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首页 [美]龙沛:中国近代早期的战争、政治与社会,900—1795(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]龙沛:中国近代早期的战争、政治与社会,900—1795(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]龙沛:中国近代早期的战争、政治与社会,900—1795(…

Stlnz
2008-10-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]龙沛:中国近代早期的战争、政治与社会,900—1795(劳特里奇 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AdministratorFileAttachmentdcovervbjpgWar,PoliticsandSocietyinEarlyModernChina,–InthisnewtakeonChina’searlymodernhistory,PeterLorgepresentsafreshoverviewoftherepeatedrecreationoftheChineseempirethroughmilitaryforceEmphasizingtherelationshipbetweenthemilitaryandpolitics,andChina’spowerasanempire,LorgearguesthatthestrengthoftheterritorialclaimsandpoliticalimpactofeachdynastyweredeterminedprimarilybytheirmilitarycapacityratherthanbytheirculturalcharacteristicsUsingachronologicalnarrative,War,PoliticsandSocietyinEarlyModernChina,–breaksfreeofthedynasticboundariesthatshapemuchscholarshipinthisarea,focusinginsteadonthegrowingpoweroflocalelitesThispowereventuallyledtoasystemofloosecentralcontrol–tothesacrificeofreal,centralizedpoweroverlocalaffairsIdealforstudentsofmilitaryandAsianstudies,War,PoliticsandSocietyinEarlyModernChina,–isessentialreadingforanyoneinterestedinthemilitaryhistoryofChinaPeterLorgeisSeniorLecturerinChineseHistoryandFilmatVanderbiltUniversityWARFAREANDHISTORYSeriesEditor:JeremyBlackProfessorofHistory,UniversityofExeterAIRPOWERINTHEAGEOFTOTALWARJohnBuckleyTHEARMIESOFTHECALIPHS:MILITARYANDSOCIETYINTHEEARLYISLAMICSTATEHughKennedyTHEBALKANWARS,–:PRELUDETOTHEFIRSTWORLDWARRichardCHallENGLISHWARFARE,–MarkCharlesFisselEUROPEANANDNATIVEAMERICANWARFARE,–ArmstrongStarkeyEUROPEANWARFARE,–JeremyBlackEUROPEANWARFARE,–JeremyBlackTHEFIRSTPUNICWARJFLazenbyFRONTIERSMEN:WARFAREINAFRICASINCEAnthonyClaytonGERMANARMIES:WARANDGERMANPOLITICS,–PeterHWilsonTHEGREATWAR–SpencerCTuckerTHEIRISHANDBRITISHWARS,–TRIUMPH,TRAGEDY,ANDFAILUREJamesScottWheelerISRAEL’SWARS,–AhronBregmanTHEKOREANWAR:NOVICTORS,NOVANQUISHEDStanleySandlerMEDIEVALCHINESEWARFARE,–DavidAGraffMEDIEVALNAVALWARFARE,–SusanRoseMODERNCHINESEWARFARE,–BruceAEllemanMODERNINSURGENCIESANDCOUNTERINSURGENCIES:GUERRILLASANDTHEIROPPONENTSSINCEIanFWBeckettMUGHALWARFARE:IMPERIALFRONTIERSANDHIGHROADSTOEMPIRE–JosGommansNAVALWARFARE,–LawrenceSondhausOTTOMANWARFARE,–RhoadsMurpheyTHEPELOPONNESIANWAR:AMILITARYSTUDYJFLazenbySAMURAI,WARFAREANDTHESTATEINEARLYMEDIEVALJAPANKarlFFridaySEAPOWERANDNAVALWARFARE,–RichardHardingTHESOVIETMILITARYEXPERIENCERogerRReeseVIETNAMSpencerCTuckerTHEWARFORINDEPENDENCEANDTHETRANSFORMATIONOFAMERICANSOCIETYHarryMWardWARANDTHESTATEINEARLYMODERNEUROPE:SPAIN,THEDUTCHREPUBLICANDSWEDENASFISCALMILITARYSTATES,–JanGleteWARFAREANDSOCIETYINEUROPE,–GeoffreyWawroWARFAREANDSOCIETYINEUROPE,TOTHEPRESENTMichaelSNeibergWARFAREATSEA,–JanGleteWARFAREINATLANTICAFRICA,–:MARITIMECONFLICTSANDTHETRANSFORMATIONOFEUROPEJohnKThorntonWARFARE,STATEANDSOCIETYINTHEBYZANTINEWORLD,–JohnHaldonWARINTHEEARLYMODERNWORLD,–EditedbyJeremyBlackWARSOFIMPERIALCONQUESTINAFRICA,–BruceVandervortWESTERNWARFAREINTHEAGEOFTHECRUSADES,–JohnFranceWARANDSOCIETYINIMPERIALROME,bc–adBrianCampbellWARFAREANDSOCIETYINTHEBARBARIANWESTGuyHalsallWARINTHEMODERNWORLDSINCEEditedbyJeremyBlackWORLDWARTWO:AMILITARYHISTORYJeremyBlackWARFAREINTHEANCIENTNEAREAST,TOcbcWilliamJHamblinWar,PoliticsandSocietyinEarlyModernChina,–PeterLorgeFirstpublishedMadisonAve,NewYork,NYSimultaneouslypublishedintheUKbyRoutledge–ParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©PeterLorgeAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBN:–––(hbk)ISBN:–––X(pbk)ISBN:–––––(hbk)ISBN:–––––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ContentsIntroductionUnitythroughwar,–Empiresatpeace,empiresatwar,–Threeempiresandacenturyofwar,–AChineseempire,–TheChineseconquestdynasty,–Thepoliticsofimperialcollapse,–Apeoplecreatedforwar,–TheOldManofTenCompleteMilitaryVictories,–ConclusionIndexviiIntroductionForinwarit’sexperienceofactionthatmattersThesocalledSevenMilitaryClassicsarefullofnonsenseaboutwaterandfire,luckyomensandadviceontheweather,allatrandomandcontradictingeachotherItoldmyofficialsoncethatifyoufollowedthesebooks,you’dneverwinabattleAlloneneedsisaninflexiblewillandcarefulplanningTheKangxiemperor(–),EmperorofChinaThereisnosuchthingas“China”Inthesamesense,thereisalsonosuchthingas“Europe”BythisImeanthattheterms“China”and“Europe”donotrefertospecific,unchangingterritories,orstatic,monolithicculturesAndwhilethereareplacesandaspectsofculturethatareundeniablyChinese,inwhateversensewewishtounderstandthis,therearealsoplaces,andaspectsofculture,thathavelessclearpedigreesThisisnottosaythatthetermisuselessormeaningless,onlythatitisnotneutralandneedstobedefinedAgivendynasty’sterritorialandculturalclaimswerepoliticalstatementsandmustbeunderstoodassuchTheextenttowhichthoseclaimscorrespondedtowhatagovernmentactuallycontrolledwasamilitaryquestionIneverydynastysincetheQin(–bce),“China”wasaninherentlyimperialterm,definedpoliticallyandenforcedmilitarilyThetraditionalChinesestate(afterbce)hasnotbeencommonlycharacterizedasmartialorevenimperialinthesensethatitencompasseddiverselandsandpeopleswhodidnotshareitscultureIthasmostusuallybeenportrayedasacivilorientedbureaucracy,staffedbyscholarofficialswhoqualifiedfortheirpositionsbypassingrigorousexams,dominatedbyConfucianbeliefs,andheldtogetheratthemostbasiclevelbyacommonHanChineseculturewhichspannedmostoftheChineseecumeneWhilethispictureissubstantiallycorrectinitsparticulars,itisincompleteanddoesnotexplainhowtheChineseempirewasrepeatedlyreconstitutedinthelastmillenniumofimperialhistoryBycontrast,empiresweremoresporadicinSouthAsia,asshownbytheMauryan(–bce),Gupta(–ce)andMughals(–)orinEurope,where,aftertheRomans,noonewasabletobuildanempireofcomparableterritorialorculturalspanforthelifetimeofevenasingleconquerorRatherthanattempttoexplainwhySouthAsiansandEuropeansweresoineptatSouthAsianandEuropeanempirebuildingrespectively,IwillattempttoexplaininsteadwhytheChinese,MongolsandManchusweresoskilledatChineseempirebuildingFirstandforemost,allofthesuccessfulimperialChinesedynastswereextremelyskilledintheuseofwarinstateformationandmaintenanceChineseempireswerenotcreatedbythecultivationofvirtue,afundamentalculturalorientationtopoliticalorder,orideologicalpleasforethnicunitytheywerecreatedbydecadesofwarandpoliticalstrifeOrganizedviolencewasappliedtowardpoliticalgoalsintelligentlyandruthlessly,withthetargetsofthatviolencealmostexclusivelythepowerelite,themenandwomenwhoheldsignificantpolitical,military,culturaloreconomicpower(Theactualeffectsofthatviolence,however,fellmostoftenuponthefarmersandordinarypeopleinthepathofarmies)Althoughthishasbeenmostapparentduringtheruleof“alien”conquerorsliketheMongolsorManchus,ithasbeenequallytrueoftheHanChinesedynastsaswellAllimperialdynastieswereconquestdynastiesWhatChinesedynastiesdidbetterthananySouthAsian,MiddleEastern,orEuropeanwouldbeconquerorswastocentralizethecontrolofmilitarymeansunderasingleruler,withoutleavinglocalstrongmenthepossibilityofraisingtheirownlegitimatemilitaryforcesTherewasnothinglikethefeudalEuropeannobility,who,atleastoriginally,owedtheirkingmilitaryservicewithacertainforceofmenforacertaintime,inreturnfortheirlandsTheTangdynasty(–)hadcometogriefbydelegatingtoomuchmilitaryandcivilauthoritytobordercommanderstheSouthernSong(–)borderfelltoMongolentreatiesaimedattheLüfamilythethirdMingemperor(thoughhecountedhimselfthesecond)usurpedhispositionfromhisbaseasmilitarycommanderonthenorthernborderThesefailures,though,provethegeneralrule,whichkeptlegitimatemilitaryforceinthehandsofthecentralgovernmentIndynastybuilding,thiswasreflectedinstrategicpracticesthatdirectedattacksnotonlyagainstarivalstrongmanorrulerpersonally,oragainsthispoliticalapparatus,butalsoagainsthisarmyTosomeextentthiswascoincident,asattacksagainstthepoliticalapparatustendedtobedefendedbythearmyImperialChinesehistoryhasbeenconsistentlydemilitarizedbybothChineseandforeignhistorians,downplayingtheinherentlyviolentnatureofdynastyfoundingBycontrast,themartialinclinationsofthenonHanconquerorsofChineseterritoryhavebeenemphasizedandjuxtaposedwiththecivilcenteredandcivilizedHanChineseLikesomanygeneralizations,thereissometruthtothis,butitisasimplificationthatleadstosomeprofoundmisconceptionsaboutChinesedynastiesandChinesecultureThereisalsoapoliticalandculturalagendabehindthedemilitarizationofimperialChina,andtheemphasisonviolent,predatoryforeignersFortheimperialChinesehistorianofanestablisheddynasty,itwasanimportantpartofimperialideologytohidethevalueorcoerciveeffectivenessofwarasapolitical,culturalorsocialWAR,POLITICSANDSOCIETYINEARLYMODERNCHINAtoolInpostimperialChina,ithasbeenequallyimportanttoestablishthehistoricalrealitythataweakorfragmentedChinaissubjecttoexploitationandevenconquestbyforeignersEstablishedgovernmentssoughttomaintaintheirmonopoliesonviolencenotonlybyforcefullysuppressinganyoneelsewhotriedtouseitbutalsobyadvertisingthatitwasnoteffectiveThiswasnothardtojustifyduringtimesofpeace,butitcreatedagooddealoftensionbetweenrhetoricandpracticeintimesofdynastyfoundingAdynastytendedtoreachthepointatwhichitmadesensetodownplaythevalueofviolencejustasitwasmostintenselyengagedinusingviolencetoestablishitselfImperialideologywasinherentlyhypocritical,oratleasttautological,insofarasitarguedthatthesocialandpoliticalorderthedynastywasimposingorhadimposedledtothedynasty’ssocialandpoliticalorderViolenceagainstthatorderwouldleadtochaos,andviolencebythedynastyinsupportingthatorderwasinthepursuitofpeaceandstabilityMoreover,continuedresistancebytheremnantsofapreviousdynastywasalsotransformedintochaoticviolenceItwasnotviolencethatcreatedorder,butorderthatcreatedorderThiswasapleasantfiction,oftenreiteratedeventoday,butitwassimplyuntruePoliticalorderwascreatedbywarIthasalsoservedtheideologicalneedsofpostimperialChinesegovernmentstomaintainthatthereisanaturalChineseterritorial,ethnicandculturalpolitywithalong,continuoushistory,thatsocialandpoliticalchaosistheworstpossiblesocietalcondition,andthatwhenChinaisnotunifieditissubjecttoconquestbyrapaciousforeignersThiscontinuousoutsidethreatrequiresthatunityandstrengthbeplacedaheadofindividualorgrouprightsAfterWWII,outsidethreats,perceivedorreal,wereintermittent,soahistoricalperspectivebaseduponimperialideologywasaconvenientpropThisisofferednotascritiqueofcurrentaffairsbuttoexplainthehistoriographicalproblemoflookingatthepast,andthestakesevenforcurrentgovernmentsandeventsintheirinterpretationTheinterpretationofthepastisverymuchapresentoccupationoftheChinesegovernmentWar’scentralroleinshapingandreshapingthedefinitionofChinaanditspoliticalorderhasbeendownplayedbecauseadmittingthisrealitywouldofferthepossibilityofradicallyreinterpretingChinesehistoryThisisnotanattractiveprospectformostChineseleadersoracademics(includingforeignacademics),andmoststudiesofimperialChina’shistorycontinuetoportraytheChineseasnonmilitaryButtheveryimperialnatureofChinesedynastiesarguesthattraditionalChineseculturewaspartlyamartialculture,andthatatleastsomesegmentofChinesesocietymaintainedorregularlyrecreatedawarriorideologyItistruethatvarioussteppepeopleswere,personforperson,morewarlike,thatmoreoftheircultureswereoccupiedwithmartialpractice,andthatChinesedynastiesoftenemployedthosemorewarlikepeoplestoenhancetheirarmiesButChinesemenconstitutedthemajorityofthesoldiersinmostChinesearmies,includingthoseofdynastiesruledbysteppepeopleTheastonishingdevelopmentsoftraditionalChinesecivilculturecounterbalancebutdonoteliminateINTRODUCTIONChinesemartialcultureSystematiceffortsweremadetoeffacethoseaspects,buttheChinesealwayshadsomeformofamartialethosItisonlybyunderstandingthisthatwecanunderstandwhyChinesearesoproudoftheirmartialaccomplishments,chiefamongthemaseriesofvastempires,andaresoanguishedbytheirmartialfailingsThepowereliteOneofChina’smostdistinguishingfactorsoverthelastmillenniumhasbeentheextenttowhichmembershipintheelitehaschanged,notjustfromdynastytodynastybutevenwithindynastiesEconomicpower,andwithitpolitical,socialandculturalpower,wasmorestableatthelocallevel,withstabilitydecreasingrapidlyasoneclimbedtheregionalandnationalladderThesafestlongtermstrategywasnotonlytodevelopastronglocalpowerbasebutalsotostayasclosetothatbaseaspossibleInvolvementontheregionalandnationallevelcouldbefabulouslyrewarding,butitwasalsoincreasinglyunsafeinthelastmillenniumofimperialChinesehistoryMoreover,whileatthebeginningoftheSongdynasty(–)takingandpassingthecivilserviceexamswasvirtuallyarequirementforachievingthestatusofshi,literati,orlatergentry,thegrowthofeducationandvirtuallystaticnumberofgovernmentpositionsmadeactualparticipationintheexamsincreasinglylessimportantovertimeThetrappingsofeducationbythemselvesgraduallybecameenoughforalocalgentlemanwithsufficientmeanstobecomerespectablePowerfullocalfamiliesbecameprogressivelylessdependentuponagovernment’ssanctionfortheirposition,andlooked,rather,todefendingagainstofficialintrusionTheproblemwashowtokeepthestateout,ratherthanhowtojoinitForitspart,thestateusedthethreatofintrusiontoextractpeaceandsometaxrevenuesTheimportanceofaConfucianbasededucationtotheChineseeliteisoneofthemostdistinctaspectsofimperialChinesecultureUntilwellintotheTangdynasty,birthwastheprimaryfactorindeterminingentrytoimportantgovernmentpostsExamswereusedtodeterminecompetencyamongtherulingeliteDuringtheTang,however,demonstrableeducationthroughtheexamsallowedsomemenoflowerbirthintothebureaucracyThistrendacceleratedandwasinstitutionalizedduringtheearlySong,makingtheexamsthemainrouteintothecivilsideofgovernmentYetevenasthechancesofpassingthecivilserviceexamsandachievingrealgovernmentpowerdeclined,educationremainedakeycomponentofliteratiidentityAlthoughitistemptingtoascribethistoaningrainedsetofculturalvaluesthatesteemededucationabovefinancialandmilitarymeans–theexplanationfavoredbytheliterati–amoreprosaicaccountwouldemphasizethefinancialmeansdemonstratedbyhavinganeducationandtheaccesstogovernmentpoweritallowedEducationwasconspicuousconsumptionlikeanyotherluxurygood,andthiswasobvioustothevastmajorityofthepopulationwhocouldnotaffordtoobtainitFurthermore,aneducatedmancouldcommunicatewithanofficialdirectlyWAR,POLITICSANDSOCIETYINEARLYMODERNCHINATheobviousrealpowerinherentinaneducationwasscarcelymentionedbyliteratiinfavorofitsfunctionincultivatingandselectingthebestmenforgovernmentNevertheless,itwascleartomostliteratithattheexamsdidnotselectthebrightestandmostmoralmentoserveingovernmentTheemphasisontheexamsandmeritocraticselectionalsodownplayedtheroleofwomenWomenwerebarredfromtakingtheexams,thoughnotfromeducationWomencouldbeextremelyinfluentialinthecourt,however,throughtheiraccesstotheemperorAristocraticwomenamongthesteppepeopleshadamuchgreaterrangeofinfluencesincetheywerenotasphysicallyrestrictedintheirmovementsGovernmentofficialsfrequentlyrailedagainsttheinfluenceofcourtwomen,aswellaseunuchs,butemperorswerenotnecessarilyunwisetoseekabroaderandlessconventionalrangeofopiniononmattersofpoliticsorpolicyTheliteratihadveryquicklydevelopedagroupidentity,aspowerfulastheeliteidentityofbirth,whichoftenplacedtheirinterestsinoppositiontotheemperor’sTheseeducatedmenclaimedtheexclusiverighttodeterminerightandwrong,andtoremonstratewithstrayingemperorsVeryfewemperorsacceptedtheliterati’sinherentmoralsuperiority,butitwasideologicallyandpoliticallyusefultoallowtheselfrighteoustovoicetheircriticismsInanycase,mostcriticismwasdirectedatotherofficials,sinceitwasalwaysdangerous,andevenpossiblytreasonous,tocriticizetheemperorhimselfAllowingofficialstoattackeachotherweakenedallofthemandstrengthenedtheemperor’spositionOfcourseofficialsmightcriticizepalacewomen,butunlikeofficialsthewomenwerealmostneverdismissedfromtheirpositionsTheconstellationofpowerseekersattheimperialcourtallrevolvedaroundtheemperorEmperorsbecameincreasinglyautocraticwithinthecompassofthecourtandgovernmentatthesametimethatgovernmentpowerreachedlessandlessfardownintotheruralsocietywheremostofthepopulationlivedThesystemcouldworkwellunderastrongemperorw

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