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首页 [英]王斯福:帝国的隐喻:中国民间宗教(柯曾 2005)

[英]王斯福:帝国的隐喻:中国民间宗教(柯曾 2005)

[英]王斯福:帝国的隐喻:中国民间宗教(柯曾 2005)

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简介:本文档为《[英]王斯福:帝国的隐喻:中国民间宗教(柯曾 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

dddPopularReligioninChinaTheImperialMetaphorPopularReligioninChinaTheImperialMetaphorStephanFeuchtwangCURZONEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyEricNoteyFirstPublishedinbyCurzonPressRichmond,Surreyhttp:wwwcurzonpresscoukThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”©StephanFeuchtwangAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordofthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBNXMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ContentsPrefacevAcknowledgementsxHistory,identificationandbeliefTheannualapocalypseOfficialandlocalcultsLocalfestivalsandtheircultsTheincenseburner:communicationanddeferenceDaoismanditsclientsAngGong,orthetruthofpuppetsThepoliticsofreligionandpoliticalritualNotesReferencesGlossaryIndexPrefaceThisisabookaboutChinesepopularreligionAsensiblereaderwillask:WhatisthatWhatisitsnameWehavecometoexpectofreligionsthattheycanbenamedlikeidentitiesofnationsorculturesoratleastthattheycanbeunderstoodasdoctrinesButinthiscase,thesesensiblequestionsmustbegivenadisconcertinganswer,becauseithasnonameThisisnotareligionofaBookNorisitthenamedreligionofChinaDaoismThatreligion,withDaoistphilosophyatitsheart,comesclosertothepopularreligionIshallbedescribingthandotheotherreligionsidentifiableinChina,suchastheofficialimperialcultshonouringHeavenandConfucius,orthedenominationsofBuddhismThepopularreligionincludessomeelementsofbothBuddhismandtheimperialcults,moreofDaoism,butitisidentifiablewithnoneofthemInfact‘religion’hereissimplyacategory,notasingularthingItisreligionofthecommonpeople,not‘ofthepeople’inthesenseofanationalpopulation’smassculture,butinthatitcontainsacrucialandpoliticalrelationtoofficialreligionandtootherswiththepowertodefineorthodoxyinChinaItisalsopopularinthesenseofbeinglocalandtrueoftheChinaoftheHan,orChinesespeakingpeople,whereeveryplacehadorhasitslocalcultsandthefestivalspeculiartothemTheinstitutionoflocalfestivalsandtemplesisnotsowellknownasthatofancestorworshipandclanandlineagehalls,butitisjustasmuchauniversalfactofChineselifeThisbookwillshowthatitisadistinctiveinstitutionWhetheritisarecognisablereligion,youwillhavetodecideforyourselfTherehavebeenmanyarticlesandbooksonthegodsandfestivalsofChinesevillagesandtownsStandingalongsidethesestudiesIhopethisbookwillallowtheinstitutiontobebetterknownItscontentisanimperialmetaphor,whichstandsinrelationtotherestofitsparticipants’lives,politicsandhistoricaleventsasthepoetryofcollectivevisiontheatricallyperformed,builtandpaintedintemples,carvedandclothedinstatuesItisametaphoratalltimes,includingthetimesofimperialordynasticrule,aswellasduringthemorerecentpoliticalhistoryofrepublicanChinaSomereadersofthefirsteditionofthisbookhavemistakenmypresentationoftheimperialmetaphorTheyhaveunderstoodittobeaparallelandconfirmingstructureofimperialbureaucraticruleButitisnotWhatthisbookshowsinsteadisthattheperformanceandimageryoflocaltempleritesandfestivalsaresufficientlydifferenttopresentasenseofplaceandofpowerwhichisasupplementaryuniversetothatofrulingorthodoxyForanargumentaboutparallelandconfirmingstructuretohold,themetaphorwouldhavetochangewithchangesinthestructureofgovernmentButinfactthenatureofrulehaschangedoverthecenturiesinarhythmandwithadramagreaterandquitedistinctfromthehistoriesoflocalcultsofgodsChangesofdynastyweredrasticeventsEachclaimedcontinuityfromitspredecessorsorfromagoldeneraofsagerulers,butinfactthereweredramaticchangesintheextentandnatureoftheirruleThemostdramaticchangeofallhasoccurredinthetwentiethcentury,acenturyofrevolutionsinChinaTheimperialmetaphorhasalsochanged,butnotinthesamewayoratthesamepace,norhasitceasedthoughtheimperialregimeshavegoneThereisofcoursearelationwithimperialcultsandtheirideologyThetimeinwhichtheimageryoflocalcultsissetisthesamecosmictimeastheclaimstolegitimacyoftherulingdynastiesButlocalcultsarecreatedanddisappearinadistinctivedynamicTheyareconstrainedbygovernment,buttheirdynamismdoesnotconfirmthatofgovernmentThisismostdramaticallytobeseeninthetwentiethcenturyduringwhichthecosmicclaimsofimperialdynasticrulehavebeeneliminated,whilethoseoflocalcultshaveremainedSothisbookdefinitelydoesnotarguethatthereligionoflocalcultsreflectsandreinforcesgovernmentOnthecontrary,IthinkIhavebeenabletodemonstratethatevenduringthecenturiesofimperialrulethecosmologyenactedinlocalcultswasnotthatofcentralisedadministration,butoflinkageswithmanycentresandwithadistinctivecharacterBesides,localcultsareembeddedinasenseofplaceanditshistorywhichisnotthatofadynastyorofanationInChinatherewasnoselfevidentandindisputableworldofpractice,classifyingplaces,peopleandtimesinahierarchy,andexpressingitsdiscontentsaspartofthesameorderreinforcedbylanguage,mythandrite,whichPierreBourdieunamesdoxa(:–)Insteadtherewasaninterplaybetweenorthodoxiesandheterodoxies,bothofthemintheplural,eachreflectingupontheotherButtheydidexistwithinlimitsthatwerethemselvesnotchallengeduntilthecrisesofthelast,QingdynastyanditsconfrontationwiththestatesofindustrialcapitalismMostviofthedirectobservationsoflocalcultswhichIshallusecomefromlateQingandthetwentiethcenturyThechangeswhichlocalcultshaveundergonewillbeanimportanttopicofthisbookButfirst,ChaptermakesasexplicitaspossiblethetermsinwhichIwilldescribethisinstitutionofpopularreligionChapterraisesacontentiousissueofinteresttohistoriansandsocialscientists:howtodescribeothersbeliefsingodswithoutresortingtothemyourself,butstillremainingfaithfultowhatpeoplesayanddoIoutlinethebasicallypoliticalandhistoricalperspectivesinwhichIthinktheycanbebestunderstoodanddescribetheoperationsofidentificationandrepresentationofwhichIthinktheyareexamplesItalsointroducestheimageryofChinesegodsanddemonsandtheritualswhichaddressthemItstartsoffaninquiryintohowtheyconstituteatranscendentalandarchaicmetaphorandgoesontodevelopaconceptofreligionthatmaywellbeofmoregeneralvalidityItismostworkedoutintheconcludingsectionofChapterChapters–describetheinstitutionoflocalcults,theirfestivalsandtheirgodsinthepoliticalandreligiouscontextofimperialandrepublicanChinaTheimperialofficialcults,thenatureandideologyofimperialrule,receiveparticularattentioninChaptersandChaptershowsthatritualauthoritywaspartofimperialruleandthatpopularversionsofitscosmologyturneditintoathreateninganddemoniconeChapterestablishestherelationbetweenimperialauthorityandlocalterritorialcultsChapterisdevotedtoDaoismandthegreatriteofofferingperformedtoinaugurateaneworrebuilttempleImperialcultsandDaoismarethemostimmediatereligiouscontextsoflocalcults,themostconnectedandalsothecontextsfromwhichtheirdistinctivenessismostcontestedThepoliticalcultureoflocaltemplesandfestivalsthemselvesisdescribedindetailinChaptersandInthemIrefertoboththeimperialandtherepublicanregimesunderwhichtheyhaveflourishedThedetaileddescriptionoflocalfestivalsandtempleorganisationinChapterisbasedonmyownobservationsinTaiwanButitfollowsachapterinwhichIhopeIhavebeenabletoestablishwithreferencestootherregions,particularlytonorthernChina,theubiquityoftheinstitutionofterritorialcultsandtheirfestivalsinChinaImageryandtheoperationsofritualrepresentationaretheparticularconcernofChapters–Ihopetheywillhaveshownwhatisdistinctiveabouttheinstitutionoflocalfestivalsandterritorialcults,andthatithastodowitharepresentationofdemonicpowerWhat‘demonicpower’anditsrepresentationsmeanwillbeclearbytheendofChapterviiBesiderevisingdetailsineachchapterandclarifyingitsmainpoints,forthisneweditionIhaveaddedanew,longchapteronthepoliticalandeconomictransformationswhichhaveaffectedpopularreligioninthemainlandandTaiwanForthemainlandItakeupthequestionwhetherthepoliticsofmassmobilisationundertheleadershiptheChineseCommunistPartyandMaoZedongthoughtarebestdescribedas‘religious’Ritualandreligionarealwaysclose,particularlywheninterpretedandanalysedinahumansciencewhichisnotatheologyButIthinktheappropriatetermforthecultofMaois‘politicalrituals’ItwasaformationofselvesinrelationtothelargerdestinyofapeopleAmajorsubjectofthechapteristheeffectofritualsofmassmobilisation,whichreplaced,suppressedordestroyedallreligiousritualsButthelongestandlastsectionofthechapterisabouttherevitalisationoflocalcultssincetheendingofthepoliticsofmassmobilisationTowhatextentdotheycontaintheeffectsofprecedingpoliticalritualsThechapteralsoincludesacomparisonwithdevelopmentsinTaiwanInbothTaiwanandthePeople’sRepublicofChinatherehasbeenastronggrowthofwhatIcallcongregationalreligionsandofreligiouspracticesconcernedwithindividuallivesandprospectsTheyarelesslocallyrooted,buttheycoexistwithmoretraditionallocalcultsInbothsecularstatesthereisgreatandvariedreligiouslifeintheirturn,religioustraditionsandnewreligionshavebecomesubjectsforthepoliticsofcommunitydevelopment,culture,tourismandthemakingofheritagesNOTEONTHETRANSLITERATIONOFCHINESETERMSANDNAMESWithtwoexceptions,allChinesenamesandtermsarespelledinwhathasbecomethestandardsystem:pinyinEvenwheretheyrefertostatementsmadeinoneorotherofthedialectlanguagesofChina,suchasSouthernFujian,Ihaveputthemintothecommonlanguage(putonghua)ThisshouldavoidconfusionanditshouldalsohelpreferencebetweenlocalpracticesandbeliefsOneoftheexceptionsiswhendirectlyquotingatextusinganothersystemoftransliteration,usuallytheWadeGilessystemThereIhavepreservedthetransliterationusedintheoriginalandinsertedthepinyintransliterationaftertheWadeGileswhenitisnotobviouslyapparentfromthesimilarityofspellingTheotherexceptioniswhereIhavequoteddirectspeechinSouthernFujianese,orAmoy,thedialectalsospokeninTaiwanThesystempreservingthatpronunciationistheonecreatedforviiispokenAmoyspeechbyBodmanPinyininsertionsandexplanationsareaddedforclarificationixAcknowledgementsMyownlocalstudyinTaiwan(–)wasfinancedbytheNuffieldandCarnegiefoundationsthroughthenowdefunctLondonCornellFellowshipAbriefbutproductivevisittoBeijing,XiamenandQuanzhouinwasfinancedbytheChinaexchangeschemeoftheUKEconomicandSocialResearchCouncil,theBritishAcademy,theChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,andbytheSpaldingTrustVisitstoselectedvillagesinfivemainlandprovincesinandwerefinancedbytheEconomicandSocialResearchCounciloftheUK,andarevisittomyoriginalfieldinTaiwaninwasfinancedbytheChiangChingkuoFoundationIamverygratefultothemallMydebtstootherlocalstudiesandanalysesofChineseritualandreligionareacknowledgedintheirproperplacesinthebookButamoregeneraldebttomentorsmustbeacknowledgedhere:tothelateMauriceFreedman,thetutorwithwhommysharpdifferencesdidnotpreventaffectionandmutualrespecttoGWilliamSkinner,whoselocalsystemsmodellinghasbroughtsenseandinspirationtoanyattempttogeneraliseaboutChina,includingmineevenifIdonotmakemuchofithere,andwhoseencouragementofmyfirstpublicationsonChinesereligionwasinvaluabletoArthurWolfforhisintroductionstoTaiwanandtoKristoferSchipperforhisguidanceandinsightsintoDaoismIowethedevelopmentofalifelonginteresttothemAnotherkindofintellectualdebttobeacknowledgedistheoneIowetoengagementsindiscussionandcomprehensionovermanyyearswithBeverleyBrown,MarkCousins,PaulHirstandHomiBhabhaQuitewhatIowetotheminthisbookcannotbespecified,butthatsomethingisowedIdonotdoubtAndforencouragementsto‘seehim’warmthankstoJamesHamiltonPatersonTothefamiliesofGaoMingguoandDoctorGaoofShiding,manyofwhomhavebecomelifelongfriends,IoweaspecialthanksfortheirinitialhospitalityandofcourseacontinuinggratitudeforthewarmthoftheirwelcomesToDavidChenIoweinadditionthanksfortheresultsofhisveryableassistanceinmyShidingfieldworkandforthememoryofhisspikychininmyshoulderasherodethebumpsonthepillionofmyHondaccdownthewindingroadtoTaibeixixiiChapterOneHistory,identificationandbeliefPeopleinthecourseoftheirlivesareinvolvedinritualsandconventionalcelebrationsofmanykindsWhatsenseofhistorywouldtheyfindframedintheseritualsHowwouldtheirownbiographiesbemarkedbysuchcollectiveoccasionsRitualsmaybedisdained,othersacceptedassocialobligation,somewithwholeheartedenthusiasmThepsychicattachmenttoeachisamatterfortheindividualButritualoccasionsandtheirreferencesalsosetsocialrhythmsofhistoricalidentificationAsanywhereelse,peopleinChinacanexperienceseveralsystemsofritualoccasionframingtheirlivesEachsystemdisplaysadifferentsenseofhistoryStartfromthegreatestscopeofhistoricalinclusion,andconsidersomeoneidentifiablesimplyasChinese,anationalist,asocialist,aChristian,aMuslim,aBuddhist,aDaoistoraConfucianChineseorseveraloftheseEachqualificationofbeingChineseisrepresentedbyritualoccasionandcelebrationoftheestablishingoftherepublic,ofleadersofrevolution,ofprophetsandoffoundersAndeachrefersdirectlytoawelldefinedtextualtraditiontheThreePeople’sPrinciplesbytheFatheroftheRepublic,SunYatsentheworkscalledtheThoughtofMaoZedongandtheworksofMarx,EngelsandLenin,establishingtheideologyofthefoundationofthePeople’sRepublictherevealedBook(KoranorBible)thesutrasofthevariousschoolsofBuddhismtheliturgiesinthecanonofDaoismtheclassicsofConfuciusandhisdisciplesandthemostreveredcommentariesoneachoftheforegoing‘Classical’isanappropriatenamefortheseresourcesClaimstoallinclusiveChinesenessaremadebyreferencetothemTheclassicaltraditionsofMarxistatheismanditsChineseversion,orthevariousChristianities,thevariousIslams,Buddhisms,DaoismsandConfucianteachings,aretheusualsourcesaccordingtowhichChinesehistoryanditsinstitutionsaredescribedandincludedinlargerhistoriesReferenceinthisclassicalmodeanditsoccasionsisareferencetonarrativeswhichscholarscanascertainandargueaboutTheyrelyonwritingandprintingButinadditiontotheseclassicalidentifications,theChinesepersonwillalsoknowaboutandhavesomeobligationstoattend,withhisorherfamily,thedaysofbirth,deathandforcelebratingimmediateancestors,orsimplytoacknowledgefamilycompletenessbygatheringorcommunicatingattheSpringFestivalandlesserannualoccasionsTheseentailanothersenseofhistory,anotherrhythmanddivisionoftimethatoffamilylineandgenerationTheymaybecompatiblewithsome,morethanwithothers,oftheclassicalframeworksandtheirritualoccasionsButtheyrelylessonwritingthanontheritualsandtheobjectswhichmarktheclassicaloccasionsThird,theplaceinwhichthispersongrewupwillhavehaditsownpeculiaroccasions,catastrophesandtheexceptionalritualremediessoughtforthemRegularfestivalsorfairs,theatricalperformancesandotherdisplaysandstoriescommemoratetheseoccasionsTheywillincludelocalvariantsonregular,Chinawideannualoccasions,suchastheSpringFestival,ortheSeventhMonthfestivalofpurificationandpropitiationofhungryghostsButtheyalsoincludedaysnotcelebratedelsewhere,orelsesharedonlybyfellowfollowersofthecultofacertaindeityanditslocalitiesThefoundingmomentofacultwouldbeitsmanifestationinsomeextraordinaryeventorperson,possiblywithsomefurtherbackwardreferencetootheroriginsTherepetition,annual,fiveyearly,whatever,isthenrepetitionoforiginationjustasitisofanancestororanhistoricalfoundationanditsanniversaryTheseoccasionsareevenlessreliantfortheirauthorityonwrittenformsEvenmorethanfamilialrituals,theirritualrepetitionisitselftheinscriptionofanoriginanditsrenewalButthestoriestheycelebratearepartandparcelofthepopularnarrativesoftheatreandstorytellersInthiskindofrhythm,alocalhistoryandidentification,differentiatedfromneighbouringlocalities,ismarkedInthecourseofalifetimemovingfromonetoanotheranindividualmaylinkandbeassociatedwithanumberofsuchlocal,historicalidentificationsinadditiontotheidentificationsprovokedbytheotherframesByhistoricalidentification,Imeanthateachoneofthesethreekindsofoccasiontheclassical,thefamilial,andthelocalmarksoutadimensionoftimeandadimensionofinclusionandexclusionThetimedimensionistherhythmofrepetitionandof(re)originationItisacapacitytodothesameaswellasacyclicalmemory,ofyears,ofgenerationsEachrepetitionrenewsmemoriesandcalen

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