelSadelerMunich:KacmarcikCollectionofArcaArtiumReproductionofCometaetNicosaisfromSolitudo,sivevitaefoeminarumanachoreticumImagesbyMartendeVosengravingsbyAdrianCollaertAntwerp:AdrianCollaert,cKacmarcikCollectionofArcaArtiumReproductionsofAmelberge,Bathilde,Odile,andRadegundarefromImagesdeSaintsetSaintesdelafamilledel’empereurMaximilienIImagesbyHansBurgkmaierwoodcutsbyHFrank,CLiefrink,ALindt,JdeNegker,WResch,HTaberith,GTaberithVienna:FXStockl,Theimageswereprintedfromwoodblockscutbetween–ReproductionofColetteandMargueritedeCortonnearefromLesviesdesSSPeresdesdeserts,etdessaintessolitairesd’Orientetd’OccidentAvecdesFiguresquireprésententl’austéritédeleurvie,leursprincipalesoccupationsBooktwooffour(Printed)Antwerp(Sold)Amsterdam,PierreBrunel,MiraculousMass(fv)isfromtheBookofHoursSarumuseFrance(Rouen),endfifteenthcenturyManuscriptonvellumxiINTRODUCTIONDefiningthequestionsRecurringfiguresthroughoutmedievalhistory,onesthatattractedandstillattractmoreattentionthantheactualnumberswouldjustify,arethereligiousmysticandheroicasceticCapturinglocaland,attimes,nationalandinternationalnotoriety,mysticssuchasHildegardofBingen(–),FrancisofAssisi(–),andJulianofNorwich(–)andheroicasceticssuchasSimeonStylitestheelder(c–)andyounger(–),PeterofLuxembourg(–),andCatherineofSiena(–)servedasexemplarsofChristianpursuitofthedivineandrejectionofworldlyvaluesSimultaneously,someoftheseholypersonsalsobecameobjectsofsuspicionandridiculebecauseoftheirpublicdisplaysofexcessiveholinessandselfinjuriouspracticesBenedictofAniane(c–),whoinhislateryearswasCharlemagne’sarchitectofmonasticreform,wascriticizedfortheferociousnessofhisearlierselfinflictedinjuriesChristinaMirabilis(–)wasconsideredmadbecauseofherexcessiveasceticism,andJulianaofMontCornillon(–)drewtheireofhersisternunsforherdebilitatingfastsFrancisofAssisiwasconsideredahalfwitbecauseofhisuncompromisingvoluntarypovertyandBrotherGilesofAssisi(d),whowentintotrancestatesatthemerementionoftheword“Paradise,”wastauntedbychildrenwhoshouted“paradise”overandoveragainFloraofBeaulieu(–)wasnotonlyridiculedasahypocritebythesistersofherprioryforherreligiousdevotions,butwasfurtherhumiliatedwhenoutsiderswereinvitedtothepriorytostareatandmimicherThehighvisibilityofsuchmysticsandasceticshasmadeitdifficulttogainanaccurateestimateandsoberappraisaloftheirprevalenceandinfluenceinmedievalexpressionsofpietyQuestionsaboutthepsychologyofintensemysticismandheroicasceticismhavesimilarlybeenaffectedbythereligiouspartisanshipandemotionalitythatarisewhenoneconsidersindetailtheotherworldlinessofthemysticsandthemortificationsandphysicaldamagesomeasceticshaveinflicteduponthemselvesThereligiousquestforamysticalexperiencecanbeseenasonespecialcategorywithinanelementalhumantendencytoescapeortranscendtheordinarystateofconsciousnessIfconsciousnessisafundamentalanddefiningcharacteristicofthehumancondition,thenthedrivetoescapeormovebeyondtheclutteredandoftenunpleasantdaytodaystateofconsciousnesstoavarietyofalteredstates,includingmysticalstates,isanequallybasichumantraitAllsocietiesrecognizeandbestowelevatedstatusuponreligiousandmysticalformsofalteredstatesofconsciousnessandtheirimmediateandlongtermaftereffectsEachsocietydeterminesthespecificconditions,inductiontechniques,rules,andparticulartypesofalteredstatesthatconstitutelegitimatereligiousritualandceremonyAmongthesemethods,sometimesusedincombination,arevariousformsofmeditationandprayer,chanting,whirlinganddancing,drumming,fasting,socialisolation,sleepdeprivation,ingestionofalcoholandotherdrugs,andselfinjuriousbehaviorsSocietiesalsoinstructandpreparenovicesandinitiatesregardingwhattypesofexperiencestoexpectwhenindifferentalteredstatesofconsciousness,andprovidearichvocabulary,usuallymetaphorical,todescribetheseexperiencesInmedievalEurope,alteredstatesofconsciousness,characterizedaspathwaystomysticalunionwithGod,weretheultimategoalofspirituallyorientedpersonsThisgeneralizationmustberefinedbytheunderstandingthatwhatwasentailedinunionwithGodchangedfromtheintellectualizedPlatonicnotionheldintheearlyMiddleAgestothepersonalizedandemotionalnotionofmysticalunionwithJesusheldinthelaterMiddleAgesSomemedievalholypersonsappeartohavebeenabletoachieve,throughtechniquesofprayerandmeditation,thoseformsofalteredstatesthatconstituteamysticalexperienceManyotherswerenot,especiallysinceWesternChristianityduringmuchoftheMiddleAgesdidnothaveavailable,despiteJohnCassian’s(d)earlyinfluence,asstrongatraditionofmeditativepracticesasthosefoundinEasternreligions(HinduismandBuddhism),orevenEasternOrthodoxy,thatcouldbemethodicallytaughttonovicesandinitiatesWearereferringheretotheabsenceofabodyofprescriptiveknowledgeandtechniquesthatcouldbeformallytaughtasanorderlysequenceofprayerandmeditationthatpermitsandguidespractitionersprogressivelytocleartheirmindsofworldlyconcernsandtofocus,mostusually,onthepresenceofChristthatresideswithinSuchtechniques,whenpresent,wererelativelyunderdevelopedintheWestpriortotheeleventhcentury,whenthemajorconcernsoftheecclesiasticalandgoverningsegmentsofsocietyweretheongoingconversionofthepopulationtoChristianityandtheinculcationofaChristianworldviewintosecularsocietyGiventheselimitationsinthetransmissionofmeditativetechniques,somespirituallydrivenpersonsemployedharshselfinjuriouspracticesasamethodofinducingalteredstatesofconsciousnessMildtomoderateselfdenyingandselfinjuriousbehaviorsasaformofasceticdisciplinehadthesanctionofbeingcompatiblewithandevenexpressiveofthelargerChristianworldviewofcontemptusmundiHowever,therewasfairlyuniformofficialdisapproval,althoughambivalentpopularresponses,oftheextrememeasureswhichsomeheroicasceticsundertookInadditiontobroadsocioculturalinfluencesthataffectattainmentofalteredstates,individualsdiffergreatlyintheirability,propensity,andmotivationtoINTRODUCTIONexperiencealteredstatesAswithallotherhumantraitsanddispositionsthataredistributedasdimensionalpropertiesacrossapopulation,variationamongindividualsinpronenesstoexperiencealteredstatesofconsciousness(suchasabsorption,transcendence,easeofenteringintotrancestates,andsuggestibility)mostlikelyreflectsdifferencesingeneticdispositionaswellasdifferencesinlifeexperiencesForsomeindividuals,alteredstatesareachievedrelativelyeasilyOthers,however,includingsomewhoexpressstrongdesiretoexperiencetranscendentalstates,havegreatdifficulty,iftheyareableatall,inreachingevenmoderatelevelsofalteredstatesthatafewgiftedpersonsseemtoachievesoeffortlesslyTobe“earthbound”whenthepremiervalueofone’sgroup,suchasafourteenthcenturyRhinelandmonasticcommunity,isliterallytosoarwiththeangels,istobeplacedatgreatpsychologicalandmoraldisadvantage,bothintrospectivelyandsociallyThethickboundariedperson,onewhocannoteasilyshiftintootherlevelsofrealitybutwhoneverthelessdesiresandisencouragedtoexperienceanaltered(mystical)state,hasseveraloptionsOneistohelptheprocessalongbywhatevermeansareculturallyandpersonallyavailable(suchassleepdeprivation,severefasting,ormortificationoftheflesh)Alternatively,onemaypursueseveralotherpatterns,includingoutrightfakingsuchstates,orimitatingthebehaviorsofgenuinemysticsuntilonecantalkoneselfintobelievingthatoneisreallyexperiencingecstaticstates,oracceptingthefactthatone’spathwaytoholinessisnotthemysticaljourney,butrathersomecombinationofmoderateasceticismandcharitableandadministrativeworksTheroleofGod’sgraceasthecriticalfactorinachievingamysticalstate,suchthathumanendeavorandmeritareirrelevant,insertsitselfintothesediscussions,butinpracticalterms,theverynotionofholinessinlatermedievalsocietyusuallyentailed,whateverthetheoreticalroleofgrace,anintensepersonalpursuitofclosenesswithChristCritics,bothmedievalandmodern,ofheroicasceticismhaveassertedthatalteredstatesachievedviaselfinjuryarenotbonafidemysticalstates,andthattheheroicasceticmistakesperversityforholinessThiscontroversyispartofthelargerquestionoftheroleofanytranceinducingtechniqueotherthanprayerandmeditationintheformationofamysticalstateWearenotheresuggestingthatselfinjuriousbehaviorsareaparticularlyeffectiveordoctrinallycorrectwaytoachieveamysticalstate,orthatwhatisachievedissimilartomysticalstatesreachedthroughothermethods,butonlythatreligiouslycommittedindividualshaveinfactusedsuchasceticbehaviorsasamethodoftranceinductionAsacorollaryobservation,useofalcoholandplantmedicinalstoproduceanalteredstateofconsciousness,alegitimatemethodofreligioustranceinductioninculturesworldwidewithminimalpoliticalstratification,wascriticizedanddiscouragedinmedievalEurope,andanyalteredstatesthusachievedwerenotconsideredauthenticmysticalstatesInpresentWesternsociety,alcoholanddrugshavebeenthestatisticallypreferredandsociallyacceptablemethodsofalteringone’swakingstateofconsciousnessforsecularpurposesButingestionofthesesubstancesremains,asinmedievaltimes,generallydevaluedandproscribedasmethodsoftranceinductioninmainstreamINTRODUCTIONChristianreligiouscontexts,despitesomeattemptsinthestoexperimentwithhallucinogensasinducersoftranscendentalstatesHeroicasceticismtooisconsidered,bybothreligiousandprofessionalconsensus,asuspectandrelativelydeviantmethodoflegitimatemysticalquestPrayerandmeditationarethepreferredroutestopursuitofclosenesstoGodinpresentWesternsociety,butthishascreatedanawkwardsituationbecauseknowledgeandteachingofmeditativetechniques,suchasweredevelopedinmedievalEuropeandbythesixteenthcenturySpanishmystics,notablyIgnatiusLoyola(–)andJohnoftheCross(–),havelanguishedinthefaceofthescientificrevolutionandtheProtestantReformationReflectingtherelativepovertyofatraditionofmeditativepracticesintheWesternworlduptothepresenttime,therehasbeenincreasedattentionrecentlytoEasternformsandtechniquesofmeditationasmeansofachievingamore“genuine”alteredstateofconsciousness,onethatdependsneitheruponalcoholanddrugsnorselfinjuriousbehaviorsInterestinglyenough,thefieldofpsychiatrypsychotherapyhasdevelopedaveryrecent,butintenseinterestinonecategoryofalteredstateofconsciousnessknownasdissociativeepisodesanditsextremeexpression,multiplepersonalityOneschoolofmodernpsychologicaltheorylinksthepropensitytodevelopdissociativestatestoexperiencesofsexualabuseinchildhood,althoughthevalidityandsignificanceofthesefindingsarefiercelydebatedItappearsthat,inmanycases,dissociativeepisodeswithrichandnoncredibleimageryhavebeeninducedinpatientsbyoverlyzealoustherapists,afindingthatspeakstothesu

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  • 新来的 可以下,但是书是全英文版的

    2010-12-18 02:58:12

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[美]罗杰姆·克莱尔&伯纳德·巴拉赫:神秘心灵:中世纪神秘家与苦修者的心态(劳特里奇 2005)

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