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首页 【英】洞见与幻想:维特根斯坦哲学诸主题

【英】洞见与幻想:维特根斯坦哲学诸主题

【英】洞见与幻想:维特根斯坦哲学诸主题

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2008-11-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【英】洞见与幻想:维特根斯坦哲学诸主题pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

INSIGHTANDILLUSIONTHEMESINTHEPHILOSOPHYOFWITTGENSTEINREVISEDEDITIONPMSHACKERCLARENDONPRESSOXFORDOxfmdUniumi~ProsWdtonStreet,OrdoxsmOxfmdNewYorkTomntoDelhiBmnbayChrroMdrmGruhiPcralingJayaSingeporeHongKongKongkvoNnimbiDorSnhurnrCaPeTomMciboumrAuckhdandosrociotedpenisinBeinrrBerlinIbnNimioOIfDrdirntrade"narkofOq'ordUniumiYPrnsPublirhedintheUnitrdStarsbyOxmdUniumipPm,NRDYoAlitichramedNoonnofrhhotrblieerionmnvbrevrodacedrtmrlmrcmnulqrmn~rtrinlnitrred,mrqorucjmnn,iknrvn,mnhontral,ph*n<mtn:,mdrJ(,n,zorrrhom,mrrhv~trhrpnrrporiirunrfOr~br'nt~rn>i)PraThirbookirsollrubjsotothecmrdiriatheitrhdlnor,bymayoflrdorthc,bekt,resoldhiredoutmothmoirrcirculolrdmilhourthcpublkhrheriprimmeninofyfomrofbindingmmerorherthantharinwhichitirpuWirhedandmirhourasimilarmndiriminrludingrhirmditionbdvgimpo~~donthesukquenrpurrliacerBtiti~hLibmyCataloguinghPublicorionDouHub,PMSIurighrandilluria:thmninrhopkilorqhyofWillgm~dnReucdrWioftmrcin,LudwihITi,~w~sw~~ISBNqpbkHairher,P:M(P~idoll~tephanjInrightendilluriouIncludesinWitrgmrin,LdwiITitles~~r,qSetbyHqcSmira,AbingdonPtintedinCrearBtiBinotrhrUnkmiryPrinlingHoursOxfordbyDmidSronlordPTintertotheUniumirvFORMYPARENTSPREFACETOTHEREVISEDEDITIONInthecourseofthefifteenyearssinceIwroteInsightandIllusionIhavecontinuedtostudyandwriteaboutthephilosophyofWittgensteinDuringthisperiodmanyfurthervolumesculledfromhisvoluminousNachlass,aswellaslecturenotestakenbyhisstudents,havebeenpublishedand,indeed,thewholeoftheNachlasshasbeenmadeavailableinXeroxThisextensivematerialilluminatescountlessaspectsofhisbetterknownworks,inparticulartheTractatusandPhilosophicalInvestigations,andtheresultsofresearchesintoitwereincorporatedintwovolumesIwrotetogetherwithDrGPBakeronthePhilosophicalImestigations,vizWittgenstein:UnderstandingandMeaning()andWittgenstein:Rules,GrammarandNecessity()AsIstruggledtounderstandthethoughtsof'thefirstphilosopheroftheage'Icametorecognizethat'onmanyissuesIhadpreviouslymisunderstoodhim,sometimesasaresultofreadinghisworksthroughthespectaclesofOxfordphilosophyanditspreoccupationsinthesWhenIwasofferedtheopportunitytoproducearevisedsecondeditionofInsightandIllusion,Iwelcomedthechancetocorrect,inthelightofthissubsequentresearch,thedistortedpictureIhadearliersketchedFornotallstruckmeashopeless,anditseemedworthwhiletosettherecordasstraightasIcouldThisdid,however,meanthatIwascommittedtoveryextensiverewritingInthePrefacetothefirsteditionIcomparedthestructureofthebooktotheelementsofatheatricalproduction,withacentraldrama,aset,andabackclothSurveyingtheproductionafresh,itdidnotseemasflawedasHamletwithoutthePrince,butthebackcloth,whichconsistedofasketchypresentationofWittgenstein'sconceptionofmeaning,lookedmorelikePiccadillyCircusintherushhourthanElsinoreCastleIhadbeenmuchimpressedwiththeideathatitisilluminatingtoviewtheTractatusasaparadigmofrealismortruthconditionalsemantics,andtheInvestigationsasinformedbyawhollydifferentapproachtomeaninginspiredbyconsmctivismorintuitionisminmathematics,namelyantirealismorassertionconditionssemanticsvInPrefacetotheRmzsedEdztionThisnowseemstomealtogethermisguidedaswellasanachronisticTheTractatusdoesnotpropoundanythingthatcanjustlybecalledtruthconditionalsemanticsorrealismasthesetermsarenowunderstood,andtheInvestigationsdoesnotpropoundanythingthatcanrightlybecalledantirealism,letaloneatheoryofmeaningbasedonthenotionofassertionconditionsItwasamistaketopresentWittgenstein'sremarksaboutcriteriaasthefoundationsofanovelsemantictheory,forhewouldhaveviewedthewholeenterpriseofconstructingphilosophicaltheoriesofmeaningasyetanotherhouseofcardssomethingtobedemolished,notfosteredAccordinglyIhavehadtorepaintthebackclothfromscratch,andinmoredetailthanbeforeInChaptersIand,'TheDialoguewithFregeandRussell'and'TheMetaphysicsoftheTractatus',whicharebothnew,IhavetriedtogiveabetterpictureofWittgenstein'sreactionstohispredecessors,ofhisaccountofmeaningintheTractatus,andofthereasonswhyitisnottobethoughtofintermsofthequestionablecontemporarydichotomyofrealismversusantirealismInparticular,IhavetriedtomakeclearthemainachievementoftheTractatus,namelythefirstremarkablestepstowardsclarificationofthenaiureoflogicandlogicalnecessityInChapterV,whichisalmostwhollyrewritten,IhaveexplainedWittgenstein'sreasonsforfaultingtheTractutusandhisdiagnosisoftheineradicableflawsinthepicturetheoryofmeaningHeretooIhavereexaminedhisrelationtoBrouwer'slecturewithitsintuitionistphilosophyoflogicandmathematicsThesuggestionthattheseinspiredWingenstein'schangedperspectiveiswhollywrongIhavealsopaidmoreattentiontoWittgenstein'sshortlivedverificationism,andtriedtosketchthetrajectoryofhispostworkInChapterXIIhaveadumbratedthereasonswhytheconceptofacriterionisnotpartofanewsemantictheory,andwhyhislaterphilosophyisnottobeviewedasaversionofantirealismThesetforthedramawhichIhadtriedtorehearseconsistedofWittgenstein'sconceptionofphilosophy,earlyandlateHereIhavefoundlesstofault,althoughIhaveinChaptersIandVIeliminatedelementsthatnowseemtomewrongorunnecessary,andhaveaddeditemsthatIhadpreviouslynotseenclearlyoratallThedramathatItriedtorehearseonthissetIreferredto,alas,as'Wittgenstein'smetaphysicsofexperience'Itconsistedofhisgreatdiscussionoftheimpossibilityofaprivatelanguage,hisaccountofselfconsciousnessandknowledgeofotherminds,and(toalesserextent)hisaccountofknowledgeofobjectsIhaveleftmydescriptionPrefacetotheRevisedEditionixoftheTractatusremarksonsolipsism(ChapterrV)moreorlessintact,andthediscussionofthelaterrefutationofsolipsism(ChapterVIII)Ihavemodifiedonlyinalimited,thoughimportantwayIhavetriedtoimprovemypresentationoftheprivatelanguageargument(ChapterIX),rewritinghalfofitWhere,however,thefirsteditionwassorelywrongwasthediscussionoffirstpersonpsychologicalutterancesInthegripofaneoKantianpictureoftherelationbetweenexperienceandtheobjectsofexperienceandobsessedwithfirmsofpropositionstothepointofbeingblindtothediversityoftheiruses,ImisconstruedWittgenstein'sargumentHavingdoneso,IthentriedtodemolishtheargumentthusdistortedIhavenowattemptedtorectifythisinChapterX,whichiscompletelyrewritten,andhaverepliedtothoseofmyearliercounterargumentstoWittgenstein'scasethatseemedworthyofrebuttalAleitmotifofthefirstproductionwastheaffinitybetweenKantandWittgensteinItwasboldlytrumpetedbymyuseofthephrase'metaphysicsofexperience'OnecannotdenyaffinitiesbetweenthetwophilosophersNevertheless,Iexaggeratedanddistortedthem,thinkingwronglythatWittgenstein'sdemonstrationoftheimpossibilityofaprivatelanguagewas,inaloosesense,atranscendentalargumentToputthisandrelatedmanersaright,IhaverewrittenChapterVII,'MetaphysicsastheShadowofGrammar',clarifyingWittgenstein'scritiqueofmetaphysics,addingasectiononKantandWittgenstein,andvirtuallyexpungingthemisleadingphrase'Wittgenstein'smetaphysicsofexperience'Becauseofthis,andalsotomarkthefactthatthiseditionofthebookdoesdiffersignificantlyfromitspredecessor(sixchaptersbeingwrittendenovaandotherssignificantlyreworked),Ihavechangedthesubtitlefrom'WittgensteinonPhilosophyandtheMetaphysicsofExperience'to'ThemesinthePhilosophyofWittgenstein'IhavenotattemptedinthishooktosurveythewholeofWingenstein'swork,butrestrictedmyself,asinthefirstedition,toalimited(thoughwider)rangeofcentralthemesIfthesearebetterdiscussedthantheywerepreviously,thisbookmayservetohelpotherstofindtheirwayaroundthenumeroustopicsIhavenotexaminedIhavebeenfortunateovertheyearstoincurintellectualdebtstocolleagues,friends,andpupilsIhavelearntmuchfromthewritingsofProfessorNormanMalcolm,fromtheindispensablebibliographicalresearchesontheWittgensteinpapersconductedbyProfessorGHvonWright,andIhavecontinuedtoprofitgreatlyfromtheworkofDrxPracetotheRevisedEditionAnthonyKennyandfromthegenerousadviceofDrJoachimSchulteandProfessorHermanPhilipseFrequentdiscussionswithDrJosephRazandBedeRundlehavetaughtmemuch,andSaturdayteaswithDrRayFreyilluminatedproblemsandneverfailedtoliftmyspiritsAmongmypupils,pastandpresent,ImustmentionDrJohnDupri,DrStuartShanker(instigatorofthisrevisededition),HanjoGlock,JohnHyman,andStephenMulhall,whomadeteachingnotonlydelightfulbutalsoinstructivefortheinstructorMygreatestdebtistomycolleagueDrGordonBakerOverthepastdecadewehaveworkedtogetherontheWittgensteinNachlassandwrittenfivebooksondifferenttopicsinaparmershipthathasbeenimmenselyexcitingandrewardingSwimmingagainstthecurrentinpursuitofWittgenstein'sideaswouldhavebeenanevenmoredifficulttaskwithouthisskill,aid,andcompanionshipIf,inthissecondedition,Ihavemanagedtogiveabetteraccountthanbefore,itislargelybecauseofwhatIhavelearntfromourjointlaboursSrjrohnkCollege,OOxfordPMSHACKERPREFACETOTHEFIRSTEDITIONThestructureofthisbookcanbestbecapturedbymeansofatheatricalmetaphorThebookhas,asitwereacentraldrama,aset,andabackclothThesubjectwithwhichIamprimarilyconcerned,thedramawhichisenactedthroughoutthebook,isWittgenstein'smetaphysicsofexperienceThisKantiantermofartischosenadvisedly,foroneoftheleitmotifsconsistsinexploringtheKantianaffinitiesofWittgenstein'sphilosophyingeneral,bothintheTractatusandinthepostworksWittgenstein'smetaphysicsofexperiencecanbeseenasconsistingofatriadofproblems,twoofwhichareexaminedcomprehensivelyTheseare:selfconsciousness,ourknowledgeofotherminds,andourknowledgeofobjectsThesecondaryconcernofthebook,thesetuponwhichthemaindramatakesplace,isWingenstein'sgeneralconceptionofphilosophyThisthemeisintendedtoilluminate,andbeilluminatedby,theexaminationofWittgenstein'smetaphysicsofexperienceForthelatter,particularlyinWittgenstein'slaterwork,isanexemplificationofhisconceptionofthetask,process,andresultofphilosophicalinvestigationAsmyworkprogressed,itbecameincreasinglyclearthatthebackclothagainstwhichthetwomainsubjectshadtobeseencouldnotbewhollyneglectedThebackclothconsistsofthedevelopmentofhissemantictheoriesfromthestrictrealismoftheTrxtatustotheconstructivistinspiredconventionalismofthePhilosophicalInvestigationsIhaveexploredthismostdifficultsubjectonlysofarasseemedtomenecessaryinordertograspthenatureofWingenstein'smetaphysicsofexperience,hisgeneralconhibutiontoepistemology,andhisconceptionofphilosophySothebackclothis,asiscustomasyinstagedesign,unevenInpartsitisfilledinwithcolourfuldetail,atotherpointsitisroughandreadyWittgensteinisalmostuniqueamongphilosophersinhavingproducedtwocompletephilosophies,thelatercontainingsubstantialcriticismandrepudiationoftheearlierThecontroversyoverthedegreeofchangeandthedegreeofconstancywilldoubtlessrageforxiiPrefacetotheFintEditionmanyyearstocomeWithrespecttothesubjectswithwhichIamconcernedinthisbookIhavetriedtoplotbothtransformationandcontinuityItiscertainlyimpossibletounderstandWittgenstein'slaterconcernwithandrefutationofsolipsismandidealismwithoutseeingitsrootsinhisfascinationwithSchopenhauerintheNotebooksandthe'methodologicalsolipsism'ofthePhilosophischeBemerkungenEquallyonecanonlyobtainapropergraspofhislaterconceptionofphilosophyandmetaphysicsbycomparingandcontrastingitwithhisearljerviewsAnddoubtlesshislatersemanticsmustbeseenagainstthebackgroundofhisrepudiationofhisearlierrealismAccordinglythefirstfourchaptersofthisbookareconcernedwithWittgenstein'sfirstphilosophy,tracingthedevelopmentofhisviewsuponthethemesIhavechosen,fromtheearly'NotesonLogic'throughthehighpointoftheTractatustothetransitionalperiodofthelatenineteentwentiesandearlythirtiesThelastsixchaptersareconcernedwithmuchthesameaspectsofhislaterphilosophyinwhichtheyloomsomuchlargerIamgratefultoMrRayFrey,DrKitFine,andDrJosephRazfortheircriticismsofearlierdraftsofthisbook,fortheirencouragementandforthemanyilluminatingdiscussionswiththemuponthetopicsonwhichIwasworkinghlygreatestdebtsaretoDrAntl~onyKennyandDrGordonBakerToDrKennyIowetheoriginalinspirationtopursuemyinterestinWittgensteinseriouslywhatgraspIhaveoftheprivatelanguageargumentIowelargelytothemanyconversationsIhavehadwithhimHisdetailedcommentsuponmyfirstdraftsofChaptersIV,VII,VIII,IXwereofverygreathelptomeTomycolleagueatStJohn's,DrBaker,owetheopportunitytosoundoutpracticallyeveryideaIhavehaduponmysubjectswithasympatheticanderuditelistenerHiscriticisms,suggestions,andadvice,aswellashiscommentsuponmymanuscripts,wereofinestimablevaluetomeTheprivilegeofreadinghisownunpublishedworkuponWittgenstein'ssemanticsgavemeinsightsintotheconstructivisttenorofWittgenstein'slaterphilosophywhichIwouldnothaveachievedunaidedIshouldalsoliketoacknowledgemydebttoMrsPearlHawtinandtomywifefortheirgeneroussecretarialaidAllquotationsfromLudwigWittgensteinundderWienerKreis,PhilsophischeBemerkungen,andPhilosophischeGrammutik,havebeentranslatedWherethetranslatorsofWittgenstein'sotherworkshaveseemedtometoerrIhaveprovidedmyowntranslationIamgratefultoMrTJReedandtomymotherMrsTheaHackerfortheirPrefacetotheFirstEditionxiiiassistancewiththeGermanIamindebtedtothepublishersBasilBlackwellMottLtd,RoutledgeKeganPaulLtdandtheHumanitiesPressInc,forkindpermissiontoquotefromworksofWittgensteinforwhichtheyownthecopyrightStJohn'rCollege,OOxford'PMSHCONTENTSLISTOFABBREVIATIONSxixIWITTGENSTEIN'SEARLYCONCEPTIONOFPHILOSOPHYIBackgroundThe'Preliminary'onPhilosophyPhilosophyandIllusionPhilosophyasCritiqueandasAnalysisrrTHEDIALOGUEWITHFREGEANDRUSSELLIAgreementsandDisagreementsTheGmnednnkeoftheTractatusTheLawsofLogicAPreludetoConventionalismIIIMEANING,METAPHYSICS,ANDTHEMINDIThePictureTheoryofMeaningTheMetaphysicsoftheTractaimConnectingLanguagewithReality:theroleofthemindmEMPIRICALREALISMANDTRANSCENDENTALSOLIPSISMITheSelfofSolipsism'IammyWorld''Thelimitsoflanguagemeanthelimitsofmyworld'LaterYearsvDISINTEGRATIONANDRECONSTRUCTIONITheColourExclusionProblemDismantlingtheTructatusTheBrouwerLectureIZOMovingoffinFreshDirectionsTheViennaCircleandWittgenstein'sPrincipleofVerificationIxviContentswWITTGENSTEIN'SLATERCONCEPTIONOFPHILOSOPHYIAKinkintheEvolutionofPhilosophyACurefortheSicknessoftheUnderstandingPhilosophy,Science,andDescriptionPhilosophyandOrdinaryLanguageThePhenomenologyandSourcesofPhilosophicalIllusionSystematicPhilosophyIvnMETAPHYSICSASTHESHADOWOFGRAMMARIGrammarITheAutonomyofGrammarIGrammarandMetaphysicsIANoteonKantandWittgensteinvmTHEREFUTATIONOFSOLIPSISMIIntroductionFromTranscendentalSolipsismtoMethodologicalSolipsismTheSolipsist'sPredicament:arestatementandseconddiagnosisTheRefutationucPRIVATELINGUISTSANDPUBLICSPEAKERSIADiseaseoftheIntellectFollowingRulesPhilosophicalinvestigations$'ThePrivateLanguageTheEpistemologyofthePrivateLinguistWittgenstein'sCriticismofthePrivateLanguage'OnlyIknow'and'OnlyIhave'x'ACLOUDOFPHILOSOPHYCONDENSEDINTOADROPOFGRAMMAR'ICanoneknowthatoneisinpainSelfconsciousness:theoverthrowoftheCartesianpictureThe'Inner'andthe'Outer'ExperienceanditsNaturalExpressionAvowalsandDescriptionsObjectionsandDeflectionsContentsxviiXICRITERIA,REALISM,ANDANTIREALISMITheOriginoftheIdeaPlotsingtheContourlines~unherComplicationsRedHerrings:realismandantirealismINDEXLISTOFABBREVIATIONSAbbreviationsusedtorefertoWittgenstein'swritingslistedinchronologicalorder:NBNotebooks,edGHvonWrightandGEMAnscomhe,transGEMAnscomhe(Blackwell,Oxford,)PTProtoTractatuAnEarlyVersionofTmaturLogicoPhilosophicus,edBFMcGuinness,TNyherg,GHvonWright,transDFPearsandBFMcGuinness(RoutledgeKeganPaul,London,)TLPTrMafzuLoPhilosophicus,msDFPearsandBFMcGuinness(RoutledgeKeganPaul,London,)LLWLemfromLudwigWittgensteinwithaMemoir,PaulEngelmann,edBFMcGuinness,transLFnwiiller(Blackwell,Oxford,)RLF'SomeRemarksonLogicalForm',ProceedingsoftheAristotelianSon'eg,suppvolix()WWKLudwigWittgmteinundderWienerKreu,shorthandnotesrecordedbyFWaismann,edBFMcGuinness(Blackwell,Oxford,)TheEnglisheditionWingmteinandtheHennaCircle,transJSchulteandBFMcGuinness(Blackwell,Oxford,)preservestheoriginalpaginationPRPhilosophicalRemarks,edRRhees,transRHargreavesandRWhite(Blackwell,Oxford,)M'Wittgenstein'sLecturesin',inGEMoore,PhilosophicalPapers(AllenUnwin,L

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