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首页 [美]迈克尔·贝利:与魔鬼作战:中世纪晚期的魔法、异端与宗教改革(宾州大学2003)

[美]迈克尔·贝利:与魔鬼作战:中世纪晚期的魔法、异端与宗教改革(宾州大学2003)

[美]迈克尔·贝利:与魔鬼作战:中世纪晚期的魔法、异端与宗教改…

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2008-11-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]迈克尔·贝利:与魔鬼作战:中世纪晚期的魔法、异端与宗教改革(宾州大学2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BATTLINGDEMONSBATTLINGDEMONSMICHAELDBAILEYMICHAELDBAILEYWitchcraft,Heresy,andReformintheLateMiddleAgesWitchcraft,Heresy,andReformintheLateMiddleAgesmagicinhistorymagicinhistorymagicinhistorymagicinhistoryTHEPENNSYLVANIASTATEUNIVERSITYPRESSUniversityPark,Pennsylvania|wwwpsupressorg,!IAHacccga!:tKkKkisbnBATTLINGDEMONSWitchcraft,Heresy,andReformintheLateMiddleAgesBAILEYPENNSTATEPRESSmagicinhistoryMEDIEVALHISTORYInBattlingDemons,MichaelBaileyplacestheDominicantheologianJohannesNideratthecenterofanemergingsetofbeliefsaboutdiabolicalsorceryandwitchcraftinthefifteenthcenturyHisargumentisentirelyoriginalandwillforcethoseofuswhostudywitchcrafttoconsideritsimplicationsnotonlyforthelateMiddleAgesbutalsoforthegreatpersecutionsofthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturies”EdwardPeters,UniversityofPennsylvaniaThefifteenthcenturyismorethananyotherthecenturyofthepersecutionofwitches”SowroteJohanHuizingamorethaneightyyearsagoinhisclassicAutumnoftheMiddleAgesAlthoughHuizingawascorrectinhisobservation,modernreadershavetendedtofocusonthemorespectacularwitchhuntsofthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesNevertheless,itwasduringthelateMiddleAgesthatthefullstereotypeofdemonicwitchcraftdevelopedinEurope,andthisisthesubjectofBattlingDemonsAttheheartofthestoryisJohannesNider(d),aDominicantheologianandreformerwhoalternatelypersecutedhereticsandnegotiatedwiththemamanwhowasbyfarthemostimportantchurchauthoritytowriteonwitchcraftintheearlyfifteenthcenturyNiderwasamajorsourcefortheinfamousMalleusMaleficarum,orHammerofWitches(),themanualofchoiceforwitchhuntersinlatemedievalEuropeTodayNider’sreputationrestssquarelyonhiswitchcraftwritings,butinhisowndayhewasbetterknownasaleaderofthereformmovementwithintheDominicanorderandasawriterofimportanttractsonnumerousotheraspectsoflatemedievalreligiosity,includingheresyandlaypietyBattlingDemonsplacesNiderinthiswidercontext,showingthatforlatemedievalthinkers,witchcraftwasonefacetofamuchlargercrisisplaguingChristiansocietyAstheonlyEnglishlanguagestudytofocusexclusivelyontheriseofwitchcraftintheearlyfifteenthcentury,BattlingDemonswillbeimportanttostudentsandscholarsofthehistoryofmagicandwitchcraftandmedievalreligioushistoryMichaelDBaileyisVisitingAssistantProfessorofHistoryatSaintLouisUniversity““BATTLINGDEMONSfrontqxd:AMPageiTHEMAGICINHISTORYSERIESFORBIDDENRITESANecromancer’sManualoftheFifteenthCenturyRichardKieckheferCONJURINGSPIRITSTextsandTraditionsofMedievalRitualMagicEditedbyClaireFangerRITUALMAGICElizabethMButlerTHEFORTUNESOFFAUSTElizabethMButlerTHEBATHHOUSEATMIDNIGHTAnHistoricalSurveyofMagicandDivinationinRussiaWFRyanSPIRITUALANDDEMONICMAGICFromFicinotoCampanellaDPWalkerICONSOFPOWERRitualPracticesinLateAntiquityNaomiJanowitzBATTLINGDEMONSWitchcraft,Heresy,andReformintheLateMiddleAgesMichaelDBaileyTheMagicinHistoryseriesexplorestherolemagicandtheocculthaveplayedinEuropeanculture,religion,science,andpoliticsTitlesintheserieswillbringtheresourcesofcultural,literary,andsocialhistorytobearonthehistoryofthemagicartsandwillcontributetoanunderstandingofwhythetheoryandpracticeofmagichaveelicitedfascinationateverylevelofEuropeansocietyVolumeswillincludebotheditionsofimportanttextsandsigniWcantnewresearchintheWeldfrontqxd:AMPageiiBATTLINGDEMONSWITCHCRAFT,HERESY,ANDREFORMINTHELATEMIDDLEAGESMICHAELDBAILEYTHEPENNSYLVANIASTATEUNIVERSITYPRESSUNIVERSITYPARK,PENNSYLVANIAfrontqxd:AMPageiiiLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBailey,MichaelDavid,Battlingdemons:witchcraft,heresy,andreforminthelateMiddleAgesMichaelDBaileypcm(Themagicinhistoryseries)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cloth:alkpaper)ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)WitchcraftHistorytoNider,Johannes,ca–ITitleIIMagicinhistoryBFB′′dcCopyright©ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaPublishedbyThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress,UniversityPark,PAItisthepolicyofThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPresstouseacidfreepaperPublicationsonuncoatedstocksatisfytheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZ–frontqxd:AMPageivDisclaimer:SomeimagesintheoriginalversionofthisbookarenotavailableforinclusionintheeBookTothememoryofmymotherfrontqxd:AMPagevnosquionusbellicontrairasdemonumportavimusJohannesNider,Formicariusfrontqxd:AMPageviACKNOWLEDGMENTSIXABBREVIATIONSXIINTRODUCTION:Witchcraft,Heresy,andReformintheFifteenthCenturyTHELIFEOFJOHANNESNIDERWITCHCRAFTINTHEWRITINGSOFJOHANNESNIDERTHETHREATOFHERESY:Hussites,FreeSpirits,andBeguinesREFORMOFTHEORDERS,REFORMOFTHERELIGIOUSSPIRITTHEREFORMOFTHECHRISTIANWORLD:JohannesNider’sFormicariusWITCHCRAFTANDREFORMCONCLUSION:WitchcraftandtheWorldoftheLateMiddleAgesAPPENDIXI:ChronologyofNider’sLifeandDatableWorksAPPENDIXII:DatingofNider’sMajorWorksUsedinThisStudyAPPENDIXIII:ManuscriptCopiesofNider’sTreatisesNOTESSELECTBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXCONTENTSfrontqxd:AMPageviifrontqxd:AMPageviiiMyworkonthisbookandthesubjectswithwhichitdealsstretchesbackmanyyearsnow,andIhaveincurrednumerousdebtsImustthankWrstofallmyteachersAtDukeUniversity,CharlesYoungintroducedmetothestudyoftheMiddleAges,anditwasinhisseminarthatIWrstbeganresearchinglatemedievalmagicandwitchcraftThomasRobisheauxthenhelpedtoguidemyearlyexplorationsofthesetopics,andhehascontinuedtotakeaninterestinmyworktothepresentdayAtNorthwesternUniversity,RichardKieckhefer,RobertELerner,WilliamMonter,andEdwardMuirtaughtme,throughtheirclassesandthroughtheexampleoftheirscholarship,aboutlatemedievalandearlymodernreligiousandculturalhistory,andhowtobeastudentofitAboveallRobertLerner,myDoktorvater,andRichardKieckhefer,whoattheveryleastismyDoktoronkel,haveprovidedmewithunstintingsupportateverystageofmyworkonthisproject,bothwhileIwastheirstudentandintheyearssinceIamgladtobeabletoacknowledgemygratitudetothemhereManyotherpeoplecolleaguesandfriendshavelentmetheiradvice,expertise,orassistanceinvariouswaysIamgratefultoMartinSteinmann,whooversawmyworkduringayearofresearchinBasel,andtoStefanWeinfurter,whowelcomedmeintohisseminarwhileIwasinMunichBrigitteDeglerSpengler,FranzEgger,andKathrinUtzTrempalltookthetimetospeakwithmeaboutheresyandwitchcraftwhileIwasinSwitzerlandHCErikMidelfortandEdwardPetersreadthemanuscriptforPennStateUniversityPresswithgreatcareandprovidedmewithnumerousvaluablesuggestionsOthershavehelpedmebyreadingfullorpartialdraftsofmywork,bysharingtheirownworkwithme,orsimplybydiscussingaspectsoflatemedievalreligioushistory,ofacademiaingeneral,andofthebroadworldbeyondFortheirhelp,theirsupport,andnotleasttheirfriendshipIthankKarlAppuhn,DavidBachrach,JimBrennan,LouisaBurnham,ChristineCaldwell,SabinevonHeusinger,SamanthaKelly,JenniferKolpacoff,LillianLee,JimmyMixson,MarcRodriguez,BrettShadle,andWernerTschacherMythanksgoalsotoallthemembersoftheGAFStammtischinMunich,someofwhomhaveraisedtheirglasseswithmenotjustinGermanybut,astoundingly,onfourcontinentsnowMyinitialresearch,doneinChicago,wouldhavebeenimpossiblehadInotenjoyedaccesstothespecialcollectionsoftheNewberryLibrary,aswellastoACKNOWLEDGMENTSfrontqxd:AMPageixthegeneralholdingsoftheNorthwesternUniversityLibraryInEuropeIreliedmainlyontherichresourcesoftheÖffentlicheBibliothekoftheUniversityofBaselandoftheBayerischeStaatsbibliothekandMonumentaGermaniaeHistoricainMunichIamgratefulespeciallytothestaffsofthemanuscriptdepartmentsinbothBaselandMunich,andtothestaffoftheMonumentaanditslibraryIamalsopleasedtobeabletothankmyformercolleaguesinthehistorydepartmentoftheUniversityofCincinnatiandattheMedievalInstituteoftheUniversityofNotreDame,wheremuchoftheWnalworkonthisbookwasdoneForWnancialsupportIamgratefultotheJWilliamFulbrightProgram,totheSwissFederalScholarshipCommissionforForeignStudents,andtotheDeutscherAkademischerAustauschdienstFinally,IthanktheBenedictinemonkwhorantheelevatorinthebelltowerofSanGiorgioMaggiore,Venice,ontheafternoonofAugust,Ecclesiasticalhistoryismyfavorite,tooXACKNOWLEDGMENTSfrontqxd:AMPagexWORKSBYJOHANNESNIDERContraheresimContraheresimHussitarum,Basel,ÖBU,MSEI,folsr–vDeabstinenciaDeabstinenciaesuscarnium,Basel,ÖBU,MSBIII,folsr–vDelepramoraliDelepramorali(Cologne,c)DepaupertateDepaupertateperfectasecularium,Basel,ÖBU,MSBIII,folsv–rDereformationeDereformationestatuscenobitici,Basel,ÖBU,MSBIII,folsv–vDeseculariumreligionibusDeseculariumreligionibus,Basel,ÖBU,MSBIII,folsr–rFormicariusFormicarius,edGColvener(Douai,)PreceptoriumPreceptoriumdivinelegis(Milan,)OTHERWORKSAquinas,OperaSThomaeAquinatisoperaomnia,edRobertoBusa,vols(Stuttgart,)CBJohannesHalleretal,eds,ConciliumBasiliense:StudienundQuellenzurGeschichtedesConcilsvonBasel,vols(–reprintWiesbaden,)L’imaginairedusabbatMartineOstorero,AgostinoParaviciniBagliani,andKathrinUtzTremp,eds,L’imaginairedusabbat:Editioncritiquedestexteslesplusanciens(c–c)(Lausanne,)MansiJoannesDominicusMansi,ed,Sacrorumconciliorumnovaetamplissimacollectio,vols(–,–reprintGraz,–)MCFPalackyetal,eds,Monumentaconciliorumgeneraliumseculidecimiquinti:ConciliumABBREVIATIONSfrontqxd:AMPagexiBasileensescriptores,vols(ViennaBasel,–)MOPHMonumentaOrdinisFratrumPraedicatorumHistoricaÖBUÖffentlicheBibliothekderUniversitätBaselQFQuellenundForschungenzurGeschichtedesDominikanerordensinDeutschlandxiiABBREVIATIONSfrontqxd:AMPagexiiSometimeinthemidsanunknownauthor,certainlyaclericandmostlikelyaninquisitor,recountedtheerrorsofanewandterriblehereticalsectHedescribedasecretnocturnalgathering,whichhetermedasynagoguePresidingoverthisassemblywasthe“enemyofallrationalcreatures,”thedevil,whoappeared“sometimesintheformofaman,althoughimperfect,orinthelikenessofanotheranimal,butgenerallyinthelikenessofablackcat”BeforethisWgure,newmembersofthesectwererequiredtorenouncetheirfaithandtoswearoathsofloyaltybothtothedevilandtotheirfellowhereticsTheauthorthendescribedthefollowingscene:Afterhavingswornandpromisedthesethings,thepoorseducedpersonadoresthepresidingdevilbygivinghomagetohim,andasasignofhomagehekissesthedevil,appearinginhumanorinanotherform,asnotedabove,onthebuttocksoranus,givingtohimastributeoneofhisownlimbsafterdeathAfterwhichallthemembersofthatpestiferoussectcelebratetheadmittanceofthenewheretic,eatingwhateverisaroundthem,especiallymurderedchildren,roastedorboiledWhenthismostwickedfeastiscompleted,aftertheyhavedancedasmuchastheydesired,thepresidingdevilthencries,whileextinguishingthelight,“mestlet,mestlet!”Aftertheyhearhisvoice,immediatelytheyjointogethercarnally,onemanwithonewoman,oronemanwithoneman,andsometimesfatherwithdaughter,sonwithmother,brotherwithsisterscarcelyobservingthenaturalorderAfterthisdepravedritual,theauthorcontinued,thedevilwouldinstructhisnewminionsinvariousmagicalartsandwouldgivethemcertainmagicpotions,poisons,andunguents,aswellasmagicallyanointedstavesonwhichtheywereINTRODUCTIONWITCHCRAFT,HERESY,ANDREFORMINTHEFIFTEENTHCENTURYfrontqxd:AMPagetoridetoallfuturesynagoguesIndeed,allthemembersofthissectweredescribedaspossessingterriblemagicpowersandbeingabletoworkpowerfulanddestructivesorceryTheycouldraisestormsandcastdownhail,killchildren,withercrops,andcausedeathanddiseaseamongbothanimalsandhumanbeingsInshort,thesepeoplewerenotmerelyheretics,theywerewitchesAlthoughthenotionthatcertainpeoplecouldperformharmfulsorcerywasextremelyancient,thefullstereotypeofEuropeanwitchcraftthatis,theideaofadiabolicallyorganizedandconspiratorialcultofmaleWcentsorcerersbentonharmingfaithfulChristiansandsubvertingtheorderoftheChristianworldactuallydevelopedquitelateinthemedievalperiod,appearingonlyintheearlyWfteenthcenturyMostlywithinthespaceofasingledecade,thes,severalimportantdocumentswerewrittendescribingthisphenomenonindetailfortheWrsttimeThesourcequotedabove,ErroresGazariorumor“ErrorsoftheGazarii”(acommontermforheretics),isperhapsthemostluridoftheseearlyaccountsThisanonymousworkisalsorelativelybrief,however,andtheimmediatecircumstancesinwhichitwaswrittenremainentirelyunknownItthusservestoillustrateoneofthemajorproblemsconfrontingscholarsseekingtounderstandtheriseofwitchcraftinthelateMiddleAgesJustastheErroresisanimmediately,ifgruesomely,captivatingdocumentbutprovidesvirtuallynolargercontextinwhichtosituatethehorrorsitdescribes,sotoowitchcraftasawholeevokesacertaindarkfascinationbutremainslargelyisolatedfromothermajoraspectsofEuropeanhistoryAlthoughagreatdealofscholarlyattentionhasfocusedonthissubject,atendencystillprevailsamongmanyhistorianstoregardanythingtodowithwitchesas,inthewordsofoneexpert,“somehowpeculiarandhistoricallyunassimilable,”andasurveyofthehistoryandhistoriographyofWfteenthcenturyEuropehasaptlynotedthat“researchhasstillnotyetintegratedtheproblemofwitchcraftinameaningfulwayintotheoveralldevelopmentofChristianreligiosity”Witchcraft,however,wasnotanisolatedphenomenonnor,forallitsseeminglyfantasticalandhorriWcelements,wasitaconcernonlytocertainparticularlyparanoidmindsAlthoughtheextentofactualwitchhuntinghasoftenbeenexaggerated,beliefinwitchcraftquicklybecamenearlyuniversalinlatemedievalandearlymodernEurope,andtheimageofthewitchthatWrstappearedintheearlysenduredasaWgureoffearandpersecutionformanycenturiesOfallthesourcesdealingwithwitchesandwitchcraftfromtheearlyWfteenthcentury,someofthemostvaluable,particularlyinsituatingthisnewphenomenoninanunderstandablehistoricalcontext,wereproducedbyoneman,JohannesNiderAGermanDominicantheologianandreligiousreformer,Niderpresentedlongaccountsofmagic,superstition,andwitchcraftinseveralofhistheologicalandmoraltreatises,butsigniWcantly,innoneoftheseworksdidheBATTLINGDEMONSfrontqxd:AMPagedealsolelywithwitchesHewrotealsoaboutotherheresies,religiouscrises,questionsofmorality,andgeneralmattersoffaithHismostimportantwork,forexample,titledFormicarius(Theanthill),althoughbestknowntodayasatreatiseonwitchcraft,wasnotsolely,indeednotevenprimarily,aboutwitchesRatheritwasaworkofwhatIshallcallspiritualreform,decryingasupposedlywidespreadlaxityofbeliefamongtheChristianlaityandaimingatageneralrejuvenationoffaithamongallbelieversThusthedetailedandinmanywaysseminalaccountsofwitchcraftcontainedinthisworkcanbefullyunderstoodonlyinrelationtotheselargerreformistconcernsThisbookexplorestheriseofwitchcraftintheearlyWfteenthcenturyprimarilythroughthewritingsofJohannesNiderButitexploresseveraloftheothersubjectshedealtwithaswellThebreadthofNider’swritingsprovidesauniqueopportunitytounderstandwitchcraftnotasanisolatedorhistoricallyaberrantphenomenonbutasonesigniWcantaspectofalargerworldofreligiousthoughtandspiritualconcernMygoal,therefore,isnotjusttoexamineoneoftheearliestandbestwitnessestotheemergenceofwitchcraftinlatemedievalEurope,butthroughhimtohelpintegratethatdarknewphenomenonmorefullyintotheoverallreligious,intellectual,andculturalhistoryoftheperiodJohannesNiderwasbyfarthemostimportantsingleauthoritytotreatthesubjectofwitchcraftintheearlyWfteenthcentury,inrespecttoboththeamountofmaterialheproducedandtheinXuencehiswritingswouldhaveTakingupthisnotionatalmosttheverymomentitWrstappearedinWesternEurope,heplayedakeyroleinitsconstruction,codiWcation,andspreadHismajorwork,theFormicarius,survivesinovertwentyWvemanuscriptcopiesfromtheWfteenthandearlysixteenthcenturiesandwentthroughsevenprintededitionsfromthesto,thuscoveringtheentireperiodofthegreatEuropeanwitchhuntsHiswritingsalsoservedasanimportantsourceofinformationforwhatistodaythemostinfamousofalllatemedievaltreatisesonwitchcraftandwitchhunting,theMalleusmaleWcarumorHammeroftheWitches,bytheDominicaninquisitorHeinrichKramer(InstitorisinLatin),WrstpublishedinKramerdrewheavilyontheearlieraccountsofhisfellowDominicanNider,reproducinglargesectionsofNider’stextsvirtuallyverbatimintheMalleusandreferringtohimatonepointas“themosteminentdoctor”Moreover,theWfthbookoftheFormicarius,dealingprimarilywithwitchcraft,wasoftenprintedalongwiththeMalleusinlatereditionsWritingattheverybeginningofthesocalledwitchcrazeinEurope,NiderisacriticalsourceforunderstandingtheearlydevelopmentofthisnewphenomenonDuringtheearlyWfteenthcentury,thecrimeofwitchcraftnolongerentailedjustthepracticeofharmfulsorceryagainstothers,buttookonterr

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[美]迈克尔·贝利:与魔鬼作战:中世纪晚期的魔法、异端与宗教改革(宾州大学2003)

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