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首页 [法]亚力桑德拉·阿卡吉利:文艺复兴时期的消遣:欧洲文化中的逸乐,1425–1675(帕尔格雷夫…

[法]亚力桑德拉·阿卡吉利:文艺复兴时期的消遣:欧洲文化中的逸乐,1425–1675(帕尔格雷夫 2

[法]亚力桑德拉·阿卡吉利:文艺复兴时期的消遣:欧洲文化中的逸…

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2008-11-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[法]亚力桑德拉·阿卡吉利:文艺复兴时期的消遣:欧洲文化中的逸乐,1425–1675(帕尔格雷夫 2pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

RecreationintheRenaissanceAttitudestowardsLeisureandPastimesinEuropeanCulture,c–AlessandroArcangeliRecreationintheRenaissancepreqxd:PMPageiAlsobyAlessandroArcangeliDAVIDEOSALOMÈIldibattitoeuropeosulladanzanellaprimaetàmodernapreqxd:PMPageiiRecreationintheRenaissanceAttitudestowardsLeisureandPastimesinEuropeanCulture,c–AlessandroArcangeliLecturerinEarlyModernHistoryDepartmentofHistory,ArtsandGeographyUniversityofVeronapreqxd:PMPageiii©AlessandroArcangeliAllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoparagraphofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedbyPALGRAVEMACMILLANHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,NYCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEMACMILLANistheglobalacademicimprintofthePalgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin’sPress,LLCandofPalgraveMacmillanLtdMacmillan®isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN–––hardbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataArcangeli,AlessandroRecreationintheRenaissance:attitudestowardsleisureandpastimesinEuropeanculturec–AlessandroArcangelipcm–(Earlymodernhistory)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–––(cloth)Leisure–Europe–HistoryRecreation–Europe–HistoryRenaissanceITitleIIEarlymodernhistory(PalgraveMacmillan(Firm))GVA¢–dcPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,ChippenhamandEastbournepreqxd:PMPageivContentsvListofFiguresviiPrefaceviiiIntroductionGamesandleisurebetweenhistoryandsocialtheoryTheNeedforRecreationParadiselostAsaint,anarcherandhisbow(storyofanexemplum)ArighttobeidleTheMedicalDiscourseMotionandrestAncientandmodernformsofexercise‘Themannerofgoverninghealth’AmoretaleaTheMoralDiscourseReasonversusJoyAvirtuetorememberAviewfromParisGameswithoutachanceTheethicsoftheaudienceJuego(s)AtimeforplayGamesandLawIuscommuneDeludoPanemetcircensesTheregulationofextravaganceVarietiesofPastimesLeisureandsocialhierarchyPlaisirsdesdamesChildren’sgamesMedievalandRenaissancetaxonomiespreqxd:PMPagevConclusionAppendix:theEuropeanVocabularyofRecreationNotesBibliographyIndexviContentspreqxd:PMPageviListofFigures‘Cantus’,fromVienna,ÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek,MSseriesnova,folPhoto:Bildarchiv,ÖNBWien‘Oscellaevelpetaurum’,fromHMercurialis,Deartegymnasticalibrisex,thedn(Venice,),p‘Schoinobates,funaboli’,fromMercurialis,Deartegymnastica,pEngravedfrontispieceofPJustus,Dealealibriduo(Amsterdam:LElzevirium,)CambridgeUniversityLibrary,KkkBypermissionoftheSyndicsofCambridgeUniversityLibraryFrontispieceofBernardinodaSiena,LapetitedyableriedontLuciferestlechefetlesmembressonttouslesioueursiniquesetpecheursreprouves,intituleLeglisedesmauvais(Paris:thewidowofJTrepperelandJJeannot,)London,BritishLibrary,ChBypermissionoftheBritishLibraryLatenturedelaVieSeigneuriale:LaPromenadeTapestry,earlysixteenthcenturyParis,MuséeduMoyenAge–ClunyPhoto:RMN–FranckRauxPieterBruegeltheElder,Children’sGamesOilonpanel,¥cm,Vienna,KunsthistorischesMuseum–‘LeBrelan’,fromJStella,Lesjeuxetplaisirsdel’enfance,engravedbyCBouzonnetStella(Paris:Stella,reprGenevaandParis:Slatkine,),folviipreqxd:PMPageviiPrefaceThisworkspringsfromapreviousbookofmine,whichwasconcernedwithculturalattitudestowardsdanceinavarietyoftexts–ethical,medicalandethnographical–fromlatemedievalandearlymodernEuropeWhen,abouttenyearsago,Istartedtolookatneighbouringtopics,inordertobetterunderstandtheculturalframeworkwithinwhichmysourcesconceivedandinterpreteddance,playandleisureappearedtobethemostfrequentassociates(ratherthan,say,religionandritual,ormusicandtheatre)WhileIwasmovingmyfirststepsinthisdirection,athoughtprovokingcontributionbyPeterBurkeon‘TheinventionofleisureinearlymodernEurope’waspublishedbothwithintheproceedingsofaninternationalconferenceofeconomichistoryandasanarticleforPastandPresentConsequently,althoughtheoriginsofthisbookarerootedinmyownitineraryofresearch,itcanalsobereadasadevelopmentoftheagendasetbyBurke(thereaderofusbothwillnoticethatIamindebtedtomanyofhishypothesesandrecommendations)WorkontheprojectbecamemoresystematicthankstoaFellowshipatVillaITatti,theHarvardUniversityCenterforItalianRenaissanceStudies(Florence,),andaResearchFellowshipfrommyfacultyattheUniversityofVerona(–)WiththeformerIconcentratedonItalianmaterial,withthelatterIextendedtheworkviaaseriesofEuropeancomparisonsThetitleofmyFlorentineproject,‘Studiesinthehistoricalanthropologyofleisure’,shouldbetakenasacaveatforthereaderofthepresentvolume:inamineofpotentiallyunlimitedsources,IcanonlyhopetohaveconsideredanintelligentselectionIwouldalsoliketothanktheHarvardUniversityCenteratVillaITattiforsubsequentlyawardingmeaLilaWallace–Reader’sDigestSpecialProjectGrant(),whichhelpedmeincompletingmyresearchandcollectingmaterialforthisbookOverthepastfewyears,IpresentedthegeneraloutlookandorspecificaspectsofmyworkinprogressinresearchseminarsandconferencesattheUniversitiesofRotterdam,Verona,GenevaandCambridge(EmmanuelCollege)DuringtheprocessofwritingandpublishingwithPalgraveMacmillanIhaveincurredmanydebts,whichIwishtothankfullyacknowledgehereTheeditorsofthepresentseries,RabHoustonandviiipreqxd:PMPageviiiEdMuir,tookanearlyinterestinthisprojectandtrustedmefromthetimewhentherewasyetlittletoreadEdMuirreadthewholemanuscriptatdifferentstagesandprovidedmewithhelpfuladviceandconstructivecriticism,asdidPeterBurkeAmongtheeditorialstaff,LucianaO’FlahertyandJohnMSmithhaveplayedanimportantroleinturningaprojectintoanactualbookIdedicatethisbooktomywifeMarion,whoformanyyearshashadtoputupwiththeblurringbetweenmyownleisureandworktimeCambridgeandVeronaNoteEveryefforthasbeenmadetocontactthecopyrightholders,butifanyhavebeeninadvertentlyoverlooked,thepublisherswillbepleasedtomakethenecessaryarrangementsatthefirstopportunityPrefaceixpreqxd:PMPageixThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionTheoverallhypothesisthatholdsthisbooktogetheristheideathatduringthefifteenth,sixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesadistinctiveleisureculturewaselaboratedinEurope,whichpresentsobviousconnectionswithprecedentandsubsequentdevelopments,butisnonethelessdistinguishablefrombothChronologydoesnoteasilyallowforclearcuts,andthevarietyofphenomenainvolvedeachhavetheirowntimingNeverthelessthereisasignificantsynchronicityinanumberoffields,fromtheattentionthatmoralists,juristsandphysicianspaidtotheworldofleisureactivitiestothedevelopmentofaspecificvocabularyandthemultiplicationofthevisualrepresentationofthesubjectTointroduceabookonrecreationintheRenaissance,thefirstquestionthatrequiresananswerhastobe:isthetopic,recreation,definedinthelanguageofthesourcesorinmoderntermsOr,toborrowthevocabularythatthesocialscienceshaveadoptedfromlinguistics,isittakeninanemicoreticperspectiveThefirstoptionconcentratesonmentalstructures,thatis,attempts,withallthedifficultiesimplicitinthetask,toinferfromthesourceswhatpeoplethought(inthiscase,whattheytooktobe‘recreation’)Thesecondstartsfromthevocabularyandworldviewoftheobserver,ratherthanofthepeopleobservedThisdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatitimpliesananachronism(itwilldosoonlyifthemodernscholarignores,eitherunconsciouslyordeliberately,thehistoricaldifferencesinthemeaningoftherelevantvocabulary)Itmaysimplymeanthatclarityofthedefinitionoftheobjectofenquiryisestablishedinordertobetterobservehowpeopleofpast(orfromcontemporary,culturallydifferent)civilizationsbehaved,whichofthesocialpracticesthatweregardasrelevantforourpurposewereinuse,andinwhatmannerchaqxd:PMPageIbelievethattosomeextentboththeperspectiveshavetobepresent,particularlyifoneisexaminingaperiodthatwitnessedatransformationinthemeaningofkeywordsandtheemergenceofnewonesNeitherviewpointwouldbeentirelysatisfactoryorallowustogivefullaccountofsuchchanges,byeitherexcludingobjectsthatothercategorieswouldconsiderrelevant,orviceversaincludingothersfromadifferentrespectirrelevantHowever,myorientationispredominantlyinfavouroftheemicpoleofthedichotomy,whichcouldalsobelabelledastheviewpointfrominside,foravarietyofreasonsWhatpeoplethoughtwasrecreation,whattheythoughttheyweredoingwhentheytooksome,isthemostaccuratedescriptionofthatwhichmyresearchaimstoestablishAmodern,clearcutdefinitionofthatwhichweregardasincludedinandexcludedfromthecategoryof‘recreation’wouldhavehelpedinsearchingforgivenpatternsofbehaviouramongthepeopleofthepastButasocialhistoryofpastimesisawiderangingsubject,ithasbeenattemptedwithunsatisfactoryresults(superficial,anecdotal),itwouldbehardtoachieveonalargegeographicalandchronologicalscale,anditgoesbeyondthemeansandthepurposesofthepresentwriterWhatthereaderwillfindhere,instead,isaculturalhistoryofwhatpastcivilizationsmeantbyandthoughtaboutrecreation,withundoubted,indeednecessary,connectionswithactualpractices,butnonethelessfocusedonlinguisticandmentalstructuresHavingsaidso,wewillsoontakeintoseriousconsiderationmodernscholarshiponleisureandrecreation,sinceawarenessofhistoriographicfindingsanddebateswillhelpinsettingthesceneofthebookByentitlinghisrecentinnovativestudyLeisureand(ratherthan‘in’)AncientRome,JPTonerhasconvincinglystressedhowdeeplyreconsiderationofthepastandofthepresentcategoriesreciprocallyinteractinthewritingofhistoryAsfortheother‘R’wordinthetitle,theRenaissance,itsuseinthiscontextispredominantlythatofagenericindicatorofthechronologicalandgeographicalsettingofthestudy:latemedievalandearlymodernEuropeWhiletheRenaissanceasaculturalphenomenonisnotassuchatthecentreofmyanalysisonthisoccasion,itwillplayaroletooThisisinevitable,ifoneconsidersthatleisureactivitiesalsoappearedinthefoundingtextoftheveryhistoriographicnotionoftheRenaissance,JacobBurckhardt’sessayof,wherethesubjectofoneofthemainsectionsis‘Societyandfestivals’Whilethebookfocusesontheperiodgiveninthesubtitle(c–),anumberofexcursionsonearliermaterialhaveprovednecessaryinordertoestablishtraditionsonwhichlaterauthorsrestedandwhichtheyelaborated(whileRecreationintheRenaissancechaqxd:PMPageposttextsarepredominantlypresentintheformofsecondarysources–althoughaneatdistinctionbetweenwhatconstitutesprimary,andwhatsecondary,materialisnotalwaysnecessary,orpossible)IshouldprobablystatefromthebeginningthatIdonotregardgamblingasacentralissueinmyinquiryThisisworthmentioning,sinceinthisorientationIdepartfromasignificantnumberofwriters,bothearlyandlatemodern(thatis,someofmysourcesaswellasmanyrecentscholars)TheEuropeanvocabularyofplay(see,forinstance,theLatinludus,Frenchjeu,Italiangioco,Spanishjuego)doesincludegamblingasoneofitscharacteristicmeanings,andgamblinghasoftenbeenassociatedwiththeplayingofgamesHowever,gamblingpersecanberecreationalonlyinaloosesenseofthewordFirstly,becauseifthereasonofanactivityisthe(expected)gain,thatmeansthatitisperformedforreasonsotherthanrelaxationandamusementRecreationdoesnotconsistinagivensetofthoughts,speechactsandgesturesitisratherdefinedbythespiritorreasonwhysomeoneperformsthemThelatterdistinctionbringswithitasecondpoint:if,inthepursuitofgain,someonedevotessomuchtimeandenergytogamblingthatitbecomestheirmainoccupation,thismerefactraisesseriousdoubtsaboutthepossibilityofproperlyregardingthemasplaying(Imaysoundhereworryinglysimilartoearlymodernmoralists,butIthinktheyhadapoint)Thecaseof‘leisureclasses’,whosemembersbydefinitiondonotneedtowork,is,fromthisrespect,problematicbutnobodywouldclaimthataprofessionalfootballer,whenplayingaccordingtoacontract,isjusthavingabitoffunHavingsaidso,Imustacknowledgenotonlythatasignificantshareofthehistoriographyofplayhaspredominantlydealtwithgambling,butalsothatformanyearlymodernwritersthefinancialimplicationsofplaywerethemainreasonfordiscussingitThereforeIshallbrieflyconsiderthiselementwhereveritappearsandisrelevant,notleastsincemypreferencefortheemicapproach,orviewpointfrominside,obligesmetodosoOthertopicsandmaterialwillalsohavelimitedconsiderationhere,sinceanyseriousattempttostudythemwouldrequire(anddoesobtainfromotherscholars)morethancursoryattentionAmongtheseIshouldmentionimaginativeliterature(asasource),thepracticeofreading(asaleisurelyoccupation),thespecificworldsofmusicandofthearts,ritual(festivals,carnival,misrule,roughmusiccharivari,ritualbattles–ahistoriographicissueinitsownright,despitethefactthatindividualsandgroupswouldsurelyhaveengagedinmostofthesepracticesforfun)Astheprecedingobservationswillhavesufficientlyindicated,theaimIntroductionchaqxd:PMPageofthisbookisnotareconstructionofthepastimesthatwereinuseinEuropeafewhundredyearsagoIamawarethatsomefamiliaritywiththehistoricalvocabularyofleisureisnecessaryinordertounderstandthemeaningoftextsHowever,nowadaysthereisnoshortageofpeopleresearchingintothedetailsofactualhistoricalpractices,withtheaimofallowingthemtobebroughtbacktolife–notleastintheinterestsoftheEuropeantouristindustry,increasinglykeentoattractvisitorswiththedisplayofscenesfromeverydaylifeofthepast:fromamedievalparade,toaRenaissancebanquetorabaroquedanceWithoutenteringintocheappsychosociology,itcanbeeasytoimaginethatforcommonpeoplewho–intoday’sItaliancitiesandvillages–sofrequentlydressupincostume,beingaprinceoraduchessatweekendsmayofferanemotionalsubstitutetothediscontentofordinarylifeAlso,theinventionofsuchtraditionsislessofasuperficialphenomenonthanitmightappearatfirstglance,sinceitseemstoplayasignificantpartinthepersonalandcollectiveidentitiesofthepeopleinvolvedBut,togobacktothepoint,intherestofthisbookwewillbeconcernedwithwhatpastsocietiesthoughttheyweredoingwhentheyspentpartoftheirtimeinrecreation,ratherthanwithwhattheyactuallydidandhowThequestfor‘reasons’behindthebehaviourofpast(or,forthatmatter,present)actorsisclearlyproblematicAgooddealofscholarsunderstandablyregardsuchaquestasoutsidetheirterritoryofenquiry,asitcanleaddangerouslytomakeassumptionsaboutpeople’smotivesthatbydefinitioncannotbeverifiedHowever,asIhavejuststated,thereisnotasinglepatternofhumanactionthatconstitutesperse,byitsphysicaldescription,‘recreation’:onlyasocialcontextandaculturalassignmentofmeaningcanmakeitperceivedassuchTherefore,nostudyofthehistoryofourphenomenoncanavoidsomeconsiderationatleastofthesetsofmotivesandpurposesthatwereallegedbycontemporarypractitionersandobserversGamesandleisurebetweenhistoryandsocialtheoryBeforemovingourclocksbacktothetimeofmysourcematerial,letusbrieflyexaminemodernclassificationsofthespectrumofrecreation,sincetheywillnotonlyprovideuswithafirstsetofinternaldistinctions,butalsohelptodefinetheexternallimitsoftheobjectofmyanalysisSystematicenquiryintothefullanthropologicalmeaningofplayisusuallyacknowledgedtohavestartedwithJohanHuizinga’swork,inthesTheDutchculturalhistorian–whoalsodrewtheRecreationintheRenaissancechaqxd:PMPagereader’sattentiontoaspectsofeverydaylifethatarerelevanttoourtopicinothergroundbreakingvolumesofhis,suchasTheWaningoftheMiddleAges–deservesthisspecialmentionparticularlyonthegroundsofthebookhespecificallydevotedtothesubjectofplay,HomoLudensBypunningwiththescientificnameforthehumanspecies,HuizingawasseriouslyadvocatingareconsiderationoftheroleandcomparativeimportanceofplayinthehumanconditionWhiletheauthorhadexpressedcuriosityforthetopicasearlyasinhisdoctoraldissertation(),thefirstdraftofHomoLudenswashisorationasChancelloroftheUniversityofLeidenin(tothetwentiethcenturymind,ayearthatbringseverythingtomemorybutplay)WhenHuizingapresentedthetopicatsubsequentconferences,bothinLondonandintheGermanspeakingworld,herepeatedlyha

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  • 93.150.115.59 请注意:作者是意大利人,不是法国人.

    2009-03-04 11:22:56

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[法]亚力桑德拉·阿卡吉利:文艺复兴时期的消遣:欧洲文化中的逸乐,1425–1675(帕尔格雷夫 2

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