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首页 (英文)布莱克维尔出版社《西方哲学词典》,人民出版社《西方哲学英汉对照词典》的英文版

(英文)布莱克维尔出版社《西方哲学词典》,人民出版社《西方哲学英汉对照词典》的英文版

(英文)布莱克维尔出版社《西方哲学词典》,人民出版社《西方哲学…

1990900106
2008-10-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《(英文)布莱克维尔出版社《西方哲学词典》,人民出版社《西方哲学英汉对照词典》的英文版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheBlackwellDictionaryofWesternPhilosophyBDOA,:AMFormygrandsonLouisBunninNBInmemoryofmygrandparentsJYBDOA,:AMTheBlackwellDictionaryofWesternPhilosophyNICHOLASBUNNINANDJIYUANYUBDOA,:AM©byNicholasBunninandJiyuanYublackwellpublishingMainStreet,Malden,MA,USACowleyRoad,OxfordOXJF,UKSwanstonStreet,Carlton,Victoria,AustraliaTherightofNicholasBunninandJiyuanYutobeidentifiedastheAuthorsofthisWorkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeUKCopyright,Designs,andPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUKCopyright,Designs,andPatentsAct,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherFirstpublishedbyBlackwellPublishingLtdLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBunnin,NicholasTheBlackwelldictionaryofWesternphilosophyNicholasBunninandJiyuanYupcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesISBN–––(alkpaper)Philosophy–DictionariesIYu,JiyuanIITitleBB′dcAcataloguerecordforthistitleisavailablefromtheBritishLibrarySetinDanteptbyGraphicraftLimited,HongKongPrintedandboundintheUnitedKingdombyTJInternational,Padstow,CornwallThepublisher’spolicyistousepermanentpaperfrommillsthatoperateasustainableforestrypolicy,andwhichhasbeenmanufacturedfrompulpprocessedusingacidfreeandelementarychlorinefreepracticesFurthermore,thepublisherensuresthatthetextpaperandcoverboardusedhavemetacceptableenvironmentalaccreditationstandardsForfurtherinformationonBlackwellPublishing,visitourwebsite:wwwblackwellpublishingcomBDOA,:AMContentsPrefaceviiDictionaryReferencesBDOA,:AMPrefaceAlthoughtheDictionarycoversawidehistoricalrangeandexploresmanysubjectareas,itfocusesontermsandindividualsatthecenterofcurrentphilosophicaldiscussionManyreaderswillconsulttheDictionaryforhelpinunderstandingindividualtermsandthecontributionsofindividualphilosophers,butotherswillexploreagivenphilosophicalissueorareabyreadingarangeofrelatedentriesAphilosopherbrowsingthroughthetextwilllearnmuchaboutthehistoryandstructureofWesternphilosophyanditssourcesofcreativedisputeWehopethattheDictionarywillbeaninvitationtofurtherthoughtandthatitwillnotbetakenasthelastwordonanytopicEntriesforphilosophicaltermsareintendedtoprovideclearandchallengingexpositionsthatgiveaccesstomajorphilosophicalissuesQueriesandobjectionsareoftenincludedtocapturetheperplexityarisingfromphilosophicalquestionsandtoencouragereaderstobeactiveandcriticalintheirresponsetotheDictionaryasawholeManyentriesgivethederivationsfromGreek,Latin,French,orGermanEntriesfortermsstatetheareasofphilosophyinwhichthetermshavetheirmainuse,providecrossreferencestoentriesonphilosophersandotherterms,andconcludewithillustrativequotationsfromaclassicalormodernsourceThereferencesectionattheendofthebookgivesdetailsoftheworkscitedinthesequotationsBiographicalentriesdiscussthephilosophicalcontributionsandlistatleastsomeofthemajorworksoftheirsubjectsInpreparingtheDictionary,weaimedtoprovideaclear,balanced,andsophisticatedpictureofphilosophyderivedfromprimaryworks,leadingscholarlyauthorities,andourownphilosophicalinsightsCitationsindicatetheextensiverangeofprimarysourcesconsulted,buttheentriesthemselvesalsoreflectourgratitudetoanexcellentrangeofcontemporaryphilosophicalencyclopedias,dictionaries,referenceworks,andtextbooks,includingPaulEdwards(ed),EncyclopediaofPhilosophy,vols(Macmillan,)JOUrmsonandJonathanRée(eds),TheConciseEncyclopediaofWesternPhilosophyandPhilosophers(Routledge,)EdwardCraig(ed),RoutledgeEncyclopediaofPhilosophy,vols(Routledge,)StuartBrownetal(eds),BiographicalDictionaryofTwentiethCenturyPhilosophers(Routledge,)RobertAudi(ed),TheCambridgeDictionaryofPhilosophy(CambridgeUniversityPress,)GVeseyandPFoulkes,CollinsDictionaryofPhilosophy(Collins,)AntonyFlew(ed),ADictionaryofPhilosophy(Pan,)ARLacey,ADictionaryofPhilosophy,ndedn(Routledge,)ThomasMautner(ed),ADictionaryofPhilosophy(Blackwell,)PeterAAngeles,TheHarperCollinsDictionaryofPhilosophy,ndedn(HarperCollins,)SimonBlackburn,TheOxfordDictionaryofPhilosophy(OxfordUniversityPress,)JOUrmson,TheGreekPhilosophicalVocabularyBDOA,:AM(Duckworth,)ACGrayling(ed),Philosophy:AGuideThroughtheSubject(OxfordUniversityPress,)NicholasBunninandEPTsuiJames(eds),TheBlackwellCompaniontoPhilosophy(Blackwell,)TedHonderich(ed),TheOxfordCompaniontoPhilosophy(OxfordUniversityPress,)theBlackwellCompanionstoPhilosophyseriestheBlackwellPhilosopherDictionariesseriesandtheCambridgeCompanionstoPhilosophersseriesInadditiontothosementionedabove,wewishtothanktheLeverhulmeTrustandthePeople’sPublishingHouse,BeijingAgrantfromtheLeverhulmeTrustsupportedourpreparationoftheDictionaryofWesternPhilosophy:English–Chinese(People’sPublishingHouse,Beijing,)ThepresentDictionaryisarevisedandaugmentedversionofthatearlierworkThePhilosophyLibraryandtheBodleianLibraryattheUniversityofOxfordmadetheirphilosophicalrichesavailabletousEdwardCraigandChadHansenwererefereesforourLeverhulmeTrustproject,andSirPeterStrawsonassessedourinitiallistofheadwordsFinally,wethankNickBelloriniandKelvinMatthewsofBlackwellPublishingfortheirencouragementandsupport,andValeryRoseandCarolineRichardsfortheirexcellenteditingWebothenjoyedourintensiveworkincompilingthisDictionary,andeachlearnedsomuchfromthephilosophicalinsightsoftheotherNicholasBunninJiyuanYuviiiPrefaceBDOA,:AMAabandonmentModernEuropeanphilosophyAnexperiencegainedthroughrealizingthattherearenoobjectiveprinciplesorauthoritiestoguideone’slifeAccordingtoexistentialism,thisexperiencehelpsustorecognizethatonecannotattainauthenticitybyappealtoGodortophilosophicalsystemsWeshouldeachunderstandourownuniqueexistentialcondition,rejectbadfaith,andassumefullresponsibilityforlifeTheconceptionofabandonmentishencerelatedtotheexistentialistaccountoftheautonomyoftheagent“Whenwespeakof‘abandonment’–afavouritewordofHeidegger–weonlymeantosaythatGoddoesnotexist,andthatitisnecessarytodrawtheconsequenceofhisabsencerighttotheend”Sartre,ExistentialismandHumanismabductionPhilosophyofscienceCSPeirce’stermforthelogicofdiscovery,acreativeprocessthatisoneofthethreefundamentaltypesofreasoninginscience,alongwithinductionanddeductionWhenweencounteranewphenomenonthatcannotbeexplainedthroughtheapplicationofagenerallaw,weshouldpickoutcertaincharacteristicfeaturesofthisnewphenomenonandattempttofindrelationsamongthesefeaturesAfterformingseveraltheoriesorhypothesesthatmightexplainthephenomenon,weshouldselectoneofthemtotestagainstexperienceSuchaprocessofreasoningtoformempiricaltheoriesorhypothesesfortestingiscalledabductionPeircealsocalleditretroduction,hypothesisorpresumption,butotherphilosophershavenormallycalleditinductionPeircedistinguishedabductionfrominductionbydefininginductionastheexperimentaltestingofatheoryHeheldthatabductioniswhatAristotlediscussedasapagago(Greek,leadingaway,substitutingamorelikelypremiseforalessacceptableone)“Presumption,ormoreprecisely,abductionfurnishesthereasonerwiththeproblematictheorywhichinductionverifies”Peirce,TheCollectedPapers,volIIAbelard,Peter(–)MedievalFrenchphilosopher,bornnearNantes,BrittanyAbelard,whosemainconcernwaslogic,madevaluablecontributionstodiscussionofissuessuchasinference,negation,predicateexpressions,andtransitivityHesoughttodiscusstheologicalproblemsbyanalyzingthepropositionsusedtostatetheseproblemsHesteeredamiddlecoursebetweenrealismandnominalismandmaintainedthatthereferenceofauniversaltermisnotnecessarilysomethingthatexistsInethics,hefocusedontheintentionoftheagentratherthanontheactionitselfandconsideredsintobeanintentiontoactagainstGod’swillandvirtuetobelivinginlovewithGodHisBDOC(A),:AMTheBlackwellDictionaryofWesternPhilosophyNicholasBunnin,JiyuanYuCopyright©byNicholasBunnin,JiyuanYumajorworksincludeDialectica,TheologianScholarium,Ethics(Scitoteipsum,orKnowThyself)andDialoguebetweenaChristian,aPhilosopherandaJewHealsowrotecommentariesonPorphyry’sIsagogeandAristotle’sCategoriesandDeInterpretationeThestoryoflovebetweenAbelardandHeloisehasfascinatedmanylatergenerationsabortionEthicsTheintentionalkillingofafetusorfertilizedhumaneggbycausingitsexpulsionfromthemother’swombbeforeitsbirthWhetherabortionshouldbemorallypermittedhasbeenintensivelydebatedinthepastfewdecadesandhasbecomeamajorpoliticalandlegalissueinmanyindustrializedcountriesOnefocusofthedebateisonthemoralstatusofafetusIsafetusapersonwithasubstantiverighttolifeTheantiabortionargumentholdsthatafetusisalreadyapersonandthereforeshouldbewithinthescopeofthemoralrulethat“youshouldnotkill”Thisviewleadstoadiscussionconcerningtheconceptofpersonhood,thatis,atwhatstagebetweenconceptionandbirthdoesafetusbecomesapersonAnotherfocusconcernstherightsofthepregnantwomanDoesshehavearighttobodilyautonomy,includingtherighttodecidewhathappenstoherownbodyEvenifafetusisaperson,howshallwebalanceitsrightsandthewoman’srightsStillanotherproblemconcernstheextenttowhichweshouldtakeintoaccounttheundesirableconsequencesoftheprohibitionofabortion,suchaspovertyandoverpopulationDifferentsidesofthedebateholddifferentpositionsresultinginpartfromthemoralprinciplestheyacceptThereiscurrentlynocommonbasistosolveallthedisagreementNevertheless,abortion,whichwaslegallypermittedonlyinSwedenandDenmarkuntil,hasbecomeacceptedinthemajorityofWesterncountries“Inducedabortionistheterminationofunwantedpregnancybydestructionofthefetus”RitaSimon,AbortionAbsolute,theMetaphysicsfromLatinabsolutus,inturnoriginatingfromab,away,fromandsolvere,free,loosenfreefromlimitations,qualificationsorconditionsTocallsomethingabsoluteistosaythatitisunconditionaloruniversal,incontrasttowhatisrelative,comparativeorvaryingaccordingtocircumstancesInmetaphysics,theAbsolute,asatechnicalterm,isasingleentitythatisultimate,unchanging,overridingandallcomprehensiveNicholasofCusausesthisexpressiontorefertoGodSubsequently,theAbsoluteisalwaysassociatedwithconceptssuchastheone,theperfect,theeternal,theuncaused,andtheinfiniteandhasbeenregardedastherealityunderlyingappearanceandprovidingrationalgroundforappearanceTherevivalofthenotionoftheAbsoluteinmodernphilosophyderivesfromthedebateinthesbetweenMendelssohnandJacobaboutSpinoza’sdefinitionofsubstanceSchelling,employingSpinoza’snotionofsubstance,definestheAbsoluteasaneutralidentitythatunderliesbothsubject(mind)andobject(nature)EverythingthatismentalorphysicalisanattributeoftheAbsoluteorof“indefinitesubstance”HefurtherclaimsthattheAbsoluteisalivingforce,anorganism,andsomethingthatisselfgeneratingratherthanmechanisticHegelclaimedthattheAbsoluteistheunityofsubstanceanditsmodes,oftheinfiniteandthefiniteSuchanAbsoluteisbothasubstanceandasubject,developingfromtheunderlyingrealitytothephenomenalworldandreachingabsoluteknowledgeasitshighestphaseThus,theAbsoluteisaselfdeterminingactivity,aspirit,andaconcretedynamictotalityItsdevelopmentmirrorsthedevelopmentofknowledgeHegel’smetaphysicssoughttoworkouttheprocessandimplicationsofthisdevelopmentInthetwentiethcentury,thistermisparticularlyassociatedwithBradley,whoconceivestheAbsolutetobeasingle,selfdifferentiatingwholeAntimetaphysicalthoughtarguesfortheeliminationoftheAbsoluteasanentitythatcannotbeobservedandthatperformsnousefulfunctioninphilosophy“Absolutesarethelimitsofexplanation,andassuchtheyhavebeenthemainthemeoftraditionalphilosophy”Findlay,AscenttotheAbsoluteabsoluteconceptionMetaphysicsAtermintroducedbyBernardWilliamsinhisstudyofDescartesforaconceptionofrealityasitisindependentofourexperienceandtowhichallrepresentationsofrealitycanberelatedTogainsuchaconceptionrequiresovercomingthelimitationsofourenquiryandanysystematicbias,abortionBDOC(A),:AMdistortion,orpartialityinouroutlookSuchaconceptionmayenableustoviewourrepresentationsasonesetamongothersandtoavoidassessingtheviewsofothersfromourownstandpointWilliamsclaimsthatournotionofknowledgeimpliesthatsuchaconceptionispossible“Thisnotionofanabsoluteconceptioncanservetomakeeffectiveadistinctionbetween‘theworldasitisindependentofourexperience’and‘theworldasitseemstous’”BWilliams,EthicsandtheLimitsofPhilosophyabsoluteideaMetaphysicsTheabsoluteidea,forHegel,isequivalenttoabsolutetruthinhisPhenomenologyofMindandtotheabsoluteinhisLogicItisalsocalledabsolutespiritForHegel,anideaisnotsomethingmentalorseparatefromparticulars,butisthecategoricalformofspiritTheabsoluteideaistheideainandforitself,aninfiniterealityandanallembracingwholeItexistsinaprocessofselfdevelopmentandselfactualizationAsametaphysicalcounterpartoftheChristianGod,itisthebasisfortheteleologicaldevelopmentofboththenaturalandsocialworldsItsdeterminatecontentconstitutesrealityTheabsoluteideaiswhattrulyis,andthefinalrealizationoftruthForHegel,theabsoluteideaisadynamicself,involvinginnerpurposivenessandnormativeidealsBycharacterizingrealityastheabsoluteidea,HegelshowedthathisnotionofrealityisfundamentallyconceptualItisaunityoftheidealoflifewiththelifeofcognitionThecoreofHegel’sidealismistheclaimthatthebeingofallfinitethingsisderivedfromtheabsoluteideaIntermsofthisnotion,Hegelintegratedontology,metaphysics,logic,andethicsintoonesystem“Thedefectoflifeliesinitsbeingonlytheideaimplicitornatural,whereascognitionisinanequallyonesidedwaythemerelyconsciousidea,ortheideaforitselfTheunityandtruthofthesetwoistheAbsoluteIdea,whichisbothinitselfandforitself”Hegel,LogicabsoluteidentityLogicAstraditionallyunderstood,identityisarigorousnotionthatcannothavevariantforms,andtheidentityrelationistakenabsolutelyAccordingtoFrege,thisabsolutenotionofidentitycanbeexpressedintwotheorems:()reflexivity:x=x(everythingisidenticalwithitself)and()theindiscernibilityofidenticals(orLeibniz’slaw):ifaandbareidentical,whateveristrueofaistrueofb,andviceversaHence,“aisidenticalwithb”meanssimply“aisthesameasb”PeterGeachcallsthisaccounttheclassicaltheoryofidentityandbelievesthatitismistakenInstead,heclaimsthatidentityisalwaysrelative,sothataisnotsimplythesameasb,butratherthatacanbethesameasbrelativetooneconceptbutnotthesameasbrelativetoanotherconceptInresponse,somearguethatrelativeidentityisqualitativeidentity,whilenumericalidentityremainsabsolute“Absoluteidentityseemsatfirstsighttobepresupposedinthebranchoflogiccalledidentitytheory”Geach,LogicMattersabsoluterights,seerights,absoluteabsolutespirit,anothertermforabsoluteideaabsolutismMetaphysics,ethics,politicalphilosophyAtermwithdifferentreferencesindifferentareasInmetaphysics,itisopposedtosubjectivismandrelativismandclaimsthatthereisanultimate,eternal,andobjectiveprinciplethatisthesourceandstandardoftruthandvalueEthicalabsolutismholdsthatthereisabasicuniversalprincipleofmoralitythateveryrationalbeingshouldfollow,despitetheirdifferentempiricalcircumstancesMoralabsolutismisopposedtomoralrelativism,whichdeniesthatanysinglemoralprinciplehasuniversalvalidityInpoliticaltheory,itistheviewthatthegovernment’spowerandrightsareabsoluteandthattheyalwayshaveprioritywhentheycomeintoconflictwiththerights,interests,needs,preferences,ordesiresofcitizensorgroupsinsociety“Inethics,therejectionofabsolutismleadsinitiallytotherecognitionofmultiplemoralauthorities,eachclaimingitsownlocalvalidity”Toulmin,HumanUnderstandingabstractconcreteEpistemology,metaphysicsfromLatinabstrahere,toremovesomethingfromsomethingelseandconcrescere,togrowtogetherAttheoutsetofaprocessofrecognitionourconceptsarelikelytobeabstractconcreteBDOC(A),:AMvagueorsuperficialWemustfirstabstracttheminordertounderstandtheirdiversedeterminationsBeingabstractistheproductofabstraction,thatis,ofdrawingawaysomethingcommonfromdiverseperceptibleorsensoryitemsanddisregardingtheirrelativelyinessentialfeaturesConceptsanduniversalsarethusformedTosaythatsomethingisabstractmeansthatitisconceptual,universal,essential,oramatterofprinciple,whiletosaythatsomethingisconcretemeansthatitiscontextual,particular,personal,sensibleTobeconcreteisequivalenttobeingrichandvividSincewhatisabstractisdrawnfromwhatisconcrete,tobeabstractisequatedwithlackingthedetailandindividualityoftheconcreteandisthoughttobemeager,dependent,andlifelessTheexistenceandnatureofabstractentitiessuchasnumbersanduniversalshaslongbeenamatterofdisputeInanotherusage,whichisespeciallyprominentinHegel’sphilosophy,beingabstractmeansbeingcutofffromthoughtsorfromothersensoryitems,whilebeingconcreteistoberelationalHence,aparticularisabstractifitisisolatedfromotherparticulars,whileaconceptoruniversalisconcreteifitisrelatedtootherconceptsoruniversalsandisoneiteminanorganicsystemHegelcalledsuchaconcepta“concreteconcept”or“concreteuniversal”“Whatweabstractfromarethemanyotheraspectswhichtogetherconstituteconcreteobjectssuchaspeop

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(英文)布莱克维尔出版社《西方哲学词典》,人民出版社《西方哲学英汉对照词典》的英文版

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