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首页 [美]艾米·杜丽:二十世纪中国妇女文学中的女权主义(帕尔格雷夫 2005)

[美]艾米·杜丽:二十世纪中国妇女文学中的女权主义(帕尔格雷夫 2005)

[美]艾米·杜丽:二十世纪中国妇女文学中的女权主义(帕尔格雷夫…

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简介:本文档为《[美]艾米·杜丽:二十世纪中国妇女文学中的女权主义(帕尔格雷夫 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Women’sLiteraryFeminisminTwentiethCenturyChinaThispageintentionallyleftblankWomen’sLiteraryFeminisminTwentiethCenturyChinaAmyDDoolingWOMEN’SLITERARYFEMINISMINTWENTIETHCENTURYCHINA©AmyDDooling,AllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionexceptinthecaseofbriefquotationsembodiedincriticalarticlesorreviewsFirstpublishedinbyPALGRAVEMACMILLAN™FifthAvenue,NewYork,NYandHoundmills,Basingstoke,Hampshire,EnglandRGXSCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEMACMILLANistheglobalacademicimprintofthePalgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin’sPress,LLCandofPalgraveMacmillanLtdMacmillan®isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN–––LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDooling,AmyDWomen’sliteraryfeminismintwentiethcenturyChinabyAmyDDoolingpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–––ChineseliteratureWomenauthorsHistoryandcriticismChineseliteraturethcenturyHistoryandcriticismFeminisminliteratureITitle:Women’sliteraryfeminisminthcenturyChinaIITitlePLD��dcAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryDesignbyNewgenImagingSystems(P)Ltd,Chennai,IndiaFirstedition:JanuaryPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaForPeterandMollyThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsAcknowledgmentsixIntroduction:WomenandFeminismintheLiteraryHistoryofEarlyTwentiethCenturyChinaNationalImaginaries:FeministFantasiesattheTurnoftheCenturyTheNewWoman’sWomenLoveandorRevolution:FictionsoftheFeminineSelfinthesCulturalLeftOutwittingPatriarchy:ComicNarrativeStrategiesintheWorksofYangJiang,SuQing,andZhangAilingAWorldStilltoWinNotesBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsThisbook,whichgrewoutofmydoctoraldissertation,hasbeenalongtimeinthemakingandwouldnothavecometofruitionwithoutallthehelpandencouragementIreceivedalongthewayIwouldliketothanktheoriginalreadersofmydissertation,MarilynYoung,MarshaWagner,ShangWei,andTomiSuzuki,andaboveallmyprimaryadvisorDavidDerweiWang,whohascontinuedtoprovideinvaluablementoringsincemydaysatColumbiaUniversitySpecialthanksalsotoPeterHitchcock,CTHsia,HuMingliang,MabSegrest,KristinaTorgeson,DeborahSangTzelan,andEllenWidmer,fortheirsupportofthisprojectasitevolvedandfortheirinvaluablehelponspecificaspectsofindividualchaptersComradelycritiquesandfeedbackfromSusanMann,RebeccaKarl,KathrynBernhardtandotherparticipantsattheNewDirectionsinChineseWomen’sHistoryConferenceorganizedbyDorothyKoatColumbiaUniversityin,andfrommembersoftheChinaGenderStudiesWorkshopattheHarvardFairbankCenter,whereIpresentedportionsofmywork,wereespeciallyusefulatacriticaljunctureintheprojectAspecialthankstoEllenWidmerandChristinaGilmartinfortheirencouragementandadviceonpursuingpublicationSpiriteddiscussionsabouttheChinesewomen’sliterarytraditionwithLiuJianmei,MeganFerry,JoanJudge,ZhangJingyuan,andWangLingzhenatvariousconferencesovertheyearshavealsobeeninspirationalAndmycolleaguesinGenderandWomen’sStudiesatConnecticutCollegehavebeenacontinualsourceofguidanceandwisdominthinkingthroughquestionsoffeministculturalpracticesTheresearchandideaspresentedinthisbookoweagreatdealtotheworkofmanyotherscholarswhohavepioneeredthestudyofwomen’sculturalhistoryandfeminisminChinaIwouldliketoacknowledge,inparticular,ChristinaGilmartin,ReyChow,WendyLarson,TaniBarlow,YitsiFeuerwerker,ElisabethCroll,MengYue,andDaiJinhua,whoseworkinformsmyinquiryinprofoundwaysAlthoughIengagecriticallywithsomeoftheirarguments,myaimhasbeentobuildontheinvaluableinterventionstheirscholarshiphasmadeinthisfieldSincerethanksareduetothereferencelibrariansattheCVStarrEastAsianLibraryatColumbiaUniversity,BeijingUniversityLibrary,BeijingLibrary,KMTPartyHistoryArchives,NationalCentralLibraryinTaibei,theInstituteofModernHistoryatAcademiaSinica,andatConnecticutCollegefortheirassistanceinhelpingmetrackdownobscureChinesejournalsandtextsAndfinally,mygratitudetoTobyWahl,myexcellenteditoratPalgraveMacmillan,andtheanonymousreaderswhoendorsedtheprojectFinancialsupportfortheinitialresearchIconductedinTaiwanandMainlandChinain–camefromtheFulbrightCommissionandtheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocietiesAMellonDissertationFellowshipallowedmetodevotemyselffullytowritingin–ApostdoctoralawardfromtheChiangChingkuoFoundationenabledmetoworkonrevisionstothemanuscriptin–Mydeepestappreciationgoestomyfamily:mylateGrandfatherEvartsLoomis,whosetalesoflifeinYunnanProvinceinthessparkedmyinitialinterestinChinamyremarkablemotherMargaretandstepfatherBobmysistersDaniella,Charlotte,Jennifer,Eleanor,andMaggie,andabovealltoPeter,whoprovidedextraordinaryintellectualandemotionalsustenancethroughouteverysinglestepofthisbook’sdevelopmentWithinfiniteaffectionIdedicatethisbooktohimandtoourbelovedMolly,whohasarrivedinourlivesjustintimetoseethisbookgotopressAcknowledgmentsxIntroduction:WomenandFeminismintheLiteraryHistoryofEarlyTwentiethCenturyChinaThisstudyundertakesacriticalinquiryintothepowerfulconnectionsbetweenemergentfeministideologiesinChinaandtheproductionof“modern”women’swritingintheperiodspanningthedemiseofthelastimperialdynastyandthefoundingofthePeople’sRepublicinProceedingthroughaseriesofprimarilyformalandhistoricalanalysesofliteraryexamplesdrawnfromavarietyofnarrativegenres,IaccentuatebothwellknownandunderrepresentedliteraryvoiceswhointervenedintheheatedgenderdebatesoftheirgenerationandhistoricallycontextualizetheformalstrategiesusedinimaginingalternativestoriesoffemaleexperienceandpotentialMyanalysisinvestigatestwooverarchingquestions:firstofall,howtheadventofenlightenedviewsofgenderrelationsandsexualityinfluencedtheliterarypracticesofthesmalleliteofmoderneducated“newwomen”whomadetheirdebutsintheculturalpublicsphereatthetime,intermsnotonlyofnarrativecontentbutalsothenarrativeformsandstrategiestheydeployed,thereadershiptheysoughttoaddress,andthepublicationvenuesofwhichtheyavailedthemselvesSecond,itanalyseshow,inturn,theserepresentationsthemselvesattesttothevariouswaysinwhichearlytwentiethcenturyfemaleliteraryintellectualsengagedandexpandedcontemporarysocialandpoliticalconcernsbyselfconsciouslywritingwomenintostoriesofnationalsalvation,socialtransformation,andrevolutionThroughout,Ireexaminethecriticalparadigmoffeminism’ssubordinationtothemodernizingdiscoursesofNationandRevolutionandinsteadbuildoncontemporaryresearchwhilepresentingnewevidencethattheearlyparadigmfailstoaccountadequatelyforthecreativestrategiesChina’snewfemaleliteraryintellectualsemployedastheyquestioneddominantgenderideologieswithinamomentofrevolutionarysocialtransformationButinordertounderstandwhytheliteraryhistoryofwomenandfeminisminearlytwentiethcenturyChinashouldberecastwewillneedtocometotermswiththecrucialtheoreticalandconceptualcoordinatesthatinformthisimportantbranchofliterarystudyTheaimisnotsimplyarevisionistliteraryhistory,butthedevelopmentofananalysisthatwillcementabroader,richerknowledgeoftheperiodbyaugmentingrecenttheoreticalreadingswithasignificantlyexpandedsetofprimarymaterialsIfanewparadigmistotakeholditmightfruitfullyemployawholerangeofformalandhistoricalsources***Somenotablescholarshiponthesubjectof“womenandgender”inmodernChinapaintsadiscouragingpictureofthefeministprojectofchallengingthepowerandlogicofpatriarchalideologyTotheextentthattheconditionsofwomen’smaterialliveshaveundergoneanysignificantimprovementinChinasincethebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,thisisapparentlyinspiteof,notbecauseof,theworkoffeminism(feiminieshimunüquanzhuyinüxingzhuyi,nannüpingdengzhuyi,nüquanyundongfunüyundong)HistorianshavedocumentedatleasttwotroublingpatternsFirst,whilefromthelatenineteenthcenturyonwardthegoaloffemaleliberationwasquickly(andoftenconspicuously)absorbedintoprogressivepoliticaldiscourseonatheoreticallevel,inpracticespecificfeministagendastendedtobesubordinatedtoor,toborrowMargeryWolf’saptphrase,perpetually“postponed”bytheostensiblymorepressingpoliticalstruggleathand(beitnationalsalvation,antiimperialistresistance,orsocialiststatebuildingBeahan,Croll,Andors,Stacey,Wolf,Gilmartin,)Second,thegesturesmadebylateQingreformers,MayFourthintellectuals,orCommunistPartyofficialswereunderpinnedbyapersistentpaternalismthatcastsseriousdoubtonjusthow“feminist”wasthemodernChinesediscourseoffemaleemancipationWithrespecttothelatter,thepoint,inmyopinion,isnotthatmencan’toccupyalegitimateplaceinthefeministprojectorlendgenuinesupporttowomen’sstruggleshowever,insofarasmaleradicalshavedominatedbothintellectualdebatesandthepoliticalmanagementofmoderngenderreforminChina,womenhavearguablyremainedasdisenfranchisedandmarginalasever,thepassivebeneficiariesofmaleauthorityFewwoulddenythatthelegalrightsandexpandedopportunitiesintheeconomicspherewhichthis“imposed”liberationbrought,marksavastimprovementovertraditionallysanctionedmodesoffemalesubjectionfeministtransformation,however,itisnotInthearenaofculturalpolitics(aprimaryfocusinthisbook),feminismhasfallenundersimilarlyvalidscrutinyTherecentsurgeofcriticalinterestintherepresentationofgenderintwentiethcenturyChinesefictionandfilmonthepartofcontemporaryscholarshasfocusedlongoverdueattentiononthewaysinwhichtheapparently“enlightened”narrativetreatmentsofwomen(rangingfromcriticalrealistexposésoffemalesufferingunderthetraditionalConfucianordertosocialistcelebrationsofempoweredworkingclassheroines)wereoftencomplicitinconsolidatingrepressivemodernideologiesofgenderThatistosay,inspiteofradicalinnovationsinboththecontentandformofnarrativerepresentationsofwomeninthemodernperiod,therearestartlingcontinuitieswithinheritedgenderassumptionsIthasbeenpersuasivelyargued,forinstance,thatgenderliberationservedasanimmenselyfertilerhetoricalterrainthroughwhichselfstyledmodernmaleWomenandFeminismintellectualswereabletoworkthroughandarticulatetheirdisavowaloftraditionalformsofauthorityInotherwords,their(almost)obsessivepreoccupationwiththefemalecondition(andhencepersistenturgetowriteaboutorotherwiserepresentwomen)arosenotsomuchfromdeepallegiancetoafeministpoliticalorsocialagenda(withconcreteideasandidealsaboutwomen’sequalityorselfdetermination)perse,asfromadesiretocometotermswithmodernityingeneralInrecentrereadingsofcanonicalworksthatseemtoindicttraditionalChinesepatriarchy,forinstance,criticshaverevealedthatinmanycasesthefigureoftheafflictedfemalevictimfunctionsasapretexttoshowcasetheenlightenedemotionalandpoliticalstanceofamalenarratorprotagonist,supplyinganobjectthroughwhichtoregisterthemodernmalesubject’smoraloutrageatsocialinjusticeingeneralandhisdesireforsocialchange(Chan,Wang,Chow,Yue,Lieberman,Zhang,Louie,)Similarly,narrativesoffemaleliberation(themanystoriesinspiredbyIbsen’sNorainthes,forinstance,orthepopularlegendofthewhitehairedgirl(Baimaonü)thatcirculatedwidelyduringtheSinoJapanesewar),inscribed“woman”astheobjectofheroicmalerescue,whetherthatherobeintheguiseofthesympatheticMayFourthintellectualorthebenevolentCommunistPartycadreHence,evenifwhatonecriticcallsthe“salvationimpulse”drivingsuchnarrativesmaybesaidtoreflectanimportantemergentconsciousnessofwomen’sproblematicsocialposition,thegenderhierarchythesefictionsimplicitlyreinforcedmaleasactivesaviorfemaleashelplessvictimseemstoleavetheconventionalsymbolicstructuresofmasculinepowerauthoritymoreorlessintactYetanothertroublingrhetoricalpatterncontemporaryscholarshavedulydiscernedinthemodernChineseliteraryandfilmcanonistheenlistmentoftheimageoftheoppressedfemalebodyasanallegoricalspaceonwhichtoinscribe(his)storiesofthenation:wouldbe“feminist”concernsaboutwomen’sphysicalmutilation(footbinding,inparticular),rape,prostitution,femalesuicide,andsoforthhavefoundvividexpressionintwentiethcenturyculturalnarrativesbutroutinelyoperateonasymbolicormetaphoricalleveltoarticulatetheviolationofChina’snationalbody,ratherthanspecificinstancesofwomen’sexperienceofphysicalandsexualviolence(Ma,Liu,LiuKang,Zhang,)Evenifsuchtextscanbesaidtocontainalatentcritiqueofpatriarchy,inpointingtoorstandinginforotherlevelsofmeaningforexample,thebrutalityoftraditionalculture,thenation’splightvisàvisimperialistaggression,classexploitationthatcritiqueisagaineitherperpetually“postponed”asamatteroflesserurgencyordissolvedintoanimaginaryresolutionofChina’spoliticalliberationTheinfluentialviewofthefailureofChinesefeminismbothasasocialmovementandasaculturalpoliticsisinformedbyatleasttwohistoricalcontextsFirst,itowesmuchtotheriseoffeministtheoryinthefieldofChinesestudiesbeginninginthelatesandtotheincreasingsophisticationofcriticalmethodologiesbeingbroughttobearonissuesofwomenandgenderInliterarystudies,thishassparkedareevaluationofIntroductioncanonicaltextsandengenderedgreatersensitivitytothecomplexitiesofthesexual–textualpoliticsunderlyingmodernChineserepresentationsofwomenandmenandtheideologicalcontextsinwhichthesewereareembedded(Chow,Barlow,Zhang,Larson,,Lieberman,Zhong,Louie,)Accordingly,notunlikethedevelopmentoffeministliterarystudiesoftheAngloEuropeantradition,therehasbeenamarkedshiftfrompredominantlyempirical,contentbasedinterpretationstoacriticalengagementwiththehistoricallycontingentmeaningsofform,genre,andlanguageinrelationtomodernconstructionsofgenderdifferenceTheprevalenceofseemingly“positive”representationsofwomen(whetherviaasympatheticrenderingoftheirvictimizationoraffirmativedepictionsoffemaleempowerment)inmainstreamtwentiethcenturyChineseliterature,wehavenowcometobetterappreciate,doesnotnecessarilyreflectanascentfeministconsciousnessonthecontrary,itmaybeoneoftheveryfactorsthatmostinhibitedsuchapoliticalconsciousnessfromtrulytakingrootSecond,thecritiqueoffeminism’sfailureintheChinesecontextisinformedbythepostMaochallengestotheofficialrhetoricoftheChineseCommunistParty(CCP)thatclaimscreditforhavingsuccessfullyrealizedthemodernprojectof“liberating”women(jiefangfunü)Accordingtotheassumptionsthatinformthelatter,thekeytoachievinggenderequalityresidesinwomen’sentryintotheproductiveworkforceFor,aswasproclaimedattheFirstAllChinaWomen’sCongressin,“onlythroughactiveparticipationinproductioncanwomenraiseandconsolidatetheirpositionimproveastepfurthertheirownlivingstandardandfreethemselvesfromthefeudalyoke”Thus,insofarasChinesewomenwerewidelyintegratedintosocialproductionafterthefoundingofthePeople’sRepublic,thelogicgoes,theirstatusnolongerremainsaproblemAddingtothisrosypicturehasbeenofficialgovernmentendorsementofwomen’sequalrightsandabilitiesThebasicpolicyonwomen,voicedbyofficialstateorganssuchastheWomen’sFederation,orFulian,hasworkedasapowerfulobstacleinfullyconfrontingtherealitiesofgenderinequitiesandidentitiesinthePRCForthisreason,effortstoexposethestate’smythologyonwomen’sliberationandtorearticulategenderasarelevantpoliticalcategoryclearlyremainofcentralimportancetoChinesefeministsandfeministSinologicalresearchCritiquestrategicallyfocusedonthegapsandcontradictionsbetweentheofficialpartylineonwomenandthehistoricalrecord,andontheincommensurabilityofthemodernrhetoricandrealitiesofgender,undertakesthevitaltaskofrepoliticizinggenderasanarenaofunresolvedconflictandstruggleIndelineatingthelimitsandcontradictionsoftheostensibleendeavorstotransformgenderrelationsinChinaoverthecourseofthetwentiethcentury,however,weneedtobemindfulofthepitfallsofanotherpotentiallydangerous,andequallymonologic,countermythnamely,themythofamasculinemodernityItisonethingtocritiquethewaysinwhichwomenandwomen’sliberationhavebeenstrategicallyappropriatedbycontendingmodernizingdiscourses,itisquiteanothertoconcludethatsuchprocessesWomenandFeminismeffectivelyprecludedwomenfromassertingtheirownvisions,voices,anddesiresashistoricalsubjectsWithoutdiminishingthevalueoffeminismtotherecentstudyofChineseliteratureandculture,IwouldsuggestthatithassometimesplayedintopreciselysuchamythNeglectfulofwhatliteraryscholarPatriciaYaegerreferstoas“momentsofemancipationandempowerment”inwomen’sculturalproductions,somescholarlyaccountsunwittinglygivetheimpressionofanomnipotentpatriarchythatcondemnedmodernChinesewomentosilenceNothingmuchhaschangedfor,letalonebeenchangedby,womenoverthepastcenturysince,itiscontended,womenceasedbeingobjectswithinthemasculineConfuciansymbolicorderonlytobereobjectifiedbyitsCommunistcorrelativeThus,inthewordsofonecontemporarycritic,“Women’semancipationinChinafailednotonlybecauseanewpatriarchalorderattemptedtoreplaceanoldonebyusingwomen’srepresentationalpower,butalsobecauseChinesewomen,forlackofgenderawareness,couldnotsufficientlyresisttheirreductiverolesasrepresentationsofmasculinistideology”AppearingintheprefacetoacollectionfocusedontwentiethcenturyChineseliterature,theimplicationwouldseemtobethattheChinesewomenwriters(journalists,novelists,playwrights,

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[美]艾米·杜丽:二十世纪中国妇女文学中的女权主义(帕尔格雷夫 2005)

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