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首页 [美]葛思珊:中国家国梦:1915—1953(加州大学 2003)

[美]葛思珊:中国家国梦:1915—1953(加州大学 2003).

[美]葛思珊:中国家国梦:1915—1953(加州大学 200…

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2008-10-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]葛思珊:中国家国梦:1915—1953(加州大学 2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ChineseVisionsofFamilyandState,–Glosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageiASIA:LOCALSTUDIESGLOBALTHEMESJeffreyNWasserstrom,KärenWigen,andHueTamHoTai,EditorsBicycleCitizens:ThePoliticalWorldoftheJapaneseHousewife,byRobinMLeBlancTheNanjingMassacreinHistoryandHistoriography,editedbyJoshuaAFogelTheCountryofMemory:RemakingthePastinLateSocialistVietnam,byHueTamHoTaiChineseFemininitiesChineseMasculinities:AReader,editedbySusanBrownellandJeffreyWasserstromChineseVisionsofFamilyandState,–,bySusanLGlosserGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageiiChineseVisionsofFamilyandState,–SusanLGlosserForewordbyLindaKerberUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeley·LosAngeles·LondonGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageiiiUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,England©byTheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGlosser,SusanL,–Chinesevisionsoffamilyandstate,–SusanLGlosserpcm(Asia:Localstudiesglobalthemes)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbnFamilyChinaHistoryFamilypolicyChinaDomesticrelationsChinaChinaHistoryRepublic,–ChinaHistory–ITitle:Chinesevisionsoffamilyandstate,–IITitleIIISeriesdsgdcManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationisbothacidfreeandtotallychlorinefree(tcf)Itmeetstheminimumrequirementsofansinisoz(r)(PermanenceofPaper)Glosser,ChineseVisions:AMPageivContentsListofTablesandFiguresviiForewordixAcknowledgmentsxvChronologyxixIntroduction:EvolveorPerishSavingSelfandNation:TheNewCultureMovement’sFamilyReformDiscourseMakingtheNationalFamily:TheStatistXiaoJiatingMarketingtheFamily:YouHuaigaoandtheEntrepreneurialXiaoJiatingLoveforRevolution:XiaoJiatinginthePeople’sRepublicConclusion:TheMalleabilityoftheXiaoJiatingIdealNotesBibliographyGlossaryIndexGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagevGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageviTablesandFigurestablesAgeofJiatingYanjiuSurveyRespondentsChen’sSurvey,UnengagedMen:WhoShouldChooseYourWifeChen’sSurvey,MarriedMen:MyWife’sSatisfactoryQualitiesPan’sSurvey:Men’sRankingofthePurposesofMarriagePan’sSurvey:Women’sRankingofthePurposesofMarriagePan’sSurvey:ImportantQualitiesinaWifePan’sSurvey:ImportantQualitiesinaHusbandGroundsWomenUsedtoSueforDivorce,andOutcomesGroundsWomenUsedtoSuetoLiveApart,andOutcomesOccupationsofVisitorstotheMarriageQuestionsDeskfiguresChen’ssurvey:ageofmarriedandengagedrespondentsPan’ssurvey:maritalstatusandageofmalerespondentsviiGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageviiPan’ssurvey:occupationsofmalerespondentsPan’ssurvey:occupationsoffemalerespondentsChen’ssurvey:actualversusidealageatmarriageChoreographyofanidealNationalistweddingChoreographyofanewstyleShanghaiweddingParticipantsinaNationalistgroupweddingChenYunlongandWangXimei“Freedomofmarriage,alifeofprosperityandhappiness”“Protectingtheinterestsofwomenandchildren”“Widowshavearighttoremarry”“Marryingattheproperage”viiiTablesandFiguresGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageviiiForewordWhetherwecreditittoglobalismorcosmopolitanism,theneedtoreachoutofthearchivesofasinglenationandtoexplorethemesthataresharedacrossculturalboundarieshasinvigoratedmuchrecentscholarshipMarxisthistoriansledthewayPerhapsthiswasbecauseMarxisttheoryofferedastructureforexplainingthehistoricalrelationofworkertocapitalistthatrefusedtoseethedifferencesbetweennationalhistoriesasabsolutePractitionersofthissortofhistorythoughtintermsofstructuresthatallowedforasharedandcomparativehistorythesametheoreticalapparatuscouldbeemployedwhetherthelaborrelationswereinBuenosAiresorBoston,Milan,orManilaFeministscholars,onthetrailofpatriarchy,followedsuitTheyhavefounditincreasinglyinterestingtocrossboundariesoftimeandspaceandengageindialoguewiththoseconcernedwithcommonquestionsbutdifferentepochsandlocalesPatriarchyhasflourishedinwildlydisparatesocieties,and,likeclassandrace,genderispermanentlyintheprocessofsocialformationHungryforanalyticalstrategies,feministscholarshavereasontoreadoutsidetheirdisciplinaryandgeographicalandtemporal“fields,”andtheyhaveoftendonethefirstofthesethings(itisnoaccidentthatsomanyfeministscholarlyjournalsareinterdisciplinary),thoughlesscommonlythelattertwoixForgoodintroductionstomovestointernationalizethehistoryofwomenandofgender,seeKarenOffen,RuthRoachPierson,andJaneRendall,eds,WritingWomen’sGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPageixStill,iftheworkiscompellingenough,eventhebiggestgulfsoftimeorspaceareobstaclesthatcanbeovercomeAndSusanGlossergiveshistoriansoftheUnitedStates,Europe,Africa,andLatinAmericaagoodreasontoreadaboutChinaShealsoaddstoagrowingbodyofevidencewithinfeministhistoriographyfortheneedtofindnewwaystointegrate,onanequalfooting,talesaboutgenderandtalesaboutpoliticsIntheearlys,whenthehistoryofwomenwasbeingreinvigorated,politicalhistorywasgenerallyunderstoodtobeasubjectinnocentofgender(AcollectionofhistoriographicalessayscommissionedbytheAmericanHistoricalAssociationherdedwomen’shistoryintothesamechapterasfamilyhistory)ForSusanGlosser,though,asformanyotherrecentwritersonrelatedthemes,familyhistoryandgenderhistoryarenecessarilylinkedtonationalpoliticalhistorySheargues,inthechapterstocome,thattheconstructionofgenderisintegraltoanation’sunderstandingofitself,andgenderidentitiesaresubstantiallyconstructedinsidefamiliesInlisteningtoChinesemenarguinginthesaboutthequalitiesoftheperfectwife,weheargenderideologiesbeingshapedWecanalsofind,perhapstooursurprise,argumentswehaveheardbeforeintheUnitedStatesintheeraoftheAmericanRevolution,inItalyduringtheRisorgimentoThatisinpartbecauseChinesemenimportedtheselinesofreasoningfromabroad,inpartbecausesimilarlinesofreasoningemergedfromcongruentpoliticalgoalsThestrugglesagainsttraditionalConfucianvaluesthattookplaceinearlytwentiethcenturyChinacanseemfarremovedfromthoseAmericanRevolutionarieswagedagainstconservativeideologiesintheeighteenthcentury,buttherearesomeeerieresemblancessomeofwhichGlosserexplicitlynotesinherstudyChinesereformerschallengedaConfuciantraditionthatrequiredupperclasswomen(andinsomecasesthoseofnonelitestatusaswell)tobemetaphoricallyandliterallysecludedintheirhomes,theirmobilityrestrictedbythepainofboundfeetChinesereformerscondemnedfootbindingbothforprincipleandforpractice,andexpandedtheircondemnationoftraditionintoanassertionofwomen’sentitlementtoknowledgesothattheycouldbebetterwivesandmothers(Because“thetropeofthepowerlessandvictimized”womanwasusefultoreformers,Glosserargues,theygenerallyignoredtherealpowerthatwomenespeciallyasmothersinlawcouldwieldinthetraditionalelitexForewordHistory:InternationalPerspectives(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,)andIdaBlom,KarenHagemann,andCatherineHall,eds,GenderedNations:NationalismsandGenderOrderintheLongNineteenthCentury(Oxford:Berg,)Glosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagexhousehold)AsChinesereformerswarmedtotheirtask,Glosserexplains,theyofferedavisionofthemodernwomanthatcallsuptheimageInamedthe“republicanmother”inaworkpublishedmorethantwodecadesagoWealsoseethecontoursatsomemomentsofwhatmightbecalledtoplayonbothterminologyusedbyotherhistoriansofgenderinterestedintheWestandasloganbandiedaboutincontemporaryChinaacultofdomesticitywithChinesecharacteristicsTheideologyofrepublicanmotherhood,whichflourishedintheeraoftheAmericanRevolution,locatedpoliticized,educatedwomenascontributorstothestabilityandvitalityofthestateSuchamotherwasaninformedcitizenwhotransmittedherwellgroundedopinionstoherchildren,educatinghersonsanddaughterstoleadpatrioticandvirtuouslivesMoreover,beforeshewasarepublicanmothershewasarepublicanwife,choosingavirtuousmanforherhusbandandcorrectingherhusband’slapsesfromcivicvirtueAgainstthefounders’fearthatrepublicswerefragile,dependentonthevirtuouschoicesofthegenerationthatcreatedthem,unlikelytoberetainedwhentherevolutionarygenerationwasreplacedbydescendantswhohadnotexperiencedthemoralcrisesthatdrovethefounders,therepublicanmotherinsertedherselfShepromisedtonurturesuccessivegenerationsofvirtuouscitizensLikeGlosser’sNewCulturereformers,sheagreedthatthenation“neededhealthy,educatedmotherstoproducecitizenssoundinmindandbody”Hemmedinateveryturnbytheoldlawofdomesticrelations,republicanmotherhoodcouldlegitimizeonlyaminimumofpoliticalsophisticationandinterestTherepublicanmotherdidnotvoteorparticipatedirectlyinpoliticsshecouldbesparedthesharpcriticismnormallydirectedatintellectuallyactivewomenbecausesheplacedherlearningatherfamily’sserviceLiketheideologyofxiaojiating(literally,thesmallfamily),theideologyofrepublicanmotherhoodclaimedamodestspaceForewordxiForelaborationoftheconceptsoftherepublicanmotherandthecultofdomesticity,seeLindaKKerber,WomenoftheRepublic:IntellectandIdeologyinRevolutionaryAmerica(ChapelHill:InstituteofEarlyAmericanHistoryandCulturefortheUniversityofNorthCarolinaPress,)RonaldHoffmanandPeterJAlbert,eds,WomenintheAgeoftheAmericanRevolution(Charlottesville:UniversityofVirginiaPress,)JanLewis,“TheRepublicanWife,”WilliamandMaryQuarterly,ser,vol,no(October):–JeanneBoydston,HomeandWork:Housework,WagesandtheIdeologyofLaborintheEarlyRepublic(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,)andthemostrecenteditionofRenateBridenthaletal,eds,BecomingVisible:WomeninEuropeanHistory(Boston:HoughtonMifflin,)AnimportantefforttotracesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenChineseandWesternvisionsofdomesticityisSusanMann,“TheCultofDomesticityinRepublicanShanghai’sMiddleClass,”JindaiZhongguofunüshiyanjiu(Researchonwomeninmodernchinesehistory)(June)Glosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagexifortheindividualismofthewife,alteringthefemaledomaininwhichmostwomenlivedouttheirlives,andjustifyingmiddleclasswomen’sclaimstobepartoftheciviccultureSomeofthesimilaritiesacrosstimeandspacejustalludedtoareintentionalGlossertellsusthatNewCultureradicalsofthesandslookedtotheWesternnuclearfamilyasamodernalternativeandmadeNoraofIbsen’sADoll’sHousetheirmodelTheydreamedofcompanionatemarriagetheylinkedindividualhappinesstothewelfareofsocietyandalthoughtheydidnotclaim“life,liberty,andthepursuitofhappiness”asexplicitgoals,entitlementtopersonalhappinessresonatedthroughtheirwritingsAccesstodivorcewasnecessarilypartofthecompanionateidealpetitionersfordivorceinChinaattheendofthedecadeofthes(notunlikepetitionersfordivorceinRevolutionaryAmericaorFrance)wereoverwhelminglywomenBythesthexiaojiatingidealhadimplodedtoinclude“rational”consumerchoicesaspartoftheway“womenfulfilledtheircivicduties,”alongwitheducatingtheirchildrenandmakingthehomecomfortablefortheirhusbandsThereweremanydifferences,ofcourseTheideologyofxiaojiating,Glossertellsus,wasembeddedinanattackontraditionalfamilysystemsIntheUnitedStates,thosewhoarticulatedtheideologiesofrepublicanmotherhoodandcompanionatemarriagehadincludedwomenaswellasmenChinesereformersseemtohavebeenalmostallmaleanduninterestedinfemalesubjectivityItwastheirownindividualismtheywerepreparedtoheightenAsGlosserputsit,“Mentookitforgrantedthatitwastheirhappinessatstake”Moreover,inChina,toanunusualdegree,duetoamixtureofpoliticalfactors,thepowerofaninvasivestateendedupbeingbolsteredbyfamilyreformrhetoricIngeneraldailyusage,atleastintheUnitedStates,thelanguagesofmarriageandoffamilylifearethoughttodescribeprivatelife,asphereofexperienceguardedagainststateintrusionWehabituallycontrastthexiiForewordItisinterestingtonotethatintheUnitedStatesinthes,asSusanEKlepphasargued,theideologyofrepublicanmotherhooddevelopedinthedemographiccontextofthe“fertilitytransition”tosmallerfamiliesFreewomen,shewrites,“appliedegalitarianideasandavirtuous,prudentsensibilitytotheirbodiesandtotheirtraditionalimagesofselfasrevolutionsinspireddiscussionanddebateOnthehouseholdlevel,restrictedfertilityandhighratesofliteracyoryearsofeducationwerepersistentlylinked:thehighertheeducationalattainmentofwomen,thelowerfertilityrates”SeeSusanEKlepp,“RevolutionaryBodies:WomenandtheFertilityTransitionintheMidAtlanticRegion,–,”JournalofAmericanHistory():,Itisalsoworthpointingoutthatthexiaojiatingideology,asGlossersuggests,notonlylimitedtheamountofspacecarvedoutfortheindividualismofthewifethesamewastrueforthehusbandGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagexiifamilyandthestate,thepublicandtheprivateAndyet,thefamilyisbasictoasociety’ssystemofpoliticalcommunicationpatternsoffamilyauthorityintersectwiththegeneralpoliticalculture,hereaswellasinplacesthataresometimesassumedtobeunusuallyorientedtowardfamilialunitsAmongthevocabulariesfortheexpressionofstatepoweraretherulesofmarriageManyelementsofmarriageandfamilylifeareshapedbystatepolicy:theceremonyitselfregisteredinstateofficesparentalobligationstosupportandprotectchildrenenforceddivorcesframedbypubliclawpoliceinvitedtointerruptdomesticviolenceinheritancelawcontrollingwhatcanbehandedtoheirsandwho,intheeventofintestacy,thoseheirswillbeMenandwomen,whetherornottheyaremarried,whetherornottheyareheterosexual,shapetheirrelationshipstoeachotherwithintheboundariesofthestate’sexpectationsfortheirbehaviorSimultaneously,thestate’sownvisionofitselfoftendependsasmuchuponfamilybehaviorasonpubliclawForexample,practicesofchildraisingprecedeformalschoolingandcansituatechildrenvariouslyforparticipationinsocietiesthatexpectgreaterorlesserdegreesofselfgovernmentandcivicparticipationThesepracticescanchangeovertimeBeforetheAmericanRevolution,divorcewasrareandwhenitoccurred,custodyofyoungchildreninvariablywenttothefatherbythes,theideologyofrepublicanmotherhoodhadcontributedtoanewconfigurationofwomenasappropriatelythenurturersandeducatorsoftheirchildren,andtheoldrulebegantocrumbleAgenerationago,GabrielAAlmondandSidneyVerbaenvisionedpoliticalsocializationasaprocessinwhichanindividualdevelopsadefinitionofselfasrelatedtothestateInthetalkandthereisalotofgoodtalkinGlosser’sbookaboutwhathusbandsandwivesowetoeachother,totheirfamilies,andtothecommunity,wecanheareducatedChinesemenofthefirsthalfofthetwentiethcenturystrugglingtoarticulatenewrelationsofmarriageWealsohearthem,sometimesexplicitly,sometimesimplicitly,strugglingtoarticulatenewclaimsfortheirownselffashioning,fortheirrelationswiththeirwives,andfornewrelationsbetweentheprivatefamilyandthepublicorderThattheyhesitatedtochallengethepublicorderastheyinheriteditwouldconstitutetheirtragedyButGlosserhasretrievedthevoicesofmenofmodestfameandenabledustolisteninastheyreflectontheForewordxiiiGabrielAAlmondandSidneyVerba,TheCivicCulture:PoliticalAttitudesandDemocracyinFiveNations(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,)Glosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagexiiimostintimaterelationsoftheirlivesTheirstatewouldbelisteningIfthepublicspherepressessoheavilyontheprivate,thenhistoriansofthepublicordercannotavoidthehistoryofthefamilyandofideasaboutitReadingacrossborders,inanefforttotietogetherhistoriesofgenderandhistoriesofpolitics,allthissuggests,issomethingthatiswellworthdoingformanydifferentkindsofreasonsAndforstudentsofWesternhistorieslookingforsomewaytogetasenseofthestakesinvolvedinChinesedebatesonthefamilyandpubliclife,thepagesthatfollowbySusanGlosserareanexcellentplacetostartLindaKKerberxivForewordGlosser,ChineseVisions:PMPagexivAcknowledgmentsWritingtheseacknowledgmentshasbeenanedifyingexperienceUntilnowIhavenothadtofaceuptothefactthatoverthepastdecadeandahalfIhaveimportunedandinconvenienceddozensofpeoplewhohavegenerouslyagreedtohelpmeinallkindsofwaysInthecourseofmyresearchesIhavebenefitedfromtheunstintingkindnessofAnnieChangandherstaffattheCenterforChineseStudiesLibraryattheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,andthepatienceofthestaffattheHooverInstitute’sEastAsianCollectionatStanfordUniversityBruceWilliamsistheghostinthemachineatBerkeley’sEastAsiaticLibraryandhashelpedmetrackdownallsortsofthingsovertheyearsThefolksintheInterlibraryLoanDepartmentatLewisClarkCollegehavekeptmesuppliedwithmuchthatI’veneededIoweagreatdealtothestaffoftheShanghaiMunicipalLibrary,theShanghaiMunicipalArchives,andtheNumberTwoArchiveinNanjingTwopeopleinparticularhelpedmegetthematerialsIneededtowritethisbookTheyknowwhotheyareandIhopetheyalsoknowhowmuchtheireffortshavemeanttomeInTaipeithestaffoftheNationalHistoricalArchives,theNationalistPartyArchives,theHistoryInstitute,andtheBureauofIntelligenceLibrarywentoutoftheirwaytoguidemyresearchandprovidemewiththematerialsIneededIhopethesepeopleandtheirinstitutionswillacceptmyheartfeltthanksinexcha

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[美]葛思珊:中国家国梦:1915—1953(加州大学 2003)

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