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首页 [英]斯瑞瓦森:奥托博伊伦的农夫,1487—1726:欧洲近代早期的乡村生活(剑桥 2004)

[英]斯瑞瓦森:奥托博伊伦的农夫,1487—1726:欧洲近代早期的乡村生活(剑桥 2004)

[英]斯瑞瓦森:奥托博伊伦的农夫,1487—1726:欧洲近代…

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2008-10-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]斯瑞瓦森:奥托博伊伦的农夫,1487—1726:欧洲近代早期的乡村生活(剑桥 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankThePeasantsofOttobeuren,–ARuralSocietyinEarlyModernEuropeThePeasantsofOttobeurenoffersanewperspectiveononeoftheenduringproblemsofearlymodernEuropeanhistory:thepossibilitiesforeconomicgrowthandsocialchangeinruralsocietyAssuchitisthemostdetailedreconstructionofitskindtodate,andoneofthefirsttoanalyzethestructureoflandandcreditmarkets,thecharacterofruralcommerce,andtheinternaleconomyofthepeasantfamilyBasedonthevoluminousrecordsoftheSwabianBenedictinemonasteryofOttobeuren,thebookunderscoresthelimitationsofthetraditionalnarrativeofasixteenthcenturyboomwhichfounderedontheproductiverigiditiesofthepeasanteconomyandthendegeneratedintosocialcrisisintheseventeenthcenturyPopulationgrowthdidstrainresourcesatOttobeuren,butthepeasantrycontinuedtoproduceasizableagriculturalsurplusMoreimportantly,peasantsreactedtodemographicpressurebydeepeningtheirinvolvementinlandandcreditmarkets,andmorewidelyandaggressivelymarketingthefruitsoftheirlaborMarriageandinheritanceunderwentasimilarprocessofcommercializationwhichmadeheavydemandsonthepeasantry,butwhichalsoproducedadegreeofsocialstabilityremarkablyresilienttothedevastationsofwar,plague,andfaminegovindpsreenivasanisAssociateProfessorofHistory,BrandeisUniversity,Waltham,MassachusettsPastandPresentPublicationsGeneralEditors:LYNDALROPER,UniversityofOxford,andCHRISWICKHAM,UniversityofBirminghamPastandPresentPublicationscomprisebookssimilarincharactertothearticlesinthejournalPastandPresentWhetherthevolumesintheseriesarecollectionsofessays–somepreviouslypublished,othersnewstudies–ormonographs,theyencompassawidevarietyofscholarlyandoriginalworksprimarilyconcernedwithsocial,economicandculturalchanges,andtheircausesandconsequencesTheywillappealtobothspecialistsandnonspecialistsandwillendeavourtocommunicatetheresultsofhistoricalandalliedresearchinthemostreadableandlivelyformForalistoftitlesinPastandPresentPublications,seeendofbookThePeasantsofOttobeuren,–ARuralSocietyinEarlyModernEuropeGOVINDPSREENIVASANcambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnisbn©GovindPSreenivasanInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbnisbnCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackTomyfather,SRangaSreenivasan,andtothememoryofmymother,ClairedeReineckSreenivasanContentsListoffigurespagexListofmapsxiiiListoftablesxivAcknowledgementsxviNoteonweights,measures,andcurrenciesxviiIntroductionRightandmight(c–c)Thediscretesociety(c–c)Acrisisofnumbers(c–c)Integrityandthemarket(c–c)Livingonborrowedtime(c–c)Toemptyandtorefill(c–c)ConclusionBibliographyIndexofplacesGeneralindexixFiguresChartersofthemonasteryofOttobeureninfiveyearintervals,–pageDistributionofOttobeurensettlementsbyearliestdocumentaryreferenceWealthdistributioninnineOttobeurenvillages,TaxpaymentsofBo¨henhouseholds,SubdivisionoftheHo¨feinthehamletofReuthen,–SubdivisionoftheHo¨feoftheWagnerfamilyofSontheim,–SubdivisionoftheHofoftheKoppfamilyofAttenhausen,–RyepricesinMemmingenandFrechenrieden,–RangeofvariationinryepricesamongfourOttobeurenvillages,–TemporaldistributionofgrainsalesatMemmingen,andOttobeuren,RyedisbursementsofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,PricecorrelationsintheOttobeurenlands,–TithereceiptsinReuthen,–Tithes,ryeprices,andburialsinWesterheim,–DemographicbalanceinWesterheim,–HouseholdnumbersinselectedOttobeurensettlements,–RyeyieldratiosinBavaria,EstimatedproportionofminimumgrainrequirementharvestedinHawangenMoosbach,–xListoffiguresxiEstimatedproportionofminimumgrainrequirementharvestedinFrechenrieden,–GrainrevenuesofthemonasteryofOttobeurenbysource,CompositionoftherevenuesofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,andDebtsofthepeasantrytothemonasteryofOttobeuren,–DistributionoftaxablewealthinnineOttobeurenvillages,andStructureofagriculturalproductioninOttobeurenparish,–TransferandsaleintheOttobeurenLehensreverse,–TimingofkintransfersofGotteshausrechtland,–AnnualinterestreceiptsofthechapelsofStNiklasandOurBlessedLady,–SocialdistributionofthedebtorsofStNiklasandOurBlessedLady,NumberofSchuldbriefewithobligatoryeightyeardebtclearance,–ThedebtsandlandholdingsofJohannTeufel,–AverageweeklylaborhiringbythemonasteryofOttobeuren,–Typeofresidencerightgrantedtoyieldingheirs,–and–LegalmigrationatOttobeuren,–Percentageoffemaleheirsbysizeofestate,–TemporaldistributionofryesalesatOttobeuren,–Illegalexchangesoutsideofofficialmarketplaces,–TheproductsofillegaltradeatOttobeuren,–BaptismsandadultburialsinWesterheim,–BaptismsandadultburialsinEgg,–OutcomeofPflegschaftendebtcases,AlcoholexcisereceiptsoftheBo¨heninn,–Theburdenof“olddebts”inthevillageofBo¨hen,–Repaymentof“olddebts”bythepeasantsofOttobeuren,–xiiListoffiguresTheVetterSauterfamiliesinEggduringtheThirtyYearsWarTimingofthetransferofGotteshausrechtlandatOttobeuren,–OriginsofmarriagepartnersinfourOttobeurenparishes,–MarkettollsatOttobeuren,–CompositionofmarkettollsatOttobeuren,EvolutionoftheOttobeurengrainmarket,–RangeofvariationinryepricesamongfourOttobeurenvillages,–TithereceiptsinnineOttobeurenvillages,–OutstandingloansoftheSontheimparishchurch,–MapsSouthernGermany,cpagexviiiThelandsofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,xixxiiiTablesTransmissionpatternsforGotteshausrechtHo¨featOttobeuren,–pageSocialstatusofOttobeuren“radicals,”MeantaxpaymentinfiveOttobeurenvillages,–HouseholdsandcommunicantsinfourOttobeurenvillages,–PopulationinfiveOttobeurenvillages,–PopulationofthelandsofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,–GrainsupplyatOttobeureninthesGrainsupplyatOttobeureninthesIncomeofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,andSeigneurialduesasaproportionoftheharvestatOttobeuren,FinancesofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,–SeigneurialduesasaproportionoftheharvestatOttobeuren,EstimatedyieldsineightOttobeurenvillages,cArablelandperhouseholdintheOttobeurenvillages,ArablelandperhouseholdinOberandUnterwesterheim,andDistributionoflandholdinginfiveOttobeurenvillages,NumberoffarmsinthehamletsofOttobeurenparish,–SocialmobilityatOttobeuren,–xivListoftablesxvThefinancingofhouseholdpropertysalesatOttobeuren,–ThedeclineofcommonpropertyremarriageatOttobeuren,–MeaninheritancesatOttobeuren,–and–NumberofcommunicantsintheOttobeurenmonasterylands,–Declineinpopulation,tithes,andgrainrentsatOttobeuren,–HouseholdsizeinthreeOttobeurenvillages,andHouseholdcompositionatHawangen,andMedianageatfirstmarriageatWesterheim,–and–ArablelandperhouseholdintheOttobeurenvillages,FoodsupplyatOttobeureninthesandsFinancingofhouseholdpropertysalesatOttobeuren,–ImmigrationandsettlementratesinBenningen,–SocialmobilityatOttobeuren,–NumberofcowsinnineOttobeurenvillages,–MeanmoveablewealthanddebtsperhouseholdinnineOttobeurenvillages,andAnnualvolumeofpropertysalesandcashborrowingatOttobeuren,–Girls’namesinthreeOttobeurenvillages,–AcknowledgementsThisbookhasoccupiedfifteenyearsofmylifeIthasbeenagoodrunMyinterestinthepeasantsofearlymodernEuropewasfirstkindledatMcGillUniversitybyPierreHBoulleandMichaelPercevalMaxwellandthedoctoraldissertationonwhichthisbookisbasedwasgenerouslysupervisedbyStevenOzmentofHarvardUniversityTheworkcouldnothavebeenundertakenwithouttheassistanceoftheArchivdesBistumsAugsburgandtheStadtarchivMemmingenIwasunfortunatelyunabletoconsulttheholdingsoftheKlosterarchivOttobeurenduetoitsclosureforrenovationsIoweaparticulardebtofgratitudetoArchivdirektorReinhardHSeitzandthestaffoftheStaatsarchivAugsburg,whoputupwithmyvirtuallypermanentresidenceinthereadingroomin–andthereafterpatientlyboremyincessantrequestsformicrofilmFinancialsupportfortheresearchwasprovidedbytheGermanAcademicExchangeService(DAAD),theMrsGilesWhitingFoundation,theCornellPeaceStudiesFoundation,theNationalEndowmentfortheHumanities,andBrandeisUniversityAlongtheway,LawrenceDuggan,HermannRebel,DavidSabean,andTomScottofferedinvaluableadviceandencouragement,andhadLyndalRopernottakenaninterestinmyproject,itmightneverhavegonetoprintIalsowanttothankmydearfriendKarlDietrichforsustainingmeincountlesswaysovertheyears,andmystudentsatBrandeisUniversityforinsistingthatthestudyofpeasantsbeenlivenedbystoriesMilenaPentaandRobertDeeskindlyprovidedlastminutedataondetailsIhadn’thadtimetocheckAboveall,IamgratefultomyfamilyMyparentsnurturedmyinterestinhistoryfromtheverybeginning,andmybrothersandsistershavekeptmesaneMychildren,SujataandVineet,haveenduredbedtimestoriesoverpopulatedwithpeasantsandhavecheerfullyacceptedasuspiciousnumberofmedievalthemedtoysFinally,Imustapologizetomywife,AllisonDussias,forthewantofwordstothankherenoughSheistheonlypersonoutsidethePresswhohasreadtheentiretyofthemanuscript,anditowesmoretoherunfailingsupport,thoughtfulcriticism,andpersonalinspirationthansheherselfknowsNewton,MassachusettsxviNoteonweights,measures,andcurrenciesDuringthesixteenthcentury,themostcommonunitofcurrencyintheaccountbooksofthemonasterywasthePfundHellerThePfund,orpound,wasdividedasfollows:pound(£)=shillings(ß)=pennies(d)Bytheearlyseventeenthcentury,thepoundhadbeenreplacedintheaccountsbytheRheinischeGulden:gulden=poundsandgulden(fl)=batzen=kreuzer(kr)=heller(h)Arableandwoodedlandwasmeasuredinjauchert,whilemeadowandgardenlandwasmeasuredintagwerkOttobeurenjauchert=Ottobeurentagwerk=hectaresGrainwasmeasuredinmalter,usuallythemalterofthenearbycityofMemmingenForthesocalled“heavygrains,”iewheat,rye,andkern(huskedspelt):malter=viertel=metzenForthe“lightgrains,”ie,oatsandvesen(unhuskedspelt):malter=viertel=metzenForbarley:malter=viertel=metzenAlso:Memmingenmalter=hectolitresWilhelmLochbrunner,“–:La¨ndlicheNeuordnungdurchVereino¨dung,”BerichteausderFlurbereinigung(),pThejauchertandtagwerkweretraditionalmeasuresofsurfaceareainSwabiatheyvariedinsizefromterritorytoterritoryThomasWolf,Reichssta¨dteinKriegszeiten(Memmingen,),pxviiSpeyerNördlingenBambergWürzburgRottweilRothenburgodTSchwäbischHallkmLindauUlmAugsburgNürnbergStuttgartHeidelbergFrankfurtaMStrassburg••••••••••••••••MemmingenKempten•WÜRTTEMBERGUPPERSWABIAALLGÄUHOHENLOHELANDSOFTHEMONASTERYOFOTTOBEURENHESSEFRANCONIABAVARIALandsbergBabenhausenMindelheimKaufbeurenLeutkirchMapSouthernGermany,cMajorhighwayWatercoursekilometresHeimertingenNiederriedenFugger(BoosandBabenhausen)landsEgganderGünzSchöneggPrinceBishopricofAugsburgLordshipofMindelheim(Bavaria)LordshipofStein(acquired)RonsbergLandsofthePrinceAbbotofKemptenMemmingenlandsMemmingenlandsFREEIMPERIALCITYOFMEMMINGENWoringenGrönenbachOttobeurenvillageOttobeurenhamlet“Foreign”village(selected)LEGENDLaubenRummeltshausenHolzgünzTrankelsbergUngerhausenStephansriedHawangenBenningenWaldEggesriedHerbishofenFrölinsLachenBriechlinsBossartsKlessenOTTOBEURENGuggenbergOberböglinsSchrallenDietratriedSchöggelsNiederdorfBrandholzWolfertschwendenFrickenIttelsburgUnterwarlinsOberwarlinsLampolzBergBöhenJetzlinsWaldmühleTheillenNollenSchorenHünersKarlinsHessenLeupolzReuthenUnterböglinsÖlbrechtsUnterhaslachOberhaslachBibelsbergDaßbergOllarzriedHöheOberriedSchachenVogelsangOsterbergGünzeggRempolzHofsEheimEngetriedGutBetzisriedHalbersbergLangenbergWetzlenDennenbergGumpratsriedGrabusKnausErkheimGünzSchlegelsbergUnterwesterheimOberwesterheimSontheimAttenhausenFrechenriedenAltisriedGottenauKöngetriedUntereggRettenbachObereggBühelMapThelandsofthemonasteryofOttobeuren,IntroductionThespecterhauntingthehistoriographyofearlymodernEuropeisthespecteroftransitionTobesure,therelativelyrecentdesignationoftheperiodc–casanerauntoitselfrepresentedmultipleintellectualcurrents,inthefirstinstancearisinginterestinsocialandeconomic(asopposedtoreligiousandpolitical)questionsAtthesametime,however,thedefinitionofthesecenturiesasthedecisiveandtraumaticpassagefromamedievaltoamodernworldgeneratedaliteraturepervadedbythemesofcrisisandrevolution(agricultural,commercial,financial,military,scientific,etc),culminatinginabreakthroughvariouslydefinedasthebeginningsofindustrialization,theendoftheeconomicancienre´gime,orthetransitionfromfeudalismtocapitalismOfcourse,itwasalwaysrecognizedthateconomicgrowthwashardlyauniversalexperienceinearlymodernEurope,butthiswasaccountedforbylabelingsomepartsofthecontinent(theMediterraneaningeneralandSpaininparticular)asexamplesoffailedtransitionsandothers(northwestEuropeingeneralandEnglandandtheNetherlandsinparticular)assuccessesOutcomeswereboundtovary,itwasThefirstEnglishlanguagetextbooktoframesixteenthandseventeenthcenturyEuropeanhistoryinthesetermswasGeorgeNormanClark’sEarlyModernEuropefromabouttoabout(London,)Thisperiodizationgainedbroadacceptanceduringthefollowingdecade,reflectedbytheinauguration()ofthe“CambridgeStudiesinEarlyModernHistory”TheconceptionofanearlymodernperiodismucholderinEnglishhistoricallinguistics,anddatesbacktothesatleastTheliteratureonthecrisisishugeTheconceptoriginatedinEricHobsbawm’s“TheGeneralCrisisoftheEuropeanEconomyintheSeventeenthCentury,”PastandPresent(),pp–and(),pp–ThisarticleandothersitinspiredarecollectedinTrevorAshton,edCrisisinEurope–(London,)subsequentechoesinGeoffreyParkerandLMSmith,edsTheGeneralCrisisoftheSeventeenthCentury(London,)JandeVries,TheEconomyofEuropeinanAgeofCrisis–(Cambridge,)hasbeenveryinfluentialSeealsoImmanuelWallerstein,TheModernWorldSystem,VolI:CapitalistAgricultureandtheOriginsoftheEuropeanWorldEconomyintheSixteenthCentury(SanDiego,)andVolII:MercantilismandtheConsolidationoftheEuropeanWorldEconomy–(NewYork,)PeterKriedte,Peasants,LandlordsandMerchantCapitalists,transVRBerghahn(Cambridge,)AmorerecentcontributionisSheilaghCOgilvie,“GermanyandtheSeventeenthCenturyCrisis,”HistoricalJournal,(),pp–thepeasantsofottobeurenfelt,insuchawiderangingstrugglebetweentheforcesofgrowthandchangeandtraditionalsocialandeconomiclimitsOvertime,thetransitionalnarrativeofearlymodernsocialhistoryhaslostmuchofitsinitialcoherenceFirstandforemost,fiftyyearsofresearchhaveforcedhistorianstoacknowledgethattheperformanceoftheearlymodernEuropeaneconomyasawholewassluggishatbestThespecialstatusclaimedforthesecenturieshasalsobeenerodedfromwithout,asaconsensusemergesoverthedecidedlymodestpaceofeconomicgrowthduringtheearlyIndustrialRevolution,whiletheturbulenceofthelaterMiddleAgesisnowreframedasanepisodeofsuch“creative”destructionthattherewasvirtuallynothinglefttobeaccomplishedduringthesubsequentearlymoderneraNevertheless,historianshavebeenextremelyhostiletotheoneattempttofacethisconundrumsquarely:EmmanuelLeRoyLadurie’sfamouspronouncementthatthequintessentialfeatureofearlymodernEuropeansocietywasits“immobility,”thatis,itsinabilitytoescapethelimitstoeconomicgrowthimposedbythetechnologicalbackwardnessofagricultureIncreasinglyuncomfortablewithanearlierinsoucianceinjudgingsuccessandfailure,scholarshaveinrecentyearspreferredtoreconceptualizeearlymoderneconomicstagnationanddepressionas“readjustment,”

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[英]斯瑞瓦森:奥托博伊伦的农夫,1487—1726:欧洲近代早期的乡村生活(剑桥 2004)

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