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首页 [美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)

[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)

[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—194…

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简介:本文档为《[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheManAwakenedfromDreams:OneMan’sLifeinaNorthChinaVillage,–HENRIETTAHARRISONSTANFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSthemanawakenedfromdreamsLiuDapengUsedbykindpermissionofLiuNiuzhong,ChiqiaoTheManAwakenedfromDreamsOneMan’sLifeinaNorthChinaVillage,–stanforduniversitypressstanford,californiahenriettaharrisonStanfordUniversityPressStanford,California©bytheBoardofTrusteesoftheLelandStanfordJuniorUniversityAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystemwithoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofStanfordUniversityPressPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfree,archivalqualitypaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHarrison,HenriettaThemanawakenedfromdreams:oneman'slifeinanorthChinavillage,–HenriettaHarrisonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn(cloth:alkpaper)isbn(pbk:alkpaper)Harrison,HenriettaTravelChinaChiqiaoVillageChiqiaoVillage(China)DescriptionandtravelLiufamilyITitledsch'dcOriginalPrintingLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprinting:TypesetbyClassicTypographyinJansoncontentsAcknowledgmentsviiPrefaceWritingTheConfucianScholarTheFilialSonTheRepresentativeofthePeopleTheMerchantTheFarmerEpilogueNotesBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankacknowledgmentsIamdeeplygratefultoDavidFaureforpersuadingmetoworkonLiuDapengandthusgivingmetheopportunitytolearnsomuchStAnne’sCollege,Oxford,gavemeaJuniorResearchFellowshipthatallowedmetodomostoftheinitialresearch,whiletheLeverhulmeTrustandtheInstituteforAdvancedStudygavetheopportunitytospendastimulatingyearinPrincetonwritingthefinalversionofthebookFriendsandcolleaguesinOxford,Princeton,andLeedshavealldedicatedagreatdealoftimetomyworkIamparticularlygratefultoPennyFrancks,JoanJudge,NicolasStandaert,JoanScott,andEmmaShoreforreadinglargeamountsoftheprojectinunfinishedformChenHuaiyuprovidedhelpwiththetranslationsandatagreaterdistance,MayBoChing,JacobEyferth,andKateEdgertonprovideddiscussionofimportantpointsThisprojectwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheopportunitytospendconsiderableamountsoftimeinShanxiIamgratefultotheBritishAcademy,theUniversities’ChinaCommittee,andtheEuropeanUnionChinaAcademicNetworkforfundingmyvisitsNorwouldmyresearchhavebeenpossibleafterIarrivedinShanxiwithouttheendlesslygeneroushelpofProfessorZhangZhengmingoftheShanxiAcademyofSocialSciencesBiYuanofBeijingNormalUniversityaccompaniedmeonmanyinterviewsanddiscussedthemwithmeafterwardWuJiongshengofJinciNoMiddleSchoolnotonlyarrangedmanyinterviewsandgavemecopiesofinscriptionshehadtranscribed,butafterwardkindlyinterviewedhisneighborsandrelativeshimselfandsentmedetailedreportsFinally,Iamgratefultoallthosewhohavespenttimetellingmeabouttheirlives,histories,andvillagesAsanyreaderofthisbookwillsee,mydeepestthanksgotoLiuZuoqingforthemanyhourshehasspenttalkingtomeabouthisgrandfather,conversationswhichnotonlyironedoutmanyofmydifficultieswiththewrittentextsandinformedmeonthedetailsofthefamily’seconomicsituation,butaboveallmadeLiuDapengcomealiveformeviiiAcknowledgmentsMapofChinain,showingplacesmentionedinthetextTerritorialBoundariesGreatWallRUSSIAMONGOLIAMANCHURIAYangziRiverKhiaktaTaiyuanZhangjiakouKaifengXinyangVladivostokTransSiberianRailwaySHAANXISHANXIHENANHEBEIZHEJIANGGUANGDONGFUJIANBeijingShanghaiTianjinHankouCentralShanxiSource:ABCFMShansiMissionAdaptedfromShenGuifen’smapofShanxiProvince,FenRiverTaiyuancountytownNanxiChewangChiqiaoBeidasiJinciDongzhuangyingJinshengGuchengyingTAIYUANTAIGUXUGOUYUCIthemanawakenedfromdreamsThispageintentionallyleftblankThesedaysonecangettoChiqiaovillagebybusThefirsttimeIcame,in,thebusdriverletmeoffattheendofthetrackthatrunsacrossthericepaddiestothevillageManyofthebusesareownedandoperatedbyChiqiaofamilies,butthebuscrewwassurprisedthatIwantedtogothereThevillageliesontheedgeoftheplainanditsmainstreet,whichwindsupthehill,istheoldroadthatranfromTaiyuan,theprovincialcapitalofShanxi,tothesouthernpartoftheprovinceMostofthehousesalongtheroadarelowtraditionalcourtyardsand,likethelongabandonedshops,aremuchthesamecolorasthedirtroadalongwhichtheyarebuiltOneofthesewasthehomeofLiuDapeng,whichIhadcometoseeBeforeLiu’sfatherboughtitthehousehadbeenapawnshop,anditissolidlybuiltwithasmallgatewayovertheentranceThetalkativeoldmanwhotookmeintothehousetoldmethathangingundertheeavesofthegatewaytherewasoncealargeboardsaying“FatherandSonarebothgraduates”TodaytheboardisgoneandtheelaboratecarvingonthewallbehindthegatehasbeenhackedoffandPrefaceroughlyplasteredoverLiftingabambooscreenwecomeroundthecornerintoapavedcourtyardwithfourroomsrounditTheoldmancallsouttothefamilyandjokesthatthiswastheonlycourtyardinthevillagewhosestonepavingwaslaidbygraduatesStandingherewearefacingthemainrooms,whichwereonceinhabitedbyLiuDapeng’sparentsandnowbelongtothefamilyofhiseldestsonOnourleftistheslightlysmallersouthfacingbuildingwhereLiuhimselflivedallhislifeAnoldwomandressedinblackcomesout,introducesherselftomeasLiuDapeng’sfifthdaughterinlaw,andtakesusinsideItisalongnarrowroomwithawidebrickbedatoneendandcupboardsandtablessetagainstthebackwallThefarendisseparatedofftoprovideasmallinnerroom,whichoncehadaheatedbrickbedlikethemainroombutnowhastwoironbedsteadsDirectlyfacingusasweenterisalargeportraitofLiuDapeng:aseriousmanhissolidityandstatureemphasizedbyathickpaddedsilkjacketfrowningslightlydownatusLiuDapeng’shomewasnotwhatIexpectedWhentheoldmanjokedthatthepavingstoneshadbeenlaidbygraduates,IdidnotbelievehimSurelyQingdynastydegreeholdersdidnotlaypavingstonesIwasalsosurprisedatthesizeofthehouseMynotesontheoccasionrecordastringofquestions:WasthistheonlycourtyardLiulivedinDidallhissonslivehereaswellLiu’sdaughterinlawandayoungwomanwhohadmarriedintothefamilyofhiseldestsonweresurprisedintheirturnbutquiteclear:Liu,hiswife,parents,fivesonsandtheirwivesandchildrenalllivedintheonecourtyardIknewthatLiuandhissonhadbothheldprestigiousprovincialdegreesinthelastdecadesoftheQingdynastyAlthoughneithereverachievedthefinalnationalleveldegreethatprovidedaccesstoofficialemployment,eventheholdingofprovincialdegreesmadethembothmembersofwhatChangChungli,writinginthes,describedastheuppergentryBelowthemwerethemanyholdersofthepreliminarydegreewhohadneverbeenabletoprogressfurtherTogetherthesedegreeholdersformedagroupthatwritersofChinesehistoryhavetraditionallyreferredtoasthe“gentry”anddescribedastakingamediatingpositionbetweenthestateandthegeneralpopulationThisgroupisseenasbeinginfusedwithaConfuciancultureacquiredthroughtheeducationandexaminationsystemLaterstudieshaveemphasizedtheimportanceofothersourcesofpowerTheydescribedegreeholdersandothers,suchasthosewhohadmademoneythroughtradeorbankingbutdidnotholddePrefacegrees,asmembersofaneliteOtherscholarshavelookedatthelifestylesofthisgroupanddescribedhowmembersoftheelitedifferentiatedthemselvesfromotherpeoplethrough,forexample,writingpoetry,painting,andcollectingrarebooksTheeffectofreadingthisliteraturehadbeentoproduceinmymindatleastanimageofthegentryaswealthy,culturedfamilieslivinginlargehousesThereisofcourseanotherimageoftraditionalChinesedegreeholders:theimpoverishedschoolteacherPennilessscholarsdesperatelytryingtopasstheexamsthatwouldbringthemanofficialpositionarefamouslysatirizedintheeighteenthcenturynovelTheScholarsThisisthecategoryintowhichmyChineseacquaintancesinvariablyfitLiuDapengMenlikeLiuDapengdidnotnecessarilyteachandtheimpoverishedschoolteacherisastereotype,butitisonethatreflectsarealitythathastoooftenbeenoverlookedEducatedbutpoorfamiliesdoappearintheEnglishlanguageliteratureonChina,buttheirvoicesareoftenlostinthesimplicityofthedivisionbetweentheeliteandthecommonpeopleThisdivisionappealstousWewanttobestudyingeitherthepowerholdersorthesubalternsWhenwemakethatdivisionwearemakinganaliensocietymorecomprehensibletoourselves,butwearealsofilteringoutthedifficultiesPartofmyaiminthisbookistoquestionsomeoftheclassificationsweapplytoChinesesociety:gentry,merchant,peasant,eliteWhatdowemeanwhenweusethesetermsDoesanyindividual,letaloneafamily,fitneatlyintoanyonecategoryIfidentitiesaremultipleandshifting,thenhowdoesthisaffectthehistoricalnarrativeswerelateComingtoLiuDapeng’shouseandmeetinghisfamilyalsomademewonderaboutwhathappenedtothedegreeholdinggentryaftertherevolutionOnmysecondvisittothevillage,in,Iwasintroducedtothe“landlord’sson,”anoldmannamedWuwhohadbecomeapapermakerintheyearsaftertheCommunistrevolutionofDespitehisreputationasaskilledcraftsman,hewasnervousandavoidedansweringquestions,anunsurprisingresultofhisstatussinceLiuDapeng’sfamilyshowednosuchcharacteristicsIndeed,ononeoccasionLiu’selderlydaughterinlawtookadvantageofmypresencetoberatethevillagePartySecretaryloudlyandatlengthforthedestructionduringthesofthecarvingonthedecoratedwallbehindthemaingateofthehouseFamilymemberswereproudPrefaceofLiuDapengandtoldmehowmanybookshehadowned(awholecupboardfull)butmadenoclaimstoschoollearningandclearlyconsideredthemselvestobequiteordinarymembersofthevillagecommunitySocialmobilityisknowntohavebeenanimportantcharacteristicofChinesevillages,buthistorianshavetendedtofocusonthosemembersoftheelitewhosucceededinpreservingtheirstatusandinadaptingtochangeTheyseemembersoflocalelitesbecomingincreasinglyinvolvedinsocialactivismandinattemptstomobilizethepopulationtosupportchangeandmodernizationIthasalsobeensuggestedthattraditionaleliteswhohadactedtoprotecttheirvillagesfromgovernmentextortionlosttheirlegitimacyastaxationincreasedintheearlytwentiethcentury,andthatwhenthishappenedtheymigratedtothetownsInallthesescenariostraditionallocalelitesstillpreservedsomeoftheireconomicandsocialstatusLiuDapeng’scasewasmuchlesspositiveAshisdescendents’currentsituationsuggests,thefamilyhaddeclinedwellbeforetheCommunistrevolutionofGiventhepicturewehaveofthepreservationofexistingelites,whydidLiu’sfamilyfailAndhowdidmentrytopreservethestatustheyhadearnedasmembersofthegentrywhentherevolutiondestroyedanyremaininghopethattheymightattaingovernmentofficeThesequestionshaveledmetotwostories,thefirstaboutConfucianismandthesecondabouttheprovinceofShanxiWhatroledidConfucianismactuallyplayinpeople’slivesAndhowdidthatchangeafterthestateabandoneditslongstandingcommitmenttoConfucianorthodoxyLiuDapengwaspersonallycommittedtotheideashelearnedfirstasaschoolboyandlaterasastudentinanacademyintheprovincialcapitalHeagonizedendlesslyoverhisfailuretoliveuptothehighstandardshehadlearned,particularlywhathesawastheinadequacyofhiscareandaffectionforhisparentsHisattempttoplayouttheroleofaConfuciangentlemanwasunusual:hisclassmatesintheacademy,manyofwhomcamefromwealthierbackgrounds,teasedhimforhisearnestenthusiasm,whilehisneighborsinthevillageoftendisagreedwithhimoverwhatconstitutedproperbehaviorButeventhoughfewpeoplesharedLiu’spersonalcommitment,theytoleratedandevenadmireditbecauseitwasrecognizedandpromotedbythestateThen,fromon,thestategraduallyabandoneditsConfucianvaluesinfavorofanewemphasisonnationalismPrefaceandavisionofmodernitytiedtointernationaltradeandlargescaleurbanindustryTherhetoricofConfucianismlostitspoliticalcurrencytosuchanextentthatofficialswouldnolongerevenlistentoargumentscouchedinthoseterms,andLiulostthepublicvoicethathiseducationhadoncegivenhimButConfucianismwasdeeplyembeddedinlocalsocietyanddidnotsimplydisappearForLiuhimself,theefforttobehavelikeaConfuciangentlemanwasacrucialpartofhisidentity,onethatmarkedhisstatusevenafterhiseducationalqualificationsbecamepoliticallyworthlessThewaysinwhichheattemptedtoconvertthisidentityintoanincomeforhisfamilysuggesttheextenttowhichConfucianideasremainedpartoflocalinstitutionslongafterthestatehadabandonedthemInparticular,intheabsenceofastronglegalframework,Confucianvaluescontinuedtoplayanimportantroleinbusiness,whereLiufoundemploymentasacoalminemanagerandinvestmentmanagerHisstatusamongthecounty’smerchantswasconfirmedthroughhisextensiveworkasamediatorinbusinessdisputes,wherehisvaluesystemwasrecognizedandacceptedConfucianismcontinuedtobepartofmanyaspectsoflife:business,thefamily,agricultureButintheabsenceofthestateasaunifyingforce,ConfucianvaluesdevelopedandchangedindifferentwaysineachoftheseinstitutionsThroughoutthebookIusethewordConfucianismasshorthandfortheideologypromotedbytheQinggovernmentinthelatenineteenthcentury,whichLiuDapengusuallyreferredtoas“theprinciplesofthesagesandworthies”or“thewayofConfuciusandMencius”InhisopinionthisrepresentedtheauthenticteachingofConfuciusandhisdisciplesThisviewisnotsharedbymodernscholars,whomightprefertocallhisphilosophy“neoConfucianism,”emphasizingitsoriginsinthethoughtofthetwelfthcentury,butwassharedbymostofhiscontemporariesIhaveusedthetermConfucianismpartlybecauseitreflectsLiu’sopinions,butalsobecauseSongneoConfucianism,likeQingorthodoxy,wasitselfmerelyamomentinthegreatphilosophicalstreamNorwasLiu’sConfucianismapureversionoftwelfthcenturyideasitwasshotthroughwithideasthatcamefromtheDaoistphilosophicaltraditionaswellButbothphilosophiescametohimthroughthesametextualtradition,andheneverexplicitlydifferentiatedbetweenthetwo,acceptingbothashisheritageasascholarandpotentialofficialandalwaysreferringtohimselfasfollowingthewayoftheancientsagesPrefaceInanearliergenerationLiuDapengmighthavedefinedhisConfucianismagainstsomeformofpopularculture,butinfacthecameincreasinglytosetitinoppositiontowhathereferstoasthe“new”policiesSo,forexample,hestates,Inrecentyearsscholarshaveallbeendividedintotwogroups,called“thosewhoholdtotheold”and“thosewhoholdtothenew”ThosewhoholdtotheoldcleavetothewayofConfuciusandMencius,whilethosewhoholdtothenewseekonlyafterWesternmethodsFromthesthroughtothes,hesawandlamentedtheinexorablepoliticalriseof“thosewhoholdtothenew”andtheirpoliciesIhavechosentorefertothesepeopleasmodernizersandtotheirpoliciesasmodernizationbecauseinourlanguageanygovernmentpolicycanbenew,whereaswhatLiusawwasaparticularpoliticalagenda,basedonaWesterninspiredvisionofthefutureHeunderstoodthisagendaasbeingopposedtohisownConfucianism,whichlookedbacktothewayoftheancientsagesThisbringsmetotheotherstory,whichisabouttheShanxicountrysideanditsgradualexclusionfromcommercialprosperityandpoliticalpowerasaresultofchangesthatwerecloselylinkedtothisvisionofmodernityWhenIvisitedChiqiaoandthenthevillageofNanxiwhereLiuworkedasatutorformanyyears,itwasimmediatelyobviousthatthesevillageshadoncebeenwealthyThemainstreetinChiqiaoislinedwithbuildingsthatwereonceshopsbuthavelongbeenbrickedupforuseashousingOffthestreetthenarrowlanesrunintolargeyardswithdilapidatedchimneysandcollapsingshedsthatoncehousedthevillage’spapermakingindustryInNanxiandtheneighboringvillageofChewang,vastandoncebeautifullydecoratedhallsandcourtyardswerelockeduporinhabitedbyimpoverishedvillagerswholookedalmostasiftheywerecampinginthemThiswas,ofcourse,partlytheresultofCommunistpartypoliciesofthesands,whichredistributedwealththroughlandreformandtheabsorptionofruralindustryintothestatebutitwasalsopartofalongerprocessInsomecasesCommunistpoliciesactuallyhadtheeffectofpreservingbuildingsofthekindthatbeforewerebeingbrokenupandsoldfortimberTheimpoverishmentoftheoncewealthyShanxicountrysidebeganwellbeforeandwastheresultofaseriesofpoliticalchangesthattransformedShanxi’sPrefacegeographyMongolianindependence,theRussianrevolution,andtherefocusingofbothnationalsecurityconcernsandtradefrominlandnorthwestChinatothesoutheastcoasttogetherthesedevelopmentsturnedShanxifromamajortradingcorridorintoanisolatedandinaccessibleprovinceMeanwhilethevisionofmodernitysharedbyprovincialandnationalgovernmentsemphasizedurbanindustrializationandexportorientedcommerceasthefoundationforastrongnationSomepartsofthecountrybenefitedfromthesechangesShanxivillagesdidnotBetweenand,thevillagesofcentralShanxiweretransformedfromprosperouscentersofcommerceandindustryintoimpoverishedandlargelyagriculturalcommunitiesThesearelargetopics,butIhavefocusedthemroundthestoryofoneman,becausethatishowIcametothemThisapproachalsoallowsmetofocusonthedetailsofeverydaylifewherewecanseehowsocialstructuresandideologiesinteractedinpracticeOnlyattheleveloftheindividualisitpossibletosee,forexample,howtheideologyoffilialpietywasputintopracticeandhowthiswasaffectedbypoliticalchangesifweleaptothecollectivitytooquickly,welosemuchofwhatisintere

用户评价(5)

  • yyyyyyyyy_zzu5w 这几本书,对我很重要,能再传一次吗? 1[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)2马考德:枪杆子里出政权:近代中国军阀割据的出现(加州大学 1993).rar3方德万:从朋友到同志:中国共产党的初创(加州大学 1991)4,柯临清:造就中国革命:二十世纪二十年代的激进妇女、共产政治与群众运动(加州大学 1995 5、[美]彭慕蘭:體面經濟:中華帝國晚期的農村收入、 非穩定性與性別規範等实在不行,希望能发到我的邮箱地址:yyyyyyyyyylllll0@163.com。【我的邮箱地址有点变态,别见笑。具体是10个y,5个l(英文l),1个0(数字0)】谢谢。您做的工作,令人敬佩。不知道能不能联系您,我的电话是021-61447199

    2009-03-23 10:05:10

  • yyyyyyyyy_zzu5w 这几本书,对我很重要,能再传一次吗? 1[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)2马考德:枪杆子里出政权:近代中国军阀割据的出现(加州大学 1993).rar3方德万:从朋友到同志:中国共产党的初创(加州大学 1991)4,柯临清:造就中国革命:二十世纪二十年代的激进妇女、共产政治与群众运动(加州大学 1995

    2009-03-23 10:04:56

  • yyyyyyyyy_zzu5w 5、[美]彭慕蘭:體面經濟:中華帝國晚期的農村收入、 非穩定性與性別規範 等 实在不行,希望能发到我的邮箱地址:yyyyyyyyyylllll0@163.com。【我的邮箱地址有点变态,别见笑。具体是10个y,5个l(英文l),1个0(数字0)】 谢谢。 您做的工作,令人敬佩。 不知道能不能联系您,我的电话是021-61447199

    2009-03-23 10:01:04

  • yyyyyyyyy_zzu5w 不知道为什么,我不能下其中从第六页到第九页的书籍,您能再上传一次吗。特别是以下基本,对我很重要:1【美】沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005);2、柯临清:造就中国革命:二十世纪二十年代的激进妇女、共产政治与群众运动(加州大学 1995;3.马考德:枪杆子里出政权:近代中国军阀割据的出现(加州大学 1993).rar4,方德万:从朋友到同志:中国共产党的初。

    2009-03-23 09:56:18

  • 白玉老虎 功德无量

    2008-10-30 02:25:45

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[美]沈艾娣:梦醒子:一位华北村庄士绅的生平,1857—1942(斯坦福 2005)

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