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首页 [英]罗萨蒙德·麦吉特立克:查理大帝:欧洲同一性的形成(剑桥大学 2008)

[英]罗萨蒙德·麦吉特立克:查理大帝:欧洲同一性的形成(剑桥大学 2008)

[英]罗萨蒙德·麦吉特立克:查理大帝:欧洲同一性的形成(剑桥大…

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2008-11-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]罗萨蒙德·麦吉特立克:查理大帝:欧洲同一性的形成(剑桥大学 2008)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankCHARLEMAGNECharlemagneisoftenclaimedasthegreatestrulerinEuropebeforeNapoleonInthismagisterialnewstudy,RosamondMcKitterickreexaminesCharlemagnetherulerandhisreputationSheanalysesthenarrativerepresentationsofCharlemagneproducedafterhisdeath,andthereafterfocusesontheevidencefromCharlemagne’slifetimeconcerningthecreationoftheCarolingiandynastyandthegrowthofthekingdom,thecourtandtheroyalhousehold,communicationsandidentitiesintheFrankishrealminthecontextofgovernment,andCharlemagne’sreligiousandculturalstrategiesSheoffersacompletelyfreshandcriticalexaminationofthecontemporarysourcesandinsodoingtransformsourunderstandingofthedevelopmentoftheCarolingianempire,theformationofCarolingianpoliticalidentity,andtheastonishingchangeseffectedthroughoutCharlemagne’sfortysixyearperiodofruleThisisamajorcontributiontoCarolingianhistorywhichwillbeessentialreadingforanyoneinterestedinthemedievalpastROSAMONDMcKITTERICKisProfessorofMedievalHistoryattheUniversityofCambridgeandaFellowofSidneySussexCollegeHerpreviouspublicationsincludeAtlasoftheMedievalWorld(),HistoryandMemoryintheCarolingianWorld()andPerceptionsofthePastintheEarlyMiddleAges()CHARLEMAGNETheFormationofaEuropeanIdentityROSAMONDMCKITTERICKProfessorofMedievalHistoryattheUniversityofCambridgeandFellowofSidneySussexCollegeCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBN©WissenschaftlicheBuchgesellschaft,Darmstadt,Informationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgpaperbackeBook(EBL)hardbackTothemedievalistsintheAttic,NIAS–ContentsListofmapspageixListoftablesxPrefacexiListofabbreviationsxvRepresentationsofCharlemagneIntroductionNinthcenturynarrativeimagesofCharlemagne:Einhard,theAstronomerandthePoetaSaxoTheRevisedVersionoftheAnnalesregnifrancorumTheAnnalesregnifrancorumCharlemagne’slateryearsConclusionPippinids,ArnulfingsandAgilolfings:thecreationofadynastyIntroduction:perceptionsoftheeighthcenturyandtheriseoftheCarolingiansThePippinidsandtheirrisetopoliticalprominencePreparationforkingship:PippinIIIandCharlemagneCharlemagneandCarloman–:jointruleSoleruleanditsconsequences:Charlemagne’sfamily,legitimacyandthesuccessionThesuccession:theDivisioregnorum()andCharlemagne’swill()ThegrowthofthekingdomExterioresgentesConclusion:thelimitsofexpansionTheroyalcourtIntroductionTheroyalhousehold:poeticimagesTheroyalhousehold:theDeordinepalatiiofHincmarofReimsTheCapitularedevillisandtheDeordinepalatiiviiTheroyalhouseholdinlaternarrativeaccountsCharlemagne’spalacesandthestatusofAachenAnitinerantcourtoranitinerantkingCharlemagne’stravelsPoliticalanddiplomaticspaceChartersandtheroyalitineraryChartersurvivalCharterredactionTheroyalwritingofficeandthepalacenotariesConclusion:courtandkingdomThekingandthekingdom:communicationsandidentitiesIntroductionCommunicationsAssembliesThecapitulariesCharlemagne’sprogrammaticcapitularies,–TheregionalcapitulariesandthebenefitsofCarolingianruleTheadministrativecapitulariesforthemissidominici,–ThemissidominiciandtheirbooksMultipleloyaltiesandtheirobligationsCommunicationsbeyondtheempireDiplomacyandpoliticalidentitiesConclusion:themasteringofspaceCorrectio,knowledgeandpowerIntroductionThesacredtopographyoftheFrankishkingdomThebishopsCorrectio:ecclesiasticalreformOrthodoxyCorrectio:languageandcontrolCharlemagne’ssacreditinerary:ChristianspaceandtimeRelicsandsaintsRoyalpietyThepalacechapelandtheliturgyRoyalbooksConclusion:space,timeandthegeographyoflearningBibliographyIndexofmanuscriptsGeneralindexviiiTableofcontentsMapsCharlemagneandCarloman:jointrule,–pageTheDivisioregnorumofCharlemagne’sempireinCharlemagne’sitineraryin–Charlemagne’smovementsin–Charlemagne’sitineraryinaccordingtothetraditionalaccountsCharlemagne’sitineraryin:revisedversionCharlemagne’snotariesandtheirareasofoperationTablesThefamilyofCharlemagnepageThechildrenofCharlemagneandHildegardThechildrenofCharlemagneandhisotherwivesandconcubinesThegrandchildrenofCharlemagneandpossiblemembersoftheroyalhouseholdbeforeThechildrenbornbeforeofLouisthePiousandaconcubine,andLouisandErmengard,marriedFrankishbishopsinFrankishbishopsapparentlyinstalledinbyThe‘courtatelier’:the‘CoronationGospels’groupThe‘courtatelier’:TheHofschulegroupBookslinkedtotheHofschulebycoincidenceofscribeThelistofclassicalandlateantiqueworksinBerlin,PreussischeKulturbesitzDiezBSant,pp–,asidentifiedbyUllmannPrefaceInthisbookIhaveinvestigatedbothwhatwecanknowaboutCharlemagneandwhatwethinkweknowIhavetakenafreshlookatthebeginningsoftheCarolingianempire,andhavetriedtofreeCharlemagne’sreignfromtheclutterofarguments,assumptionsandhypothesesthathavesomehowbecomefactsInchartingtheformationofaEuropeanidentityduringCharlemagne’sreign,IhaveexploredtheinteractionbetweenthepracticalconsequencesoftheexpansionoftheFrankishempireintototallynewterritoryandFrankishperceptionsandusesofthepastThedegreetowhichCharlemagneandtheFranksattheendoftheeighthcenturyandthebeginningoftheninthcommunicatedwiththepastinordertoformortoinformtheirowncontemporaryconcerns,toheightentheirsenseofidentityandculturalaffiliationsandtoshapetheirpoliticalpurposeformtheconceptualframeworkofthisbookIhaveendeavouredtoavoidascribingwithoutquestionaphenomenonlooselydescribedas‘Carolingian’tohisperiodofruleratherthantothoseofhissuccessorsInstead,IhaveattemptedtocapturethedynamismofthereignandtodocumenttheastonishingchangeseffectedthroughouttheperiodfromtoInallthisIofferacriticalreassessmentofthesourcesfirstproducedbetweenand,notbecausetheymayormaynotbemoretruthfulthanaccountsproducedafterCharlemagne’sdeath,fromEinhard’sVitaKarolionwards,butbecausetheyhaveatleastthemeritofbeingcontemporaryTheythereforereflectsomethingofperceptionsandconditionsduringhisreignIhavebeenveryconsciousofparallelworkinprogressontheCarolingianperiod,withbooksinpreparationfromMaykedeJongonthereignofLouisthePious,StuartAirlieontheCarolingianaristocracy,JintyNelsononCharlemagne,andDavidGanzonEinhardConsequently,IhaveendeavouredtoavoidtrespassoroverlapThebookisdividedintofivesections,addressingnarrativerepresentationsofCharlemagne,thecreationoftheCarolingiandynastyandthegrowthofthekingdom,thecourtandtheroyalhousehold,xicommunicationsandidentitiesintheFrankishrealminthecontextofgovernment,andCharlemagne’sreligiousandculturalstrategiesIhavebenefitedgreatlyfrompastscholarshiponCharlemagne,mostparticularlythespateofbooksandcollectionsofpapersoverthepastdecadedevotedtodifferentaspectsofthemanandhistimesAsimplelistofthesehistoricalanalyseswouldoccupyasubstantialbookonitsown,butIhavetriedbothtobeuptodateandcomprehensiveinmytreatmentofallthetopicstackledinthisbookandtopayduerespectbothtomorerecentscholarshipandtothepathbreakingworkofthenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturiesThatIhavedisagreedwithmuchofit,whetheronpointsofdetailormajortraditionsofinterpretation,doesnotdiminishmyadmirationandgratitudeforalltheworkofmypredecessorsMany,bothamongthedepartedandthoseIamfortunateenoughtohaveasmycolleagues,havebeenofenormousassistanceintheendeavourtomakesenseofrebarbative,dispersed,lacunose,opaque,ambiguousbutalwaysfascinatingprimarysourcesForpracticalreasonsthereferencesinthenotesandtheBibliographyhavehadtobeselective,butthosecitedwillprovidethemeansforanyreadertoexplorefurtherItisatestimonytotherichnessofCharlemagne’sreignthatstudyofitshowsnosignsofbeingexhaustedNewtextsarecontinuallybeingaddedtothespectrumofmaterialthatneedstobetakenintoaccount,quiteapartfromthequestioningofwhathasfortoolongbeenacceptedwithoutquestionAnenterprisesuchasthiscanbecompletedonlywithagreatdealofsupportIamindebtedfirstofalltotheWissenschaftlicheBuchgesellschaft,toPeterHerde,theeditoroftheseriesGestaltendesMittelalters,andtothedeskeditorinDarmstadt,HaraldBaulig,forinvitingmetowritethisbook,andfortheirencouragementandextremepatienceduringitslonggestationIamalsoverygratefultoCambridgeUniversityPressforsuggestingthattheymightpublishtheEnglishversion,andespeciallytoBillDavies,SimonWhitmoreandMichaelWatsonatthePressforalltheinteresttheyhaveshownintheprojectWithouttheawardofaVisitingFellowshipfortenproductiveandhappymonthsduringtheacademicyear–,intheidealandidyllicworkingconditionsattheNetherlandsInstituteofAdvancedStudyinWassenaar,theNetherlands,thisbookwouldcertainlyhavetakenverymuchlongerIamverygratefultotheDirectorate,staffandFellowsofNIAS–foralltheirsupportandtothelibraryandcomputingstaffforprocuringsomuchofwhatIneededMostparticularlyIwishtothanktheothermedievalistsamongtheFellowsthere,boththeresearchgrouponCarolingianpoliticalidentity,namelyMaykedeJong,DavidGanz,ElsRoseandHelmutReimitz,andxiiPrefaceAnuMand,JosephHarris,ArjoVanderjagtandJanZiolkowskiforinspiringdiscussionsandhelponmanypointsInaddition,MaykedeJongandHelmutReimitzkindlyreadallmydraftchaptersandIhavebenefitedimmeasurablyfromtheircriticalcommentaryandsuggestionsSomeofthepreparatoryworkforthisbookwascompletedinwhileIwasresidentforthreemonthsattheBritishSchoolatRomeasHughBalsdonFellowItisapleasurehere,therefore,torecordmydebttotheDirector,staffandfellowscholarsandartistsoftheSchoolwhocontributedsomuchtothedevelopmentofthisbook’sargumentsandperspectiveIntheNetherlandsandRome,IwasfortunatetobeabletoexploretherichesofLeidenUniversiteitsbibliotheekandtheBibliotecaApostolicaVaticanarespectively,andIamespeciallygratefultoAndre´BouwmaninSpecialCollectionsandPaulHoftijzerintheScaligerInstituutinLeidenUniversiteitsbibliotheekandtoChristineGrafingerintheVaticanlibraryforalltheirhelpandhospitalityVisitstotheBibliothe`queNationaledeFranceinParis,theDeutscheStaatsbibliothekinBerlin,theO¨sterreichischeNationalbibliothekinVienna,theBibliothe`queroyaleinBrussels,theBayerischeStaatsbibliothekinMunichandtheStiftsarchivandStiftsbibliothekinStGallenweresimilarlyfruitfulAthomeinCambridgetheUniversityLibraryanditsstaffwere,asalways,unfailinglyhelpfulandtheresourcestheymadeavailablewerequiteremarkableInanearlierstageofworkonthebook,thePrincipalandFellowsofNewnhamCollege,Cambridge,offeredinvaluablesupportInthefinalstagesofthebookIhaveenjoyedthecongenialcompanyandexcellentworkingconditionsprovidedbytheMasterandFellowsofSidneySussexCollegeManyfriends,colleaguesandstudentshaveassistedmeinthisenterprise,bygenerouslysendingmeoffprintsorbooks,answeringqueries,listening(sometimesunwittingly)tosectionsofthebookwhenIsoughtreactionstoparticularinterpretations,andcontributingarangeofquestionsandreflectionsonmajorsourceswhichwereimmenselystimulatingAmongtheseIparticularlywanttomentionDavidBates,MatthiasBecher,PhilippeBernard,JesseBillett,Franc¸oisBougard,Genevie`veBu¨hrerThierry,CarolineBurt,GuglielmoCavallo,BenedictCoffin,JohnContreni,RichardCorradini,MariosCostambeys,GeorgesDeclercq,PhilippeDepreux,JeanPierreDevroey,AlainDierkens,MaxDiesenberger,BruceEastwood,PeterErhart,ArnoldEsch,NicholasEverett,TomFaulkner,MicheleFerrari,SarahFoot,StefanoGasparri,HansWernerGoetz,CarlHammer,WolfgangHaubrichs,YitzhakHen,JulianHendrix,PaulHilliard,DominiqueIognaPrat,TomKitchen,CristinaLaRocca,SallyLamb,RegineLeJan,UweLobbedey,NataliaLozovsky,FedericoMarazzi,PrefacexiiiAndrewMerrills,JohnMorrill,LarryNees,TomNoble,EricPalazzo,MichaelReeve,FlaviadeRubeis,JeanMarieSansterre,PeterSarris,AntonScharer,RudolfSchieffer,ElinaScreen,JosefSemmler,JuliaSmith,FrancescoStella,WesleyStevens,JoannaStory,BenoıˆtMichelTock,ChrisWickham,AnnetteWiesheu,HerwigWolframandIanWoodIamespeciallygratefultothosewhojoinedtheCarolingian‘workshops’inNIAS:StuartAirlie,CarmelaVircilloFranklin,MatthewInnes,DavidMitchell,JintyNelson,WalterPohl,ChristinaPo¨ssel,JannekeRaaijmakers,IrenevanRenswoude,CarinevanRhijn,MarikenTeeuwenandCharlesWestButasalwaysmyfinalthanksaretomyhusbandDavidThebookcouldnothavebeenwrittenwithouthiscriticalengagementwithit,andhisconstantencouragementineveryrespectxivPrefaceAbbreviationsApartfromthefollowing,allworksarecitedinfullatthefirstreferencetothemandsusbsequentlyinshorttitleformineachchapterFulldetailsmayalsobefoundintheBibliographyKunstundKulturCStiegemannandMWemhoff(eds),KunstundKulturderKarolingerzeit:KarlderGroßeundPapstLeoIIIinPaderborn,vols(Mainz,)AnnalesfuldensesAnnalesfuldensessiveAnnalesregnifrancorumorientalis,edFKurze,MGHSRG(Hanover,)AnnalesmettensesprioresAnnalesmettensespriores,edBvonSimson,MGHSRG(Hanover,)ARFAnnalesregnifrancorumundeabausqueada,quidicunturAnnaleslaurissensesmaioresetEinhardi,edFKurze,MGHSRG(Hanover,)BAVRome,BibliotecaapostolicaVaticanaBnFBibliothe`quenationaledeFranceCodexepistolariscarolinus,edGundlachCodexepistolariscarolinus,edWGundlach,MGHEppIII,Epistolaemerowingicietkaroliniaevi,I(Hanover,)CCSLCorpusChristianorum,SeriesLatina(Turnhout,–)ChLAChartaelatinaeantiquiores,FacsimileeditionoftheLatincharterspriortotheninthcentury,–,edxvABruckneretal(OltenandLausanne,–)ChLAChartaelatinaeantiquiores,FacsimileeditionoftheLatincharters,ndseries:ninthcentury,–,edGCavallo,GNicolajetal(OltenandLausanne,–)CLAEALowe,Codiceslatiniantiquiores:apalaeographicalguidetoLatinmanuscriptspriortotheninthcentury,volsplusSupplement(Oxford,–)ClmCodiceslatinimonacensesDavis,LivesRDavis(trans),Thelivesoftheeighthcenturypopes(Liberpontificalis)(Liverpool,)Depreux,ProsopographiePDepreux,Prosopographiedel’entouragedeLouislePieux(–),Instrumenta(Sigmaringen,)DeutschesArchivDeutschesArchivfu¨rErforschungdesMittelaltersDKarIEMu¨hlbacher(ed),DieUrkundenderKarolinger,I:UrkundensPippins,KarlmannsundKarlderGroßen,MGHDiplomatakarolinorum(Hanover,)Einhard,VitaKaroliEinhard,VitaKaroli,edLHalphen,Eginhard:viedeCharlemagne,ndedn(Paris,)KdGWBraunfels(ed),KarlderGroße:LebenswerkundNachleben,volsI:HBeumann(ed),Perso¨nlichkeitundGeschichteII:BBischoff(ed),DasgeistigeLebenIII:WBraunfelsandHSchnitzler(eds),KarolingischeKunstIV:WBraunfelsandPESchramm(eds),DasNachleben(Dusseldorf,)LP,edDuchesneLiberpontificalis,edLDuchesne,Leliberpontificalis:texte,introductionetcommentaire,vols(Paris,–)xviListofabbreviationsMcKitterick,HistoryandmemoryRMcKitterick,HistoryandmemoryintheCarolingianworld(Cambridge,)McKitterick,PerceptionsofthepastRMcKitterick,Perceptionsofthepastintheearlymiddleages(NotreDame,)MGHMonumentaGermaniaeHistoricaCapCapitularia,LegumSectioII,Capitulariaregumfrancorum,IedABoretius(Hanover,)ConcConcilia,LegumSectioIII,Concilia:II,edAWerminghoff(Hanover,–)III,edWHartmann(Hanover,)EppEpistolaeIII–VII(¼Epistolaemerowingicietkaroliniaevi(Hanover,–)EppSelEpistolaeSelectaeinusumscholarum,vols(Hanover,–)FontesFontesiurisgermaniciantiquiinusumscholarumexmonumentisgermaniaehistoricisseparatimediti,vols(Hanover,–)FormulaeFormulaemerowingicietkaroliniaevi(Hanover,–)LegesnatgermLegesnationumgermanicarum,edKZeumer(LexVisigothorum)LRdeSalis(LegesBurgundionum)FBeyerleandRBuchner(LexRibuaria)KAEckhardt(PactusLegisSalicaeandLexSalica)EvonSchwind(LexBaiuariorum),volsinparts(Hanover,–)PoetPoetlatiniaevicarolini,edEDummler,LTraube,PvonWinterfeldandKStrecker,vols(Hanover,–)SRGScriptoresrerumgermanicaruminusumscholarumseparatimediti,vols(Hanover,–)SRLScriptoresregumlangobardicarumetitalicarumsaecVI–IX,edGWaitz(Hanover,)ListofabbreviationsxviiSRMScriptoresrerummerovingicarum,edBKruscheandWLevison,vols(Hanover,–)SSScriptoresinfolio,vols(Hanover,–)MIO¨GMitteilungendesInstitutsfu¨rO¨sterreichischeGeschichtsforschungMordek,BibliothecaHMordek,Bibliothecacapitulariumregumfrancorummanuscripta:U¨berlieferungundTraditionszusammenhangderfra¨nkischenHerrschererlasse,MGHHilfsmittel(Munich,)NCMHIIRMcKitterick(ed),ThenewCambridgemedievalhistory,II:c–c(Cambridge,)O¨NBVienna,O¨sterreichischeNationalbibliothekPLPatrologiaLatina,JPMigne(ed),Patrologiaecursuscompletus,seriesLatina,vols(Paris,–)RVARFAnnal

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