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首页 [美]魏定熙:陈力就列:北大、知识分子与中国的政治文化,1898—1929(加州大学 2004)

[美]魏定熙:陈力就列:北大、知识分子与中国的政治文化,1898—1929(加州大学 2004)

[美]魏定熙:陈力就列:北大、知识分子与中国的政治文化,189…

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简介:本文档为《[美]魏定熙:陈力就列:北大、知识分子与中国的政治文化,1898—1929(加州大学 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThePowerofPositionBERKELEYSERIESININTERDISCIPLINARYSTUDIESOFCHINAPublishedincollaborationwiththeCenterforChineseStudiesWenhsinYeh,EditorTheLureoftheModern:WritingModernisminSemicolonialChina,–,byShumeiShihIsTaiwanChinese:TheImpactofCulture,Power,andMigrationonChangingIdentities,byMelissaJBrownThePowerofPosition:BeijingUniversity,Intellectuals,andChinesePoliticalCulture,–,byTimothyBWestonThePowerofPositionBeijingUniversity,Intellectuals,andChinesePoliticalCulture,–TimothyBWestonUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeleyLosAngelesLondonUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,England©bytheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataWeston,TimothyBThepowerofposition:BeijingUniversity,intellectuals,andChinesepoliticalculture,–TimothyBWestonpcm(BerkeleyseriesininterdisciplinarystudiesofChina)Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn–––(cloth:alkpaper)BeijingdaxueHistoryHighereducationandstateChinaHistoryPoliticalcultureChinaHistoryITitleIISerieslgPwdcManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationisbothacidfreeandtotallychlorinefree(TCF)ItmeetstheminimumrequirementsofANSINISOZ–(R)(PermanenceofPaper)ForMarciaPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsixIntroduction:LocatingBeijingUniversityinHistorySchools,Politics,andReformintheNineteenthCenturyTheImperialUniversityandLateQingBeijingInstabilityandRedefinitionintheWakeoftheRevolutionBetweentheOldCultureandtheNewTheInsistentPullofPoliticsTensionswithintheMayFourthMovementNationalUniversityunderSiegeConclusionAbbreviationsUsedinNotesNotesBibliographyIndexContentsThisbookistheproductofintertwinedpersonalandintellectualjourneysSinceIhavehadseveralopportunitiestolive,study,andmakefriendsatBeijingUniversity(orBeida)SinceIalsohavefocusedonBeidaasasubjectofacademicstudyWithoutdoubt,myexperiencesthereinthesandshaveinformedmyunderstandingofitspastWhenIarrivedatBeijingUniversityforlanguagestudyinthefallof,IcamewithromanticideasIncollegehistorycoursesattheUniversityofWisconsinIhaddevelopedaninterestintheMayFourthintellectualsandinChina’sprotractedrevolutionaryprocessIknewthattheMayFourthMovementhadstartedatBeidaandhopedtorecapturesomeofitsflavorduringmyyearthereThebeautifulBeidacampusinBeijing’snorthwestsuburbsfurtherstokedmyimaginationFromtoithadbelongedtoYanjingUniversityforseveralcenturiesbeforethat,thelocationwashometoaseriesofprizedgardenestatesbelongingtomembersoftheeliteTheseestateshadbeendesignedtorecreatethephysicalappearanceandspiritoftheJiangnanlandscape,withwhichsomanymembersofthelateimperialliteratiwereintimatelyfamiliarButIdidnotneedtoknowanyofthistobemovedbythebeautyofthecampusTheWesternHillsarevisibleonthehorizon,walkwaysmeanderthroughbambooandevergreengroves,pavilionsandstonerelicssurroundNoNameLake(Weiminghu),whosecalmsurfacemirrorstheimposingpagodaonitsbankAllthesescenestransportedmebackintimeixPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsYetalsodiscerniblewithinthispeacefulsettingweretheunmistakabletracesofthepoliticsoftherecentpast:thetoweringstatueofChairmanMaoinfrontofthelibraryanabandonednetworkofeerie,waterfilledbombsheltertunnelsandonwallsallovercampusghostly,fadedslogansfromtheGreatProletarianCulturalRevolutionEarlyinmystayIreadYueDaiyun’sTotheStorm,amovingaccountofoneprofessor’slifeatBeidabeforeandduringtheCulturalRevolution,andasIdidsothisharsherlandscapeintrudedevermoreonmyconsciousnessMyunderstandingofthehorrorsthatoccurredattheuniversityduringthelastdecadeoftheMaoeragrewexponentiallyforapersonalreasontoo,forafacultymember’sfamilyallbutadoptedmethatfallasIgrewclosertothem,theyproceededtosharewithmefirsthandaccountsofthetragediestheyhadsufferedduringtheCulturalRevolutionWithinafewmonths,IhaddevelopedaninterestinBeida’smorerecenthistoryeverybitasstrongasmyinterestinitsMayFourthpastTowardtheendofthefirstsemester,though,myattentionabruptlyshiftedtothepoliticsofthepresentwhenaprodemocracyprotestmovementlaunchedbystudentsinAnhuiProvincespreadtoShanghaiandtothecapitalOnJanuary,,afrigidlycoldday,IwitnessedathrongofstudentsburstthroughapolicecordonsetupontheperipheryofTiananmenSquareIwatchedinalarmasapolicevehiclewounditswaythroughthecrowdsoacameramancouldcapturethedemonstrators’facesonfilm,andassecurityforceswrestledstudentstothegroundandthenarrestedthemAllofthiswasveryexcitingtomeIwasthrilledtobeinthepresenceofstudentsthatIconsideredheroesIwasthereforesurprisedtolearnthatmyBeida“family”didnotagreewithme,thattheywereinfactambivalentatbestaboutthedemonstrationIknewthemembersofthisfamilyfavoreddemocratizationandIeventhoughtofthem,romantically,asdissidentshowcouldtheynotwholeheartedlysupportthestudentsAtfirst,IbelievedtheyweresimplyafraidOvertime,however,Icametoseethattheyopposedtheprotestsbothbecausetheysuspectedthatpoliticalleaderswagingintrapartypowerstruggleswereusingthestudentsaspawnsand,justasimportantly,becausetheyabhorredpoliticalactivismthatsmackedoftherevolutionarystyleoftheMaoeraIwasstillpuzzlingoverthiswhenIbegangraduateschoolatBerkeleythenextyear,andsoelectedtowritearesearchpaperonCulturalRevolution–eraBeidainhopesofbetterunderstandinghowthepoliticalatmosphereattheuniversityhadevolvedbetweenthesandthesThencamethemomentouseventsofspring,inwhichBeixPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsjingUniversityagainplayedaleadingroleThetragicendingtothoseeventsledmetoasknewquestionsHowtoaccountforthefactthatBeijingUniversityhasbeensocentrallyinvolvedinnationallyimportantpoliticalandculturalupheavalsoverthecourseofthetwentiethcenturyWhydoesitshistoricalimportancetranscendthatofamereinstitutionofhighereducationTobegintoanswersuchquestions,Idecidedtofocusmydissertationontheuniversity’searlyhistoryand,influencedbyLynnHunt’smasterfulstudyofpoliticalcultureandtheinventionofideologyduringtheFrenchRevolution,toconcentrateonthesymbols,assumptions,andsocialpracticesthatconstitutedtheculturewithinwhichpoliticalideastookformandpoliticalactionswerecarriedoutIarrivedatBeidainthefalloftodomydissertationresearchconcernedthatmytopicwastoosensitiveThreeyearsafterthemassivemovementof,wouldaforeignresearcherinterestedinintellectualsandpolitics,evenintheearlytwentiethcentury,bewelcomeAgain,IwasinforasurpriseFirst,Iwaswarmlywelcomedandsecond,fewofthestudentsandprofessorswithwhomItalkedduringtheyearevincedanyenthusiasmforpoliticalactivismFurthermore,echoingsentimentsthatIhadencounteredwithinmyBeidafamilyin,manypeopletoldmetheybelievedthestudentshadgonetoofarin,thoughIdidnotmeetanybodywhothoughtthegovernment’suseofmurderousviolencewaswarrantedSomeofthepeoplewhoexpressedtheseideashadthemselvesbeenparticipantsin,andmostofthem,Isuspect,wouldhaveidentifiedthemselvesasliberalsStill,onthewhole,theyhadadoptedacautiousattitudeonthequestionofwhetherintellectualsshouldengageinconfrontational,publicprotestmovementsForthetimebeing,revolutionarystylepolitics,whetherdirectedbythegovernmentoragainstit,seemedtohaverunitscourseThetwoyearsIspentatBeidaarereflectedinthecentralthemesaddressedinthisbookForexample,myexperiencesledmetobeintenselyinterestedinthewaysintellectualshavepositionedthemselvesinrelationtopolitics,society,andthestateintwentiethcenturyChina,andintheprocessbywhichconsciousandunconsciousideas,values,andpracticescombinetoshapepoliticalcultureThetimeIspentatBeidaalsoimpresseduponmehowimportantitistounderstandthedialecticalrelationshipbetweennewerandolderwaysofthinkingamongintellectualsinperiodsofrevolutionarypoliticalchangeInparticular,IbecameveryinterestedintherelationshipbetweenChineseintellectuals’elitismandtheirpoliticalandculturalideals,andinthestrategiestheyhaveusedtotrytoputthoseidealsintopracticePrefaceandAcknowledgmentsxiTotheextentthatthesethemesarecompellingandthatthisbookisvaluable,IamindebtedtoagreatmanypeopleIbenefitedimmenselyfromtheinsightsandknowledgethatFredericWakemanandYehWenhsinsharedwithmeasIwrotethedissertationonwhichthisbookisbasedSincethen,IhavereceivedagreatdealmoreinspirationandguidancefromYehWenhsin,forwhichIammostgratefulInBeijing,IreceivedvaluableintellectualorpracticalhelpfromGuoJianrong,JinAnping,LiuGuisheng,WangShuo,XiaoChaoran,andZhangJiqianInTaibeiIincurreddebtstoShenSongqiao,TaoYinghui,andWangFansenSeveralpeoplekindlyreadandcommentedonpartsorallofthebookmanuscriptatonestageoranotherIamgratefultoCarltonBenson,TimCheek,JayDautcher,NeilDiamant,ArifDirlik,MartinFackler,SusanGlosser,MarkHalperin,LionelJensen,JoanJudge,KeithKnapp,ChrisReed,EdRuestow,andJeffWasserstromfortheirhelpfulsuggestionsandcorrectionsDonPrice,DavidStrand,andTakashiFujitani,thereadersfortheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,eachgavemeinvaluablesuggestionsforwhichIammostgratefulIalsowishtothankSheilaLevine,ReedMalcolm,andKateWarneattheUniversityofCaliforniaPressforseeingthisbookthroughtocompletionandJohnZiemerattheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterforhisbeliefinthisproject,aswellastheanonymousreaderheselected,whomadevaluablesuggestionsThemanuscriptbenefitedfromthecarefuleditorialworkperformedbyRuthSteinbergandNancyMannFinally,anumberofpeopleprovidedotherkindsofintellectualassistanceorhelpedwithmaterialsFortheirhelpIwishtothankAbeHiroshi,MarthaHanna,PaulaHarrell,MichelHockx,HongYue,LydiaLiu,SteveMacKinnon,SusanNaquin,MikePuett,AxelSchneider,ShenZhijia,YueShengyang,andPeterZarrowPartsofChapterappearedinarticleforminRebeccaEKarlandPeterZarrow,eds,RethinkingtheReformPeriod:PoliticalandCulturalChangeinLateQingChina(Cambridge,Mass:HarvardUniversityAsiaCenter,)andpartsofChapterappearedas“TheFormationandPositioningoftheNewCultureCommunity,–,”inModernChina,no()IamgratefulforthepermissiontoquotefromthosearticlesOvertheyearsanumberoffundingagenciesassistedmewiththeresearchandwritingofthisbookIreceivedfinancialbackingfromtheCommitteeonScholarlyCommunicationwiththePeople’sRepublicofChina,theSpencerFoundation,andtheUniversityofCaliforniaAttheUniversityofColoradoatBoulderIreceivedassistancefromboththexiiPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsGraduateCommitteeontheArtsandHumanitiesandtheCouncilonResearchandCreativeWorkItrulyappreciatethesupportofallofthoseagenciesWithoutloveandencouragementfrommyfamilythisbookcouldnothavebeenwrittenThankyouMom,Dad,Rabbit,Nanno,Charlie,Marta,Eduardo,Mary,Jimmy,andMaggieDuringthemanyyearsthatthisprojecthasbeenunderway,MarciaYonemoto,towhomthebookisdedicated,hasgivenmemorethanIcanpossiblyrepayherintelligence,example,andwillingnesstoreadcountlessdraftshavemadeallthedifferenceMostimportantly,Ithankherforherloveandforthegiftofourdaughter,LeahPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsxiiiOnMay,,BeijingUniversitycommemoratedtheonehundredthanniversaryofitsfoundingCelebrationstomarksuchoccasionsarecommonenough,butthisone,attendedbysomefiftythousandpeople,wasaveritableextravaganzathatmadeitabundantlyclearthatBeijingUniversityoccupiesaparticularlydistinguishedplaceinmodernChinesehistoryThenationalmediacoveredthecelebrationclosely,anddozensofnewbooksabouttheuniversitywererushedintoprintThePostandTelecommunicationMinistryissuedasetofcommemorativeBeidastampsinhonoroftheevent,andduringthecelebrationacelestialbodywasofficiallychristenedthe“BeijingUniversitystar,”therebygivingBeidaitsownplacewithinthefirmamentItishardtoimagineanotherChineseuniversity’scentenarybeingmarkedinthisfashionThroughoutthecommemoration,BeidawhichwasknownastheImperialUniversity,orJingshidaxuetang,beforewaspresentedasaworldclassinstitutionofhigherlearningThisideawasreinforcedbythepresenceatthefestivitiesofdignitariesfromamongtheworld’smostprestigiousuniversitiesOxford,Harvard,Stanford,Berkeley,Tokyo,Vienna,andmanyothersandbytheopeningofamassivenewadditiontotheuniversitylibrary,whichmakesBeida’sthelargestuniversitylibraryinAsiaMoreimpressively,BeijingUniversitywaspresentedasa“sacredplaceofthespirit”(jingshenshengdi),integraltotheverysouloftheChinesenationInmyriadwaysthecommemorationstressedthatBeida’sgreatnessresidesinanineffablespiritintroductionLocatingBeijingUniversityinHistorybornofitsheroichistoryandthattheuniversityisrecognizedbyChinesetheworldoverashavingbeenattheforefrontofChina’squestfordignityandgloryinthemodernworldAnarticleinChinaYouthDailythatreferredtoBeida’shistoryas“TwentiethCenturyChina’sCulturalSpiritinaNutshell”capturedthisideasuccinctlySotoodidessaysinTaiwan’sChinaTimes,whichdeclaredthatBeida’shistoryconstitutesacapsuleversionofmodernChinesehistory,andonebythedissidentliberalpoliticaltheoretician,GuoLuoji,intheNewYork–basedprodemocracyjournalChinaSpringWroteGuo:“NouniversityintheworldsharesascriticalarelationshipwithitscountryandpeopleasdoesBeijingUniversityitcanbesaidthatBeida’shistoryisChina’snationalhistory”ThecentennialcommemorationalsorevealedthatformanypeopleBeijingUniversityservesasagatewayconnectingmodernChinatoitsancientpastAsthecountry’sbestknowncenterfor“nationallearning”(guoxue),BeidaisviewedasaguardianofthesplendorofChinesecivilizationDuringthecentenaryseveralprominentscholarsevensuggestedthattheuniversity’srootsreachbacktoantiquitybecauseBeidapossessesstatusandculturalsignificanceakintothatonceheldbytheancientTaixue(ImperialCollege)anditssuccessor,theGuozijian(SchoolfortheSonsoftheEmpire)Asthelinealdescendentofthosevenerableculturalinstitutions,theirargumentgoes,BeijingUniversityhascometooccupyananalogousspaceinthenationalpsychemoreover,likescholarsandstudentsattheTaixueandGuozijian,thoseatBeidahaveconsistentlyassumed“responsibilityforallunderheaven”GiventhatBeida’scentennialcelebrationprovidedsorichanoccasionforthinkingaboutthecourseandmeaningofmodernChinesehistory,theCommunistPartycouldscarcelyhavefailedtoparticipateIndeed,thepartyinserteditselfintotheveryheartofthecommemoration,simultaneouslyassociatingitselfwithBeida’sgloryandmanagingthewaytheuniversity’shistoryandsymbolismwerecelebratedOfthemultifariousactivitiesthatcomprisedthecelebrationnoneweremorewidelyreportedinthemediathanthesolemnceremonyheldonMaythattheGreatHallofthePeopleonTiananmenSquarewhichIattendedVirtuallyallofChina’stopleaderswerepresentatthatceremony,whichopenedwitharenditionoftheChinesenationalanthemjointlyperformedbythePeople’sLiberationArmyandtheBeidaStudentArmy’sphilharmonicorchestrasThecentralmomentofthecarefullychoreographedprogramwasreservedforpresidentandgeneralsecretaryoftheCommunistPartyJiangZemin’skeynoteaddresstelevisedlivetotheIntroductionnationonCCTVsettingforththeCommunistParty’sofficialviewsonBeijingUniversity’splaceinChinesehistoryJiangZemindidnotintendtothrownewlightonBeida’spastRather,hisspeechreflectedtheCommunistParty’songoingattempttoimposeitsownmasternarrativeofmodernChinesehistoryonthepublicmindThethrustofJiang’smessagewasthatBeidaisheroicbecauseithasbeenandsurelywillcontinuetobehometopeoplewhohavestoodonthe“right”sideofhistory,peoplewhosepassionatepatriotisminspiredthemtomakepoliticalandscholarlycontributionsonbehalfofthenationInmakingthesepointsJiangcooptedremarkspennedbyChina’sgreatestmodernwriter,LuXun,in:“Beidaalwaysfightsforthenew,itisinthevanguardofthemovementforprogress”InOrwellianfashion,JiangmadenomentionofLuXun’saccompanyingassertionthatBeijingUniversity“alwaysdoesbattlewiththeforcesofdarkness”ahighlyironicomission,giventhatLuXun,perhapsmorethananyothermodernChinesewriter,distrustedwhatcanhappentoanauthor’svoiceonceitisinprintIndeed,JiangleftmuchoutthatdayWhilehecelebratedthefactthatBeijingUniversityhadsuppliedsomeofChina’searliestadherentstoMarxismanddulynotedBeida’spivotalroleinnumerouspoliticalandculturalmovements,hisstaleclichéshadtheeffectofsuggestingthatBeida’srecordofpoliticalactivism,whilecriticallyimportantbefore,wasaheroicchapterfromthepastwithlittlerelevancetothepresentdayPredictably,morerecenteventsthattookplaceindialoguewiththatpastthoseof,ofcourse,includedwentunmentionedTheorderlysceneatBeidaduringthefestivitiesseemedtoaffirmJiangZemin’sviewthatactivismwasathingofthepastAhandfulofstudentsaccusedtheirschoolmatesofbetrayingBeida’sheroictraditionbychoosingtoconcentrateontheTOEFLexamination,necessaryforforeignstudyintheUnitedStates,oronromancetotheexclusionofsociety’sneeds,buttherewerenodisruptionsofapoliticalnatureduringthecelebrationTothebestofmyknowledge,theonlypeoplewhochallengedthecompletenessoftheCommunistParty’sinterpretationofBeijingUniversity’shistoricalrolewereconsiderablyolderthanthecurrentgenerationofstudentsForexample,amidthecelebration,oldfriendswhohadbeenlabeledrightistsduringtheirstudentdaysatBeidainthesgatheredforhonestdiscussionoverprivatemealsOthersposedtheirchallengesinprintOneexamplewas

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[美]魏定熙:陈力就列:北大、知识分子与中国的政治文化,1898—1929(加州大学 2004)

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