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首页 [德]施坦赫尔:法西斯意识形态的诞生:从文化革命到政治革命(普林斯顿 1994)英译本

[德]施坦赫尔:法西斯意识形态的诞生:从文化革命到政治革命(普林斯顿 1994)英译本

[德]施坦赫尔:法西斯意识形态的诞生:从文化革命到政治革命(普…

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简介:本文档为《[德]施坦赫尔:法西斯意识形态的诞生:从文化革命到政治革命(普林斯顿 1994)英译本pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEBIRTHOFFASCISTIDEOLOGYThispageintentionallyleftblankZeevSternhellwithMarioSznajderandMaiaAsheriTHEBIRTHOFFASCISTIDEOLOGYFROMCULTURALREBELLIONTOPOLITICALREVOLUTIONTranslatedbyDavidMaiselPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPRINCETON,NEWJERSEYCopyrightbyPrincetonUniversityPressTranslatedfromZeevSternhell,withMarioSznajderandMaiaAsheri,Naissancedel’idéologiefascisteCopyrightLibrairieArthèmeFayard,ParisPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreet,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,Chichester,WestSussexAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSternhell,ZeevNaissancedel’idéologiefascisteEnglishThebirthoffascistideology:fromculturalrebelliontopoliticalrevolutionZeevSternhell,withMarioSznajderandMaiaAsheri:translatedbyDavidMaiselpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNISBN(pbk)FascismEuropeHistoryISznajder,MarioIIAsheri,MaiaIIITitleDS′′dcCIPThisbookhasbeencomposedinBitstreamCaledoniaPrincetonUniversityPressbooksareprintedonacidfreepaperandmeettheguidelinesforpermanenceanddurabilityoftheCommitteeonProductionGuidelinesforBookLongevityoftheCouncilonLibraryResourcesThirdprinting,andfirstpaperbackprinting,PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTothememoryofJacobLTalmonThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionFascismasanAlternativePoliticalCultureChapterOneGeorgesSorelandtheAntimaterialistRevisionofMarxismTheFoundationsofthe“Correction”ofMarxismAntirationalismandActivism:TheSocialMythsAntiCartesianismandPessimismTheJunctionofSorelianismandNationalismChapterTwoRevolutionaryRevisionisminFranceThe“NewSchool”AppliedSorelianismTheEmergenceofSocialistNationalismChapterThreeRevolutionarySyndicalisminItalyTwentyYears:–ThePrimacyofEconomicsandtheRevisionofMarxistEconomicDoctrineSorel,theMobilizingMythoftheRevolutionaryGeneralStrike,andtheLessonsofRealityChapterFourTheSocialistNationalSynthesisTheMythoftheRevolutionaryWarFromtheLibyanWartotheInterventionismoftheLeft:TheImperialismoftheWorkers,theSyndicate,andtheNationNationalSyndicalism,theProductionistSolution,andtheProgramofPartialExpropriationFromtheCartadelCarnarotoFascistSyndicalismChapterFiveTheMussoliniCrossroads:FromtheCritiqueofMarxismtoNationalSocialismandFascismWithintheOrbitofRevolutionarySyndicalismviiiCONTENTSTheIntellectualRealignmentofaSocialistMilitantNationalSocialismTheStateandDictatorship:FromNationalSocialismtoFascismEpilogueFromaCulturalRebelliontoaPoliticalRevolutionNotesBibliographyIndexAcknowledgmentsTHISWORKisanexpandedandimprovedversionofabookpublishedinFranceinandrepresentstheresultsofaninquirybegunseveralyearsagoItisalsosometimesinceseveralPhDstudentsinthehistoryandpoliticalsciencedepartmentsoftheHebrewUniversityinJerusalem,whoseworkIhadtheprivilegeofsupervising,begantointerestthemselvesinthegrowthofFascistideologyInsodoing,someoftheseyoungscholarscametoinvestigatecertainpathsIhadindicatedinpreviousworksThisappliedparticularlytotheprocessoftransitionoftheLefttowardfascismSomeofthesestudieshavenowcometofruitionTwoofthemhavebeenincorporatedintothisbook,towhicheachbringsitsowncontributionChaptersandarebyMarioSznajder,aspecialistinItalianrevolutionarysyndicalismOnlyaconcernforpresentationandadesiretoofferthereaderanintegratedtextcausedmetorevisetheirstructureMostofthematerialthatenabledmetowriteChapterwasprovidedbyMaiaAsheri,whohascompletedastudyofearlyItalianfascismThus,manyofthequalitiesthisworkmaypossesscanbeascribedtomycollaborators,butsincetheintellectualresponsibilityforthebookanditsgeneralconceptionismine,IampreparedtotaketheblameforitsweaknessesAsinallsuchcasesinthelasteighteenyears,thisbookhasbenefitedfromtheassistanceofGeorgesBensimhonWhetheritisamatterofessentialproblemsoroftheFrenchlanguage,GeorgesBenshimonhasallowednoomission,noobscuritytopasshimbyMygratitudetowardthisfriendfarexceedsanythingIamabletoexpressinthesefewlinesTheinitialideaforthisbooktookshapeinmymindin–,whenIwasamemberoftheInstituteforAdvancedStudyinPrinceton,NewJerseyThebookprogressedatColumbiaUniversity,whereIspentprofitablemonthsinthesummerof,andtwoyearslater,thankstoaninvitationfromtheFrenchgovernment,IenjoyedanespeciallyrewardingperiodofworkinParisThemainpartofthework,however,wascarriedoutin–attheInstituteforAdvancedStudiesattheHebrewUniversityofJerusalemMyacknowledgmentsareduetoitsdirector,MenachemYaari,andtothewholeadministrativestaffheadedbyShabtaiGaironandBilhaGusTheinvitationtopassayearinthiscenterofresearchrelievedmeofmyteachingresponsibilitiesandallowedmetodevotemyselfentirelytothepreparationofthisbookOurseminarofmultidisciplinaryresearch,inwhichAmatziaBaram,SanaHassan,MenachemFriedman,GeorgeMosse,EmmanuelSivan,MichaelWalzer,andJayWinterinparticulartookpart,wasasourceofgreatenrichmentformeAsanassistanttothisgroup,AnatxACKNOWLEDGMENTSBaninecouldnotbefaultedMostofthereadingandwritingfortheEnglisheditionofthisbookwasdoneduringtheyear–,whichIwashappytospendattheWoodrowWilsonInternationalCenterforScholarsinWashington,DCIwanttothankthecenter’sdirector,CharlesBlitzer,andthedirectoroffellowships,AnnSheffield,forprovidingmewiththeopportunitytoworkinanoutstandingintellectualenvironmentandmakethebestuseofmytimeSpecialthanksareduetothestaffsofthefollowinglibraries:theNationalandUniversityLibraryinJerusalem,theBibliothèqueNationaleinParis,theItalianNationalLibrariesandArchivesinRome,thelibrariesoftheuniversitiesofColumbiaandPrinceton,andtheLibraryofCongressIamgratefultotheSASchonbrunnFoundationandtheLeonardDavisInstituteforInternationalRelationsattheHebrewUniversityforthefinancialassistanceIreceivedinmoststagesofmyworkonthisbookMyfinalthanksgotoDavidMaiselforanexcellenttranslation,toLaurenMOsborne,Editor,HistoryandClassics,forhergoodadvicealongtheway,andtoDaliaGeffenforherskillsanddevotionineditingthemanuscriptJerusalem,FallTHEBIRTHOFFASCISTIDEOLOGYThispageintentionallyleftblankINTRODUCTIONFascismasanAlternativePoliticalCultureTHISBOOKisbasedontwoassumptionsThefirstisthatfascism,beforeitbecameapoliticalforce,wasaculturalphenomenonThegrowthoffascismwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttherevoltagainsttheEnlightenmentandtheFrenchRevolutionwhichsweptacrossEuropeattheendofthenineteenthcenturyandthebeginningofthetwentiethEverywhereinEurope,theculturalrevoltprecededthepoliticaltheriseoftheFascistmovementsandtheFascistseizureofpowerinItalybecamepossibleonlybecauseoftheconjunctionoftheaccumulatedinfluenceofthatculturalandintellectualrevolutionwiththepolitical,social,andpsychologicalconditionsthatcameintobeingattheendoftheFirstWorldWarInthatsense,fascismwasonlyanextrememanifestationofamuchbroaderandmorecomprehensivephenomenonThesecondassumption,whichfollowsfromthefirst,isthatinthedevelopmentoffascism,itsconceptualframeworkplayedaroleofspecialimportanceTherecanbenodoubtthatthecrystallizationofideologyprecededthebuildupofpoliticalpowerandlaidthegroundworkforpoliticalactionFascismwasnot,inBenedettoCroce’sfamousexpression,a“parenthesis”incontemporaryhistoryItwasnot,ashethought,theresultofan“infection,”ofaperiodof“declineintheconsciousnessofliberty”followingtheFirstWorldWarItwasnottheproductofsomekindof“Machiavellian”renaissancetowhichtwentiethcenturyEuropefellvictimContrarytowhatFriedrichMeineckeandGerhardRitterhavesoughttoconvincethegenerationaftertheSecondWorldWar,fascismwasanintegralpartofthehistoryofEuropeancultureSimilarly,fascismwasnotasortofshadowcastbyMarxism,asclaimedbyErnstNolte,whosebrilliantandwellknownbookcontinuestheworkofMeineckeandRitterOneshouldalsonotexaggeratethe“anti”qualityoffascismfascismwasnotonlyaformofantiliberalism(tousetheexpressionofJuanLinz,thewriterofaremarkablestudy)Norwasfascisma“varietyofMarxism,”asclaimedbyAJamesGregor,anormallyperspicaciousscholarandtheauthorofmajorworksMoreover,fascismcannotbereduced,astheclassicalMarxistinterpretationwouldhaveit,toasimpleantiproletarianreactionthattookplaceatastageofdecliningcapitalismBetweenthesetwoextremesisanabundanceofinterpretationsWithregardtothescholINTRODUCTIONarlypublicationsofthelasttwentyyears,thereadershouldrefertotheworkofKarlDietrichBracher,EmilioGentile,AJamesGregor,RogerGriffin,PierreMilza,GeorgeLMosse,StanleyGPayne,FritzStern,DomenicoSettembrini,JacobLeibTalmon,andPierGiorgioZuninoInInterpretationsofFascism,thehighlyrespecteddoyenofItalianscholars,RenzoDeFelice,hasgivenusasurveyofdifferentinterpretationsdeservingofmentionHehasalsogivenushisowninterpretation,basedonadualtypologyofcountriesandformsofregimeDeFeliceemphasizestheimportanceofregionalcharacteristics,especiallyinthecaseofItalyThepresentstudyisconceivedquitedifferentlyFirst,fascismisregardedasanindependentculturalandpoliticalphenomenonthatwasnotlessintellectuallyselfsufficientthansocialismorliberalismSecond,thebookisdevotedtoadiscussionofideologyandassumesthattheintellectualcontentoffascismhadthesameimportanceinthegrowthanddevelopmentofthemovementasithadinliberalismorlaterinMarxismTheideologyisdescribedinthisbookasaproductoftheinteractionofcultureandpolitics,reflectingtheinnerrelationshipbetweentheadoptionofintellectualpositionsandtheshifttoactionThen,weseektodemonstratethattheconceptualframeworkoffascism,createdlongbeforeAugust,wasnonconformist,avantgarde,andrevolutionaryincharacterDuetothisintellectualcontent,fascismbecameapoliticalforcecapableofassailingtheexistingorderandcompetingeffectivelywithMarxismnotonlyforthesupportofelitesandminoritygroupsbutalsofortheallegianceofthemassesInthisbook,wefocusontheformativeperiodoffascismWeanalyzethedevelopmentofthethinkingofthemovementandoftheintellectualstructuresitcreatedwithinthecontextoftheFrancoItalianculturalcomplexTheFranceofintegralnationalism,oftherevolutionaryRight,wastherealbirthplaceoffascismWehavealreadydemonstratedthiselsewhere,soitdoesnothavetobedealtwithhereMoreover,FrancewasthebirthplaceofSorelianrevolutionaryrevisionism,thesecondelementarycomponentoffascismOriginatinginFrance,itwasinItalythatrevolutionarysyndicalismdevelopedintoanintellectual,social,andpoliticalforceInthesummerof,theItalianrevolutionaryrevisionists,inalliancewiththenationalistsandfuturists,foundtheadherents,thesituation,andtheleaderwhoenabledthemtotransformthelongintellectualincubationdatingfromthebeginningofthecenturyintoahistoricalforceBeforeproceedinganyfarther,wehavetoinsistonanotherelementofthedefinitionweareproposingFascismcaninnowaybeidentifiedwithNazismUndoubtedlythetwoideologies,thetwomovements,andthetworegimeshadcommoncharacteristicsTheyoftenranparalleltooneanotheroroverlapped,buttheydifferedononefundamentalpoint:thecriterionofGermannationalsocialismwasbiologicaldeterminismThebasisofNazismwasracisminitsmostextremesense,andthefightagainsttheJews,againstINTRODUCTION“inferior”races,playedamorepreponderantroleinitthanthestruggleagainstcommunismMarxistscouldbeconvertedtonationalsocialism,asindeedquiteanumberofthemweresimilarly,nationalsocialismcouldsigntreatieswithCommunists,exchangeambassadors,andcoexistwiththem,ifonlytemporarilyNothinglikethis,however,appliedtotheJewsWheretheywereconcerned,theonlypossible“arrangement”withthemwastheirdestructionCertainly,racismwasnotlimitedtoGermanyAttheendofthenineteenthcentury,biologicaldeterminismdevelopedinacountrylikeFrancetoobutifitwasafactorinthedevelopmentoftherevolutionaryRight,racisminitsFrenchvariantneverbecamethewholepurposeofanideology,amovement,andaregimeInfact,racialdeterminismwasnotpresentinallthevarietiesoffascismIfRobertBrasillachprofessedanantiSemitismveryclosetothatofNazism,GeorgeValois’s“Faisceau”hadnoneatallandifsomeItalianFascistswereviolentlyantiSemitic,inItalytherewereinnumerableFascistJewsTheirpercentageinthemovementwasmuchhigherthaninthepopulationasawholeAsweknow,raciallawswerepromulgatedinItalyonlyin,andduringtheSecondWorldWartheJewsfeltmuchlessindangerinNiceorHauteSavoie,areasunderItalianoccupation,thaninMarseilles,whichwasunderthecontroloftheVichygovernmentRacismwasthusnotanecessaryconditionfortheexistenceoffascismonthecontrary,itwasafactorinFascisteclecticismForthisreason,ageneraltheorythatseekstocombinefascismandNazismwillalwayscomeupagainstthisessentialaspectoftheproblemInfact,suchatheoryisnotpossibleUndoubtedlytherearesimilarities,particularlywithregardtothe“totalitarian”characterofthetworegimes,buttheirdifferencesarenolesssignificantKarlBracherperceivedthesingularimportanceofthesedifferences,whichErnstNolte(thiswashischiefweakness)completelyignoredHavingclarifiedthisquestion,letusnowreturntoourdefinitionoffascismIftheFascistideologycannotbedescribedasasimpleresponsetoMarxism,itsorigins,ontheotherhand,werethedirectresultofaveryspecificrevisionofMarxismItwasarevisionofMarxismandnotavarietyofMarxismoraconsequenceofMarxismOneoftheaimsofthisbookistostudythisantimaterialisticandantirationalisticrevisionofMarxismItisabsolutelynecessarytoinsistonthisessentialaspectofthedefinitionoffascism,foronecanscarcelyunderstandtheemergenceofthefundamentalconceptsoffascismandoftheFascistphilosophyandmythologyifonedoesnotrecognize,atthesametime,thatitarosefromanoriginallyMarxistrevoltagainstmaterialismItwastheFrenchandItalianSorelians,thetheoreticiansofrevolutionarysyndicalism,whomadethisnewandoriginalrevisionofMarxism,andpreciselythiswastheircontributiontothebirthoftheFascistideologyINTRODUCTIONInthisrespect,theriseoffascismwasoneoftheaspectsoftheintellectual,scientific,andtechnologicalrevolutionthatovertooktheEuropeancontinentattheturnofthetwentiethcenturyThisrevolutionchangedtheprevailingwayoflifetoadegreehithertounknown,transformingtheintellectualclimateaswellassocialrealitiesAllofasudden,onesawtheinadequacyofthesocialandeconomiclawsMarxpropoundedConfrontedwithproblemsthatthepreviousgenerationhadnotevenenvisaged,thenewgenerationproposedtotallyunexpectedsolutionsConsequently,anyonewhoregardsfascismasnomorethanabyproductoftheFirstWorldWar,amerebourgeoisdefensivereactiontothepostwarcrisis,isunabletounderstandthismajorphenomenonofourcenturyAphenomenonofcivilization,fascismrepresentsarejectionofthepoliticalcultureprevailingatthebeginningofthecenturyInthefascismoftheinterwarperiod,inMussolini’sregimeasinallotherwesternEuropeanFascistmovements,therewasnotasinglemajorideathathadnotgraduallycometofruitioninthequarterofacenturyprecedingAugustAlthoughanidealprototypeofadisruptiveideology,fascismcannotbedefinedonlyinnegativetermsUndoubtedly,fascismrejectedtheprevailingsystems:liberalismandMarxism,positivismanddemocracyThisisalwaysthecaseanewideologyandanemergingpoliticalmovementbeginbyopposingthesystemsofthoughtandpoliticalforcesalreadyinplaceBeforeofferingitsownvisionoftheworld,Marxismbeganbyopposingliberalism,whichacenturyearlierhadrisenupagainstabsolutismThesamewastrueoffascism,whichconflictedwithliberalismandMarxismbeforeitwasabletoprovidealltheelementsofanalternatepolitical,moral,andintellectualsystemIntheformthatitemergedattheturnofthecenturyanddevelopedinthesands,theFascistideologyrepresentedasynthesisoforganicnationalismwiththeantimaterialistrevisionofMarxismItexpressedarevolutionaryaspirationbasedonarejectionofindividualism,whetherliberalorMarxist,anditcreatedtheelementsofanewandoriginalpoliticalcultureThispoliticalculture,communal,antiindividualistic,andantirationalistic,representedatfirstarejectionoftheheritageoftheEnlightenmentandtheFrenchRevolution,andlaterthecreationofacomprehensivealternative,anintellectual,moral,andpoliticalframeworkthatalonecouldensuretheperpetuityofahumancollectivityinwhichallstrataandallclassesofsocietywouldbeperfectlyintegratedFascismwishedtorectifythemostdisastrousconsequencesofthemodernizationoftheEuropeancontinentandtoprovideasolutiontotheatomizationofsociety,itsfragmentationintoantagonisticgroups,andthealienationoftheindividualinafreemarketeconomyFascismrebelledagainstthedehumanizationthatmodernizationhadintroducedintohumanrelationships,butitwasalsoveryeagertoretainINTRODUCTIONthebenefitsofprogressandneveradvocatedareturntoahypotheticalgoldenageFascismrebelledagainstmodernityinasmuchasmodernitywasidentifiedwiththerationalism,optimism,andhumanismoftheeighteenthcentury,butitwasnotareactionaryoranantirevolutionarymovementintheMaurrassiansenseofthetermFascismpresenteditselfasarevolutionofanotherkind,arevolutionthatsoughttodestroytheexistingpoliticalorderandtouprootitstheoreticalandmoralfoundationsbutthatatthesametimewishedtopreservealltheachievementsofmoderntechnologyItwastotakeplacewithintheframeworkoftheindustrialsociety,fullyexploitingthepowerthatwasinitTheFascistrevolutionsoughttochangethenatureoftherelationships

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[德]施坦赫尔:法西斯意识形态的诞生:从文化革命到政治革命(普林斯顿 1994)英译本

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