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首页 英语语法手册(英文版)

英语语法手册(英文版)

英语语法手册(英文版)

渤海之子
2008-10-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语语法手册(英文版)pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

EnjoytheEbookEnglishGrammarinUseAselfstudyreferenceandpracticebookforintermediatestudentsRaymondMurphySecondEditionCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESS:ffCONTENTSThanksviiTothestudentviiiTotheteacherixPresentandpastPresentcontinuous(Iamdoing)Presentsimple(Ido)Presentcontinuousandpresentsimple()(IamdoingandIdo)Presentcontinuousandpresentsimple()(IamdoingandIdo)Pastsimple(Idid)Pastcontinuous(Iwasdoing)PresentperfectandpastPresentperfect()(Ihavedone)Presentperfect()(Ihavedone)Presentperfectcontinuous(Ihavebeendoing)Presentperfectcontinuousandsimple(IhavebeendoingandIhavedone)Howlonghaveyou(been)WhenandHowlongForandsincePresentperfectandpast()(IhavedoneandIdid)Presentperfectandpast()(IhavedoneandIdid)Pastperfect(Ihaddone)Pastperfectcontinuous(Ihadbeendoing)HaveandhavegotUsedto(do)FuturePresenttenses(IamdoingIdo)forthefuture(I'm)goingto(do)Willshall()Willshall()IwillandI'mgoingtoWillbedoingandwillhavedoneWhenIdoWhenI'vedoneWhenandifModalsCan,couldand(be)abletoCould(do)andcouldhave(done)Mustandcan'tMayandmight()Mayandmight()MustandhavetoMustmustn'tneedn'tShould()Should()HadbetterIt'stimeCanCouldWouldyouetc(Requests,offers,permissionandinvitations)Conditionalsand'wish'IfIdoandIfIdidIfIknewIwishIknewIfIhadknownIwishIhadknownWouldIwishwouldPassivePassive()(isdonewasdone)Passive()(bebeenbeingdone)Passive()ItissaidthatHeissaidto(be)supposedtoHavesomethingdoneReportedspeechReportedspeech()(HesaidthatReportedspeech()QuestionsandauxiliaryverbsQuestions()Questions()(DoyouknowwhereISheaskedmewhereAuxiliaryverbs(havedocanetc)IthinksoIhopesoetcQuestiontags(doyouisn'titetc)~ingandtheinfinitiveVerb~ing(enjoydoingstopdoingetc)Verbto(decidetodoforgettodoetc)Verb(object)to(Iwant(you)todoetc)Verb~ingorto()(rememberregretetc)Verb~ingorto()(tryneedhelp)Verb~ingorto()(likewouldlikeetc)PreferandwouldratherPreposition(inforaboutetc)~ingBegetusedtosomething(I'musedtoVerbpreposition~ing(succeedin~ingaccusesomebodyof~ingetc)Expressions~ingToforandsothat(purpose)AdjectivetoTo(afraidtodo)andpreposition~ing(afraidof~ing)Seesomebodydoandseesomebodydoing~ingclauses(Feelingtired,Iwenttobedearly)ArticlesandnounsCountableanduncountablenouns()Countableanduncountablenouns()CountablenounswithaanandsomeAanandtheThe()The()(Schooltheschool)The()(Childrenthechildren)The()(Thegiraffethetelephonethepianoetctheadjective)Nameswithandwithoutthe()Nameswithandwithoutthe()SingularandpluralNounnoun(atennisballaheadacheetc)'s(thegirl'sname)andof(thenameofthebook)PronounsanddeterminersAfriendofmineMyownhouseOnmyownbymyselfMyselfyourselfthemselvesetcThereanditSomeandanyNononeanyMuch,many,little,few,alot,plentyAllallofmostmostofnononeofetcBothbothofneitherneitherofeithereitherofAll,everyandwholeEachandeveryRelativeclausesRelativeclauses()clauseswithwhothatwhichRelativeclauses()clauseswithorwithoutwhothatwhichRelativeclauses()whosewhomwhereRelativeclauses()'extrainformation'clauses()Relativeclauses()'extrainformation'clauses()~ingandedclauses(thewomantalkingtoTom,theboyinjuredintheaccident)AdjectivesandadverbsAdjectivesendingin~inganded(boringboredetc)Adjectives:wordorder(anicenewhouse)Adjectivesafterverbs(Youlooktired)Adjectivesandadverbs()(quickquickly)Adjectivesandadverbs()(wellfastlate,hardhardly)SoandsuchAEnoughandtooQuiteandratherComparison()cheaper,moreexpensiveetcComparison()Comparison()asasthanSuperlativesthelongestthemostenjoyableetcWordorder()verbobjectplaceandtimeWordorder()adverbswiththeverbStill,yetandalreadyAnymoreanylongernolongerEvenConjunctionsandprepositionsAlthoughthougheventhoughInspiteofdespiteIncaseUnlessAslongasandprovidedprovidingAs(reasonandtime)LikeandasAsifFor,duringandwhileByanduntilBythetimePrepositionsAtonin(time)OntimeintimeAttheendintheendWaton(place)()Inaton(place)()Inaton(place)()ToatinintoOninat(otheruses)ByNounpreposition(reasonfor,causeofetc)Adjectivepreposition()Adjectivepreposition()Verbpreposition()atandtoVerbpreposition()aboutforofafterVerbpreposition()aboutandofVerbpreposition()offorfromonVerbpreposition()inintowithtoonPhrasalverbs(getupbreakdownfillinetc)AppendixRegularandirregularverbsAppendixPresentandpasttensesAppendixThefutureAppendixModalverbs(cancouldwillwouldetc)AppendixShortforms(I'myou'vedidn'tetc)AppendixSpellingAppendixAmericanEnglishAdditionalexercisesStudyguideKeytoExercisesKeytoAdditionalexercisesKeytoStudyguideIndexTHANKSIwouldliketothankallthestudentsandteacherswhousedthematerialthatmadeuptheoriginaleditionofthisbookInparticular,IamgratefultomyformercolleaguesattheSwanSchoolofEnglish,Oxford,foralltheirinterestandencouragementIwouldalsoliketothankAdrianduPlessis,AlisonBaxter,BarbaraThomasandMichaelSwanfortheirhelpwiththeoriginaleditionRegardingthisnewedition,Iwouldliketoexpressmythanksto:JeanneMcCartenforherhelpandadvicethroughoutthepreparationoftheprojectAlisonSilver,GeraldineMark,PeterDonovan,RuthCarimandNickNewtonofCambridgeUniversityPressGerryAbbot,RichardFay,ClareWestandPamMurphyfortheircommentsonthemanuscriptSueAndreandPaulHeacockfortheirhelpwiththeappendixonAmericanEnglishAmandaMacPhallfortheillustrationsTOTHESTUDENTThisbookisforstudentswhowanthelpwithEnglishgrammarItiswrittenforyoutousewithoutateacherThebookwillbeusefulforyouifyouarenotsureoftheanswerstoquestionslikethese:WhatisthedifferencebetweenIdidandIhavedoneWhendoweusewillforthefutureWhatisthestructureafterIwishWhendowesayusedtodoandwhendowesayusedtodoingWhendoweusetheWhatisthedifferencebetweenlikeandasTheseandmanyotherpointsofEnglishgrammarareexplainedinthebookandthereareexercisesoneachpointLevelThebookisintendedmainlyforintermediatestudents(studentswhohavealreadystudiedthebasicgrammarofEnglish)ItconcentratesonthosestructureswhichintermediatestudentswanttousebutwhichoftencausedifficultySomeadvancedstudentswhohaveproblemswithgrammarwillalsofindthebookusefulThebookisnotsuitableforelementarylearnersHowthebookisorganisedThereareunitsinthebookEachunitconcentratesonaparticularpointofgrammarSomeproblems(forexample,thepresentperfectortheuseoftbe)arecoveredinmorethanoneunitForalistofunits,seetheContentsatthebeginningofthebookEachunitconsistsoftwofacingpagesOntheleftthereareexplanationsandexamplesontherightthereareexercisesAtthebackofthebookthereisaKeyforyoutocheckyouranswerstotheexercises(page)TherearealsosevenAppendicesatthebackofthebook(pages)Theseincludeirregularverbs,summariesofverbforms,spellingandAmericanEnglishFinally,thereisadetailedIndexatthebackofthebook(page)HowtousethebookTheunitsarenotinorderofdifficulty,soitisnotintendedthatyouworkthroughthebookfrombeginningtoendEverylearnerhasdifferentproblemsandyoushouldusethisbooktohelpyouwiththegrammarthatyoufinddifficultItissuggestedthatyouworkinthisway:UsetheContentsandorIndextofindwhichunitdealswiththepointyouareinterestedinIfyouarenotsurewhichunitsyouneedtostudy,usetheStudyguideonpageStudytheexplanationsandexamplesonthelefthandpageoftheunityouhavechosenDotheexercisesontherighthandpageCheckyouranswerswiththeKeyIfyouranswersarenotcorrect,studythelefthandpageagaintoseewhatwentwrongYoucanofcourseusethebooksimplyasareferencebookwithoutdoingtheexercisesAdditionalexercisesAtthebackofthebookthereareAdditionalexercises(pages)TheseexercisesbringtogethersomeofthegrammarpointsfromanumberofdifferentunitsForexample,ExercisebringstogethergrammarpointsfromUnitsYoucanusetheseexercisesforextrapracticeafteryouhavestudiedandpractisedthegrammarintheunitsconcernedTOTHETEACHEREnglishGrammarinUsewaswrittenasaselfstudygrammarbookbutteachersmayalsofinditusefulasadditionalcoursematerialincaseswherefurtherworkongrammarisnecessaryThebookwillprobablybemostusefulatmiddleandupperintermediatelevels(whereallornearlyallofthematerialwillberelevant),andcanservebothasabasisforrevisionandasameansforpractisingnewstructuresItwillalsobeusefulforsomemoreadvancedstudentswhohaveproblemswithgrammarandneedabookforreferenceandpracticeThebookisnotintendedtobeusedbyelementarylearnersTheunitsareorganisedingrammaticalcategories(Presentandpast,Articlesandnouns,Prepositionsetc)Theyarenotorderedaccordingtolevelofdifficulty,sothebookshouldnotbeworkedthroughfrombeginningtoendItshouldbeusedselectivelyandflexiblyinaccordancewiththegrammarsyllabusbeingusedandthedifficultiesstudentsarehavingThebookcanbeusedforimmediateconsolidationorforlaterrevisionorremedialworkItmightbeusedbythewholeclassorbyindividualstudentsneedingextrahelpThelefthandpages(explanationsandexamples)arewrittenforthestudenttouseindividuallybuttheymayofcoursebeusedbytheteacherasasourceofideasandinformationonwhichtobasealessonThestudentthenhasthelefthandpageasarecordofwhathasbeentaughtandcanrefertoitinthefutureTheexercisescanbedoneindividually,inclassorashomeworkAlternatively(andadditionally),individualstudentscanbedirectedtostudycertainunitsofthebookbythemselvesiftheyhaveparticulardifficultiesnotsharedbyotherstudentsintheirclassThisneweditionofEnglishGrammarinUsecontainsasetofAdditionalexercises(pages)Theseexercisesprovide'mixed'practicebringingtogethergrammarpointsfromanumberofdifferentunitsA'classroomedition'ofEnglishGrammarinUseisalsoavailableItcontainsnokeyandsometeachersmightthereforepreferitforusewiththeirstudentsEnglishGrammarinUseSecondEditionWhilethisIsacompletelyneweditionofEnglishGrammarinUse,thegeneralstructureandcharacteroftheoriginalbookremainthesameThemainchangesfromtheoriginalare:Therearenewunitsoncompoundnouns(Unit),thereandit(Unit),eachandevery(Unit)andby(Unit)Someunitshavebeenredesigned,forexampleUnit(schoolortheschool)andUnit(relativeclauses)SomeofthematerialhasbeenreorganisedForexample,Units(presentcontinuousandpresentsimple)andUnits(countableanduncountablenouns)correspondtosingleunitsintheoriginaleditionThematerialinUnits(verbpreposition)hasbeencompletelyrearrangedSomeoftheunitshavebeenreorderedandnearlyallunitshaveadifferentnumberfromtheoriginaleditionAfewunitshavebeenmovedtodifferentpartsofthebookForexample,Unit(hadbetterandit'stime)IsthenewrewrittenversionoftheoriginalUnitOnthelefthandpages,manyoftheexplanationshavebeenrewrittenandmanyoftheexampleshavebeenchangedManyoftheoriginalexerciseshavebeeneithermodifiedorcompletelyreplacedwithnewexercisesThereisanewsectionofAdditionalexercisesatthebackofthebook(seeTothestudent)IntheeditionwithanswersthereisanewStudyguidetohelpstudentsdecidewhichunitstostudy(seeTothestudent)TheStudyguideisonlyIntheeditionwithanswersTherearetwonewappendicesonfutureformsandmodalverbsTheotherappendiceshavebeenrevisedffpUNITPresentcontinuous(Iamdoing)AStudythisexamplesituation:AnnisinhercarSheisonherwaytoworkSheisdrivingtoworkThismeans:sheisdrivingnow,atthetimeofspeakingTheactionisnotfinishedAmisare~ingisthepresentcontinuous:Iam(=I'm)drivinghesheitis(he'setc)workingweyoutheyare(we'reetc)doingetcBIamdoingsomething=I'minthemiddleofdoingsomethingI'vestarteddoingitandIhaven'tfinishedyetOftentheactionishappeningatthetimeofspeaking:*Pleasedon'tmakesomuchnoiseI'mworking(not'Iwork')*'Where'sMargaret''She'shavingabath'(not'shehasabath')*Let'sgooutnowItisn'traininganymore(not'itdoesn'train')*(ataparty)Hello,JaneAreyouenjoyingtheparty(not'doyouenjoy')*I'mtiredI'mgoingtobednowGoodnight!ButtheactionisnotnecessarilyhappeningatthetimeofspeakingForexample:TomandAnnaretalkinginacafeTomsays:TOM:I'mreadinganinterestingbookatthemomentITlendittoyouwhenI'vefinisheditTomisnotreadingthebookatthetimeofspeakingHemeansthathehasstarteditbutnotfinishedityetHeisinthemiddleofreadingitSomemoreexamples:*CatherinewantstoworkinItaly,sosheislearningItalian(butperhapssheisn'tlearningItalianexactlyatthetimeofspeaking)*SomefriendsofminearebuildingtheirownhouseTheyhopeitwillbefinishedbeforenextsummerCWeusethepresentcontinuouswhenwetalkaboutthingshappeninginaperiodaroundnow(forexample,todaythisweekthiseveningetc):*'You'reworkinghardtoday''Yes,Ihavealottodo'(not'youworkhardtoday')*'IsSusanworkingthisweek''No,she'sonholiday'Weusethepresentcontinuouswhenwetalkaboutchangeshappeningaroundnow:*Thepopulationoftheworldisrisingveryfast(not'rises')*IsyourEnglishgettingbetter(not'doesyourEnglishgetbetter')pEXERCISESCompletethesentenceswithoneofthefollowingverbsinthecorrectform:comegethappenlookmakestartstaytrywork'You'reworkinghardtoday''Yes,Ihavealottodo'IforChristineDoyouknowwheresheisItdarkShallIturnonthelightTheyhaven'tgotanywheretoI'veatthemomentTheywithfriendsuntiltheyfindsomewhere'Areyouready,Ann''Yes,I'HaveyougotanumbrellaIttorainYoualotofnoiseCouldyoubequieterItoconcentrateWhyareallthesepeoplehereWhatUsethewordsinbracketstocompletethequestions'IsColinworkingthisweek''No,he'sonholiday'(Colinwork)WhyatmelikethatWhat'sthematter(youlook)'Jennyisastudentatuniversity''IssheWhat'(shestudy)totheradioorcanIturnitoff(anybodylisten)HowisyourEnglishbetter(itget)PuttheverbintothecorrectformSometimesyouneedthenegative(I'mnotdoingetc)I'mtiredI'mgoing(go)tobednowGoodnight!Wecangooutnowitisn'training(rain)anymore'Howisyournewjob''NotsogoodatthemomentI(enjoy)itverymuch'CatherinephonedmelastnightShe'sonholidayinFranceShe(have)agreattimeanddoesn'twanttocomebackIwanttoloseweight,sothisweekI(eat)lunchAngelahasjuststartedeveningclassesShe(learn)GermanIthinkPaulandAnnhavehadanargumentThey(speak)toeachotherReadthisconversationbetweenBrianandSarahPuttheverbsintothecorrectformSARAH:Brian!Hownicetoseeyou!What()(youdo)thesedaysBRIAN:I()(train)tobeasupermarketmanagerSARAH:ReallyWhat'sitlike()(youenjoy)itBRIAN:It'sallrightWhataboutyouSARAH:Well,actuallyI()(notwork)atthemomentI()(try)tofindajobbutit'snoteasyButI'mverybusyI()(decorate)myflatBRIAN:()(youdo)italoneSARAH:No,somefriendsofmine()(help)meCompletethesentencesusingoneoftheseverbs:getchangerisefallincreaseYoudon'thavetousealltheverbsandyoucanuseaverbmorethanonceThepopulationoftheworldisrisingveryfastKenisstillillbuthebetterslowlyTheworldThingsneverstaythesameThecostoflivingEveryyearthingsaremoreexpensiveTheeconomicsituationisalreadyverybadanditworsepUNITPresentsimple(Ido)AStudythisexamplesituation:Alexisabusdriver,butnowheisinbedasleepSo:Heisnotdrivingabus(Heisasleep)butHedrivesabus(Heisabusdriver)Drive(s)work(s)do(es)etcisthepresentsimple:IweyoutheydriveworkdoetchesheitdrivesworksdoesetcBWeusethepresentsimpletotalkaboutthingsingeneralWearenotthinkingonlyaboutnowWeuseittosaythatsomethinghappensallthetimeorrepeatedly,orthatsomethingistrueingeneralItisnotimportantwhethertheactionishappeningatthetimeofspeaking:*Nursestookafterpatientsinhospitals*Iusuallygoawayatweekends*TheearthgoesroundthesunRememberthatwesay:hesheitsDon'tforgetthes:IworkbutHeworksTheyteachbutMysisterteachesForspelling(sores),seeAppendix

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