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首页 [英]斯蒂芬·霍尔威利:希腊人的笑:一项文化心理学研究,从荷马到早期基督教(剑桥 2008)

[英]斯蒂芬·霍尔威利:希腊人的笑:一项文化心理学研究,从荷马到早期基督教(剑桥 2008)

[英]斯蒂芬·霍尔威利:希腊人的笑:一项文化心理学研究,从荷马…

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简介:本文档为《[英]斯蒂芬·霍尔威利:希腊人的笑:一项文化心理学研究,从荷马到早期基督教(剑桥 2008)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankGREEKLAUGHTERThisisthefirstbooktoofferanintegratedreadingofancientGreekattitudestolaughterTakingmaterialfromliterature,myth,philosophy,religionandsocialmores,itanalysesboththetheoryandthepracticeoflaughterasarichlyrevealingexpressionofGreekvaluesandmentalitiesFromtheexuberantlylaughinggodsofHomericepictothecondemnationoflaughterbysomeearlyChurchfathers,thesubjectprovidesafascinatingmeansofinvestigatingcomplexfeaturesofculturalpsychologyGreeksocietydevelopeddistinctiveinstitutions(includingthesymposiumandcertainreligiousfestivals)forthecelebrationoflaughterasacapacitywhichcouldbridgethegapbetweenhumansandgodsbutitalsofearedlaughterforitspowertoexposeindividualsandgroupstoshameandevenviolenceCaughtbetweenideasofpleasureandpain,friendshipandenmity,playandseriousness,laughterbecameathemeofrecurrentinterestinvariouscontextsEmployingasophisticatedmodelofculturalhistory,StephenHalliwelltraceselaborationsofthethemeinaseriesofimportantpoeticandprosetexts:rangingfarbeyondcertainmodernaccountsof‘humour’,heshowshowperceptionsoflaughterhelpedtoshapeGreekconceptionsofthebody,themindandthemeaningoflifestephenhalliwellisProfessorofGreekattheUniversityofStAndrewsHismostrecentbook,TheAestheticsofMimesis:AncientTextsandModernProblems(),hasbeenawardedaninternationalprize,the‘PremioEuropeod’Estetica’forGREEKLAUGHTERAStudyofCulturalPsychologyfromHomertoEarlyChristianitySTEPHENHALLIWELLCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBN©StephenHalliwellInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgeBook(EBL)hardbackContentsPrefacepageviiNotetothereaderxiAbbreviationsxiiIntroduction:GreeklaughterintheoryandpracticeNatureandculture,bodiesandmindsThedialecticofplayandseriousnessTolaughornottolaughInsideandoutsidemorality:thelaughterofHomericgodsandmenBetweenpathosandbloodlust:therangeofHomericlaughterDivineconflictandpleasureintheIliadThersitesandthevolatilityoflaughterSexandhilarityonOlympusFromdebaucherytomadness:thestoryofthesuitorsEpilogue:Achilles’onlysmileSympoticelationandresistancetodeathDreamingofimmortalityFacetofacetensions:intimacyandantagonismSatyricandtragicversionsofsympoticlaughterSocraticcomplications:Xenophon’sSymposiumRituallaughterandtherenewaloflifeWorshippingthegodswithlaughterAmapofrituallaughterPatternsandexplanationsIsOldComedyaformofrituallaughterAischrology,shameandOldComedyWhoisshamedbyshamefulspeechThesociolinguisticsofaischrologyThespeechhabitsofTheophrastus’charactersAristophanicshamelessnessvviContentsGreekphilosophyandtheethicsofridiculeArchaicanxietiesLaughteron(andbehind)thefaceofSocratesStoiccompromises:laughingatselfandothersHowAristotlemakesavirtueoflaughterGreeklaughterandtheproblemoftheabsurdExistentialabsurdity:predicamentsancientandmodernLaughingDemocritus(andweepingHeraclitus)WhatmadeCynicslaughTheintermittenciesoflaughterinMenander’ssocialworldTheconfusionsoflaughterandtearsMenandrianperspectivismLaughterblockedandreleasedLucianandthelaughteroflifeanddeathTheviewfromthemoonOtheraerialperspectives(orheadintheclouds)TheviewfromHadesTheabsurdsuicideofPeregrinusLaughterdenied,laughterdeferred:theantigelastictendenciesofearlyChristianityMocking‘thekingoftheJews’ClementofAlexandria:theprotocolsoftheChristianbodyJohnChrysostomandthedanceofthedevilAsceticdisciplinesforthefaceandthesoulEpilogue:adisputedlegacyAppendixTheGreek(body)languageoflaughterandsmilesAppendixGelasticfacesinvisualartBibliographyIndexofselectedauthorsandworksIndexofselectedGreektermsGeneralindexPrefaceInhischaracteristicallybittersweetessayElogiodegliuccelli,‘Aeulogyofbirds’,writtenin,GiacomoLeopardiputsinthemouthofAmelius(afictionalisedversionofPlotinus’studentofthatname)asetofmeditationswhich,amongotherthings,treatthesingingofbirdsasakindoflaughterThisthoughtgivesAmeliusthecueforadigressiononthenatureoflaughteritself,whichheregards(inaperceptionsotypicalofLeopardi,andonewhichlaterinfluencedNietzsche)asaparadoxicalcapacityofhumans,‘themosttormentedandmiserableofcreatures’Afterponderinganumberoflaughter’squalities–includingitsstrangeconnectionwithanawarenessofthevanityofexistence,itsappearanceasasortof‘temporarymadness’,anditsassociationwithinebriation–Ameliusgivesastartlingundertaking:‘butthesemattersIwilldealwithmorefullyinahistoryoflaughterwhichIamthinkingofproducing’(‘Madiquestecosetrattero`piu`distesamenteinunastoriadelriso,chehoinanimodifare’),ahistoryinwhichhepromisestotracetheintricatefortunesofthephenomenonfromits‘birth’rightuptothepresentThispassageinLeopardi’swonderfulessayis,asfarasIamaware,thefirstplacewhereanyoneevercontemplatedsuchapeculiarthingasa‘historyoflaughter’Amelius’promise(andLeopardi’svision)is,forsure,notwithoutirony,especiallysincehehadearlierstatedthatthenatureandprinciplesoflaughtercanhardlybedefinedorexplainedYettheideareappearedlaterinthenineteenthcenturywhentheRussiansocialistAlexanderHerzen(asquotedbyMikhailBakhtininhisbookonRabelais)musedthat‘itwouldbeextremelyinterestingtowritethehistoryoflaughter’ItwastobetwootherRussianswhointhetwentiethcenturytookactivestepstowardsconvertingtheideaintopracticeOnewasthefolkloristVladimirPropp,whosketchedouthisthoughtsonlaughterinmorethanonetextandleftabookonthesubjectunfinishedathisdeathinTheotherwasBakhtinhimself,whointhesandlaterdevelopedhisnowwellknown(thoughcontroversial)modelofcarnivalandthecarnivalesqueasamajortestcaseofviiviiiPrefacea‘cultureoflaughter’inwhichparticularneedsandmentalitiesweresociallymanifestedWhateververdictmightbereachedonBakhtin’sspecificmodel,itwashisworkmorethananythingelsewhichestablishedthepossibilityofaddressinglaughterasafruitfultopicofculturalhistoryAndinrecentdecadesthesubjecthasindeedreceivedanincreasingamountofattentionfromhistoriansofmanyperiodsbetweenantiquityandthecontemporaryworldForallhisirony,Amelius(or,rather,Leopardi)seemstohavebeenprescientButwhatmightitmeantopursuethehistoryofoneofthemostfamiliaryetelusiveofhumanbehavioursAfterall,themostinfluentialofallapproachestolaughterremainstheone(itselfpartlyofancientancestry)paradigmaticallylinkedwithbothBergsonandFreudThisisanapproachwhosehighestpriorityistheconstructionofgeneralexplanatorymodels(whetherof‘humour’,‘thecomic’orsomerelatedcategory)towhichhistory,itseems,isirrelevantHenriBergson’sargumentinLerire(firstpublishedinbookformin)allowsitselftorefertothe‘essence’and‘laws’ofthecomicyetdespiteitsinsistencethatthe‘naturalenvironment’oflaughteristhesocialworld,ittellsusvirtuallynothingabouthistoricalvariations,shiftsortensionsintheperceptionofwhatcountsas‘laughable’Thisabsenceofhistory,anditsdisplacementbyuniversalisingtheory,isequallyafeatureofFreud’sbook,DerWitzundseineBeziehungzumUnbewussten(JokesandtheirRelationtotheUnconscious)Freud,whocitesBergson’sviewswithsomeapproval,aspirestoreducejokes,andthepleasuretheyreleaseinlaughter,toasetof‘universal’,‘essential’principles(Freudwasalways,inpart,aPlatonist)Eventhoughsexualmoresandsocialaggressionarecentraltohistheory,heneverconfrontstheproblemofhistoricalvariabilityintheoperationofsuchfactorsofhumanbehaviourItwouldbeilladvisedtodenythatinsightandstimuluscanbefoundinthesometimessubtleobservationsofBergson(forwhomlaughterandthecomicarenearsynonymous)andFreud(forwhomtheyarenot),aswellasinthepsychologicaltheorisingwhichhasfollowedintheirwakeButthereisapricetobepaidfordissociatingpsychologyfromhistoryAnditistoohighapricewherelaughterisconcernedThepresentbookisnot,evenso,exactlya‘history’ofancientGreeklaughterLikeLeopardi’sAmelius,Ithinkahistoryoflaughterissomethingworthimaginingyet(ultimately)incapableofbeingwrittenButitiscertainlyvitaltoregardlaughterashavingahistoryandthereforeasmostrewardinglytobestudiedwithinwiderinvestigationofculturalformsandvaluesAlthoughinonerespectadeeplyinstinctivegesture,laughter’spsychologicalenergyandvividphysicalsignalsgenerateexpressiveprotocolsPrefaceixandhabitswithcomplexsocialramificationsAsregardsGreekantiquity,mydominantaiminthisbookhasbeentoexploreboththeideaandthepracticeoflaughter,includingsomeofitsintricateentanglementswithreligion,ethics,philosophy,politicsandotherdomainsItneedsstressingthatIhavenotattemptedtoformulateaconceptionofGreek‘humour’,nortoanalyseatlengthGreektheoriesof‘thecomic’,evenifmyargumentsinevitablytouchonsuchissuesfromtimetotimeSurprisingthoughitmayseem,comicdramainitsownrightplaysadeliberatelysubordinatepartintheenquiryEveninthosechapters(,and)wherecomedydoesfigureprominently,IoffernotsomuchareadingofthegenreperseasasortofmetareadingofitsrelationshiptobroaderGreekperceptionsandexperiencesoflaughterItrytoelucidateattitudestoandusesoflaughter–asenactedbehaviour,symbolicimageryandanobjectofreflectiveanalysis–acrossawidespectrumofGreekculture,fromHomericepictothewritingsofGreekchurchfathersintheearlycenturiesofChristianityIaminterestedinGreekrepresentationsandevaluationsoflaughteraboveallwheretheyimpingeonthedialecticofculturalselfdefinitionandconflictGuidedbysuchbasiccoordinatesaspleasureandpain,friendshipandenmity,honourandshame,Greeksthemselvesoftentooklaughterveryseriouslyandwetooshoulddosoinordertoenrichourunderstandingoftheirmyths,theirliteratureandtheirlivesAndbecausenoonehastackledthematerialinquitethiswaybefore,Ihavesuppliedextensiveanddetaileddocumentation,bothprimaryandsecondary,inthehopethatitmayenableotherstoassesstheevidencecloselyforthemselvesArgumentsdevelopedinthisbookhavebeenpresentedaspapersovermanyyearsandinmanyplacesIowesincerethankstohostsandaudiencesinBari,Birmingham,Boston,Cambridge,Freiburg,Glasgow,Glenalmond,Grenoble,Harvard,Lecce,London,Manchester,Mannheim,NewYork,Nottingham,Oxford,Philadelphia,Rome,StAndrewsandSyracusefortheirinterest,encouragementandcriticismInthelaterstagesoftheprojectitwasaparticularpleasuretosharesomeofmyideaswiththeaudiencesoftheGaisfordlectureinOxford,May(seeHalliwell()),andtheRobertslectureatDickinsonCollege,September:IamgratefultoChrisPellingandMarcMastrangelo,respectively,fororganisingthoseeventsAtDickinson,IwasfortunatetohaveasacommentatorRalphRosen,withwhomIhaveenjoyedcongenialexchangesonotheroccasionsaswellManyindividualshavegenerouslysentmecopiesoftheirown,orsometimesothers’,work:mythankstoMarioAndreassi,SimoneBeta,BrachtBranham,ChristianBrockmann,MichaelClarke,RossellaSaettaCottone,AngelaGigliolaDrago,AnnaTizianaDrago,StevenEvans,xPrefaceOlimpiaImperio,MelissaLane,DinaMicalella,JeffreyRusten,InekeSluiter,IsoldeStarkandPieroTotaroThelistoffriendsandcolleagueswhohavehelpedmeinvariousways(includingthemostimportantofall,bychallengingmyideas)istoolongtopresentinfullbutIwouldliketosingleoutforwarmappreciationKaiBrodersen,HerbGolder,JonHesk,HarryHine,JasonKo¨nig,RosannaLauriola,SianLewis,AnatolyLiberman,NickLowe,GiuseppeMastromarco,KarlaPollmann,MichaelSilk,AlanSommerstein,OnofrioVox,PeterWoodwardandBernhardZimmermannIamalsoindebtedtotheerstwhileArtsandHumanitiesResearchBoard(AHRB,nowtheAHRC)forfacilitatingmyworkonthisprojectwithaResearchLeaveAwardinIbenefitedgreatlyatthepenultimatestageofwritingfromencouragingcommentsonacompletedraftfromDavidKonstan,alwaysaperceptivecriticLastbutnotleast,LindaWoodwardhassavedmefromerrorswithhermeticulouscopyediting,andMichaelSharpatCambridgeUniversityPresshasbeenasupportiveeditorthroughoutNotetothereader()Datesarebcunlessotherwiseindicated()ThespellingofGreeknamesinvolvescompromise,andthereforesomeinconsistency,betweentraditionalLatinisation(whichIusuallypreferongroundsoffamiliarity)andthestricterprinciplesoftransliterationIhavetriedtoavoidformsthatmightpuzzlenonspecialists()Theabbreviationsofancientauthors’namesandworksforthemostpartfollowthoseusedintheOxfordClassicalDictionarytheIndexofselectedauthorsandworksshouldalsobeconsulted()Alltranslations,fromtextsbothancientandmodern,aremyownunlessotherwiseindicated()AllcomicfragmentsarecitedfromPCG(seeunderAbbreviationsbelow)unlessstipulatedotherwise,but‘PCG’isnormallyaddedtofragmentnumbersonlyofminorplaywrights()ThenamesofmodernscholarsappearingafterreferencestoancienttextsindicatethespecificeditionsusedthisappliesespeciallytominorauthorsortotextswhichcanbecitedwithdifferentsystemsofnumerationTheeditionsappearinthebibliographyundertheeditors’names()Mostmiscellaneousabbreviationsareselfevident,butnotethefollowing:bf=blackfigure,rf=redfigure,�=scholiaxiAbbreviationsABVJDBeazley,AtticBlackFigureVasePainters(Oxford,)ANRWAufstiegundNiedergangderro¨mischenWelt(Berlin,–)ARVJDBeazley,AtticRedFigureVasePainters,ndedn(Oxford,)CACollectaneaAlexandrina,edJUPowell(Oxford,)CAGCommentariainAristotelemGraeca,volsin(Berlin,–)CEGCarminaEpigraphicaGraeca,edPAHansen,vols(Berlin,,)CPGCorpusParoemiographorumGraecorum,edsELLeutschandFGSchneidewin,vols(Go¨ttingen,–)DGEDiccionariogriegoespan˜ol,edsFRAdradosandEGangutia,inprogress(Madrid,–)DKDieFragmentederVorsokratiker,edsHDielsandWKranz,thedn,vols(Berlin,)EGFEpicorumGraecorumFragmenta,edMDavies(Go¨ttingen,)FGrHDieFragmentedergriechischenHistoriker,edFJacoby(BerlinLeiden,–)FHGFragmentaHistoricorumGraecorum,edCMu¨ller,vols(Paris,–)GELNTAGreekEnglishLexiconoftheNewTestamentandotherEarlyChristianLiterature,edsWFArndtandFWGingrich,ndedn(Chicago,)IEGIambietElegiGraeci,edMLWest,ndedn,vols(Oxford,–)IGInscriptionesGraecae(Berlin,–)LfgrELexikondesfru¨hgriechischenEpos,edsBSnelletal(Go¨ttingen,–)xiiListofabbreviationsxiiiLIMCLexiconIconographicumMythologiaeClassicae,vols(Zurich,–)LSJAGreek–EnglishLexicon,edsHGLiddellandRScott,thedn(Oxford,),witharevisedsupplement,edPGWGlare(Oxford,)OCDOxfordClassicalDictionary,edsSHornblowerandASpawforth,rdedn(Oxford,)PCGPoetaeComiciGraeci,edsRKasselandCAustin,volsin(Berlin,–)PETFPoetarumElegiacorumTestimoniaetFragmenta,edsBGentiliandCPrato,voli,ndedn(Leipzig,),volii(Leipzig,)PGPatrologiaeCursusCompletusSeriesGraeca,edJPMigne,vols(Paris,–)PGLAPatristicGreekLexicon,edGWHLampe(Oxford,)PGMPapyriGraecaeMagicae,ndedn,edsKPreisendanzandAHenrichs,vols(Stuttgart,–)PLFPoetarumLesbiorumFragmenta,edsELobelandDPage(Oxford,)PMGPoetaeMeliciGraeci,edDLPage(Oxford,)REPaulysRealencyclopa¨diederclassischenAltertumswissenschaft(Stuttgart,–)SEGSupplementumEpigraphicumGraecum(LeidenAmsterdam,–)SHSupplementumHellenisticum,edsHLloydJonesandPParsons(Berlin,)SIGSyllogeInscriptionumGraecarum,edWDittenberger,rdedn,vols(Leipzig,–)SSRSocratisetSocraticorumReliquiae,edGGiannantoni,vols(Naples,)SVFStoicorumVeterumFragmenta,edHvonArnim,vols(Leipzig,–),withindexvol,edMAdler(Leipzig,)ThesCRAThesaurusCultusetRituumAntiquorum,vols(LosAngeles,–)TrGFTragicorumGraecorumFragmenta,edsBSnelletal,volsin(Go¨ttingen,–)chapterIntroduction:GreeklaughterintheoryandpracticeLaughterisareflexthatcharacterisesmanaloneandhasitsownhistoryWedonotlaughnowaspeopleoncelaughedadefinitionofthecomicandoflaughtercanbeonlyhistoricalVladimirProppMenhavebeenwiseinmanydifferentmodes,buttheyhavealwayslaughedthesamewaySamuelJohnsonnatureandculture,bodiesandmindsWhenancientGreekslaughed,didtheytakethemselvestobeyieldingtoaninstinctrootedintheiranimalbodiesordisplayingacharacteristictheysharedwiththeirgodsMighttheyhaveimagined,forthatmatter,thattheyweredoingboththosethingsatthesametimeInbroachingsuchlarge,scenesettingquestions,itishardtoavoidtakinginitialorientationfromAristotle’sfamousobiterdictuminthePartsofAnimalsthathumansaretheonlylivingthingscapableoflaughterThisproposition–sometimesreplacedinantiquity,andevenconflated(asitoccasionallystillis),withthelogicallydistinctideaoflaughteraspartoftheessenceofhumans–addressesanissuewhichhascontinuedtoprovokedebaterightuptothecontemporarystudyofanimalbehaviourItwouldbeFirstepigraph:Propp

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[英]斯蒂芬·霍尔威利:希腊人的笑:一项文化心理学研究,从荷马到早期基督教(剑桥 2008)

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