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首页 [英]郑扬文:中国鸦片社会生活史(剑桥 2005)

[英]郑扬文:中国鸦片社会生活史(剑桥 2005)

[英]郑扬文:中国鸦片社会生活史(剑桥 2005)

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2008-10-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]郑扬文:中国鸦片社会生活史(剑桥 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankTHESOCIALLIFEOFOPIUMINCHINAInaremarkableandbroadrangingnarrative,ZhengYangwen’sbookexploresthehistoryofopiumconsumptioninChinafromtothelatetwentiethcenturyThestorybeginsinthemidMingdynasty,whenopiumwassentasagiftbyvassalstatesandusedasanaphrodisiacincourtOvertime,theChinesepeoplefromdifferentclassesandregionsbegantouseitforrecreationalpurposes,sobeginningacomplexcultureofopiumconsumptionThebooktracesthistransformationoveraperiodoffivehundredyears,askingwhointroducedopiumtoChina,andhowitspreadthroughoutallsectionsofsociety,embracedbyrichandpooralikeasacultureandaninstitutionItisaccompaniedbyafascinatingcollectionofillustrations,andoffersavividandalternativeperspectiveonlifeinChinaduringthisperiod,whichwillappealtostudentsandscholarsofhistory,anthropology,sociology,politicalscience,economics,EastAsianstudies,andtoallthosewithaninterestinChinazhengyangwenisaResearchFellowattheAsiaResearchInstituteoftheNationalUniversityofSingaporeShereceivedherPhDfromtheUniversityofCambridgeinTHESOCIALLIFEOFOPIUMINCHINAZHENGYANGWENcambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnisbnisbn©Zheng,YangwenInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbnisbnisbnCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackDedicatedtoCarolandArthurTaylorIthinkitcouldplausiblybearguedthatchangesofdietaremoreimportantthanchangesofdynastyorevenofreligionGeorgeOrwell,TheRoadtoWiganPierContentsListofillustrationspageviiiListofmapsxListoftablesxiAcknowledgementsxiiIntroduction‘Theartofalchemists,sexandcourtladies’Astheempirechangedhands‘Theageofcalicoesandteaandopium’‘Ahobbyamongthehighandthelowinofficialdom’TastemakingandtrendsettingThepoliticalredefinitionofopiumconsumptionOutwardanddownward‘liquidation’‘Thevolumeofsmokeandpowder’‘Theunofficialhistoryofthepoppy’OpiateofthepeopleTheroadtoStLouis‘Shanghaivice’ConclusionNotesGlossaryBibliographyIndexviiIllustrationsManchuladiesoftheQingpalace,lateQing(LibraryofCongress,Washington,dc,PrintsandPhotographs,LCUSZ)pageManchuwomansmokingopium,lateQing(LibraryofCongress,Washington,dc,PrintsandPhotographs,LCUSZ)Twomenrelaxingwithawomanandopium,lateQing(HongKongMuseumofHistory,P)‘Anapprenticelookingforfun’,lateQing(Dianshizhai,ed,DianshizhaiHuabao,vols,Shanghai:Dianshizhai,,voli,ppB–A)‘Measuringthevolumeofswallowing’,lateQing(Dianshizhai,ed,DianshizhaHiuabao,vols,Shanghai:Dianshizhai,,volxii,ppB–A)QingworkingmensmokingopiuminadeninMalintaStreet,Manila,Philippines(LibraryofCongress,Washington,dc,PrintsandPhotographs,LCUSZ)Opiumbowls,privatecollection:courtesyofWolfK(PeterLee,TheBigSmoke:TheChineseArtandCraftofOpium,Thailand:LamplightBooks,,p)‘Breakfastinbed’andpipesonagunrack,privatecollection:courtesyofPeterLee(PeterLee,TheBigSmoke:TheChineseArtandCraftofOpium,Thailand:LamplightBooks,,p)Twogemstoneadornedpipesaddlesofwroughtsilver,privatecollection:courtesyofWolfK(PeterLee,TheBigSmoke:TheChineseArtandCraftofOpium,Thailand:LamplightBooks,,p)Threesophisticatedopiumlamps,privatecollection:courtesyofPeterLeeandWolfK(PeterLee,TheBigSmoke:TheviiiListofillustrationsixChineseArtandCraftofOpium,Thailand:LamplightBooks,,p)Twomenjointsmokingathome,lateQing(LibraryofCongress,Washington,dc,PrintsandPhotographs,LCUSZ)Mensmokingopiumandsocialising,Canton,lateQing(LibraryofCongress,Washington,dc,PrintsandPhotographs,LCUSZ)‘TheChineseeatsmoke’,postcard,lateQing(ChenShouxiang,FanglinBeiningCangQingdaiMingxinpainXuanji,Nanning:GuangxiMeishu,,postcardnumber)‘GoldenTriangle’,postcards,northernThailand(HouseofOpium,GoldenTriangle,ChiangSaen,ChiangRai,Thailand)MapsOpium’ssoutheastAsia:theoverlandtraderoutesofsouthernChina(CarlATrocki,Opium,EmpireandtheGlobalPoliticalEconomy:AStudyoftheAsianOpiumTrade–,London:Routledge,,p)pageTheupwardandinwardroutesoftheopiumtrade,midnineteenthcentury(HsinpaoChang,CommissionerLinandtheOpiumWar,Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,,p)xTablesOpiumshipmentstoChina,–pageOpiumconsumptioninChina,s–sShipmentsfromIndia,–TotalimportinDailytolerationlevelsofopiumsmokingConfiscateddrugsnationwide,–xiAcknowledgementsIwish,firstofall,tothankmyteachersinCambridge–DrTimHarper,DrHansvandeVenandProfessorChrisBayly–whohaveguidedmesinceIthankProfessorPeterBurke,whoopenedmyeyestotheuniverseofsocialtheoryandculturestudiesIremembertheencouragementIreceivedfromProfessorsHoPingti,JonathanSpence,FredericWakeman,IgorKopytoffandSidneyMintzintheearlystageofthisbookProfessorWakemantoldmethathesawopiumsmokingChineselabourersinHavana,wherehelivedasachild,whileProfessorKopytoffrememberedopiumsmokingChineseladiesinWorldWarTwoShanghai,wherehelivedasaRussianimmigrantboyIamverygratefultoProfessorWangErmin,whointroducedmetomaterialcultureandunconventionalsources,andtoProfessorTonyGuodongChen,whosharedwithmetheChinesesourcesintheJardineMathesonArchiveIthankProfessorAlanKorsandtheBradleyFoundationforthegenerouspostdoctoralfellowshipattheHistoryDepartmentoftheUniversityofPennsylvaniaChairmanJonathanSteinberg,seniorcolleaguesNancyFarrissandDanRaffandthePennEconomicForumallhelpedtopromotemyworkIammostgratefultoProfessorsSusanNaquin,PhilipKuhn,BenjaminElmanandJoannaWaleyCohen,whotookprecioustimetoreadmymanuscriptandsharedwithmetheirinsightsIthankCharlesAlymerandMrsFengNanhuaoftheUniversityLibraryatCambridge,JohnWellsoftheJardineMathesonArchive,JohnMoffettoftheNeedhamInstitute,thestaffatFuSinianLibraryofAcademicSinica,LilyKecskesoftheEastAsianandPrintsandPhotographsdivisionsoftheLibraryofCongress,andYangJidongandLeePughoftheVanPeltLibraryoftheUniversityofPennsylvaniaTheseprofessionalswentoutoftheirwaytohelpmeIthankTarynKutishatPenn’sHistoryDepartmentforpolishingupmycomputerskillsIcouldnothavewrittenthisbookwithoutthefundingoftheInstituteofHumaneStudies,OberlinCollege(myAlmaMater),King’sCollege,xiiAcknowledgementsxiiiCambridgeandtheBradleyFoundationTheygavemethemeanswithwhichtotravelaroundtheworldinthesearchandresearchofopiumIthankDrLizGray,MaggieCowen,JulianaSteiner,NancyJonesandDrEdwardCastletonforreadingmymanuscriptandpolishingmyEnglishIwishtothankMarigoldAcland,IsabelleDambricourt,HilaryHammondandMaryLeightonofCambridgeUniversityPressfortheirhardworkFinally,mygratitudegoestomyparentsinChina,toToveandTerjeMikalseninFarsund,Norway,andtoCarolandArthurTaylorinBronxville,NewYork,towhomthisbookisdedicatedIntroductionThehistoryofopiumisamajorthemeinmodernChinesehistoryBooksandacademiccareershavebeendevotedtoitsstudyYetthequestionthatscholarsoftheopiumwarsandofmodernChinahavefailedtoaskishowthedemandforopiumwasgeneratedWhosmokedopium,whenandwhyRecreationalsmokingwasforeigntoChina,aswasopiumitselfHowandwhen,then,didopiumcometolodgeitselfwithinthesophisticatedChinesecultureofconsumptionOpiumnotonlythrived,itspreadlikewildfireoverthenextfewhundredyearsThiswasduringaperiodwhenwesternEuropeans,theBritishinparticular,werenaturalisingteaandsugarOpiumhasitsownstoryHistorianshavenotsetopiuminitssocialandculturalcontexttheyhavenottakenitsconsumptionintoaccountinthehistoriographiesofopiumandmodernChinaSomehavedweltontheopiumtrade,someontheopiumwars,someonimperialismandothersonthepoliticsofcontrolThepoliticalhistoryofopium,likethetheatreofwar,isonlypartofthestoryHowever,thevitalquestionsformeare,first,thepointatwhichopiumwastransformedfromamedicineintoaluxuryitemand,secondly,whyitbecamesopopularandwidespreadafterpeoplediscovereditsrecreationalvalueAfullunderstandingoftherootproblemoftheopiumwarsandoftheroleofthewarsintheemergenceofmodernChinaisnotpossiblewithoutfirstexplainingwhosmokedopium,whenandwhyThisbookstudiestheintroductionofandthenaturalisationofopiumsmokingitmakespreliminaryconjecturesastowhytheChineseembracedsmokingandtheuseofopiumIhavechosentolookatopiumbiographicallybecause,asArjunAppaduraiandIgorKopytoffhaveargued,‘commodities,likepersons,havesociallives’,thatis,‘lifehistories’Commodities,betheyhousesorpaintings,leadindependentlivesregardlessofthechangeoftheirownersWelearnaboutthembystudyingtheirownersandtheirlifehistoriesThesociallifeofopiumisindeedabiographyof‘MrOpium’fromhisbirthTheSocialLifeofOpiuminChinaasarecreationalitemtohisoldageasasocialiconSuchaperspectiveonthecirculationofcommoditiesfocuseson‘thethingsthatareexchanged’,because,asArjunAppaduraihassaid,‘theirmeaningsareinscribedintheirforms,theiruses,theirtrajectoriesItisonlythroughtheanalysisofthesetrajectoriesthatwecaninterpretthehumantransactionandcalculationsthatenliventhings’Withopium,thesocialsignificanceofsmokingwas‘inscribed’initsvanguardconsumers,whoweretheliteratiandtheofficials,andonthepipespackedwithpreciousstonesandsymbolicdesignsChinesepeopleofdifferentclasses,regionsandtimeshaveendowedmanymeaningstoopium,fromluxurytonecessityThe‘genealogicalmethodofanthropologicalinquiry’isrevolutionary,asKopytoffhaspointedoutHisexampleisslaverySlaverybeganwithcaptureanindividualwasdehumanised,commoditisedandlaterrehumanisedwhenheshewasreinsertedintothehostgroupDehumanisationbeginsthebiographyofaslaveitalsomarks‘thediversionofcommoditiesfrompreordainedpaths’OpiumwaslikewisedivertedfromaherbalmedicineitmovedtobecomealuxuryitemDiversionis‘frequentlyafunctionofirregulardesiresandnoveldemands’Thiscouldnothavebeenmoreevidentwithopiumin,whenamedicinalherbbecame‘theartofalchemists,sexandcourtladies’ThisdiversionshapedthehistoryofopiumandindeedofChinaforfivehundredyearstocome‘Amoretheoreticallyawarebiographicalmodel’,Kopytoffstressed,shouldbe‘basedonareasonablenumberoflifehistories’ThisbookisthelifehistoryofopiumasanaphrodisiacfromthemidMing,asanexpensiveyanghuoor‘foreignstuff’andhobbyamongthescholar–officialeliteintheeighteenthcentury,andasapopularcultureinthelateQing–RepublicaneraandbeyondThesehistoriestelluswhosmokedopium,whenandwhytheyalsohelpustostitchtogetheramuchmorecompletepictureoftheMing–Qing–Republicaneconomy,andofitscultureandsociety,andenableustoseebothchangeandcontinuityinthecultureofopiumconsumptionThisbookexaminesopiumfromaculturalperspectivebecause,asDanielRochehasemphasised,‘Anyobject,eventhemostordinary,embodiesingenuity,choices,acultureAbodyofknowledgeandasurplusofmeaningsareattachedtoallobjects’Roche’sexampleisclothing‘Clothingspeaksofmanythingsatonce,eitherinitselforthroughsomedetailIthasafunctionofcommunicationbecauseitisthroughclothingthateveryone’srelationtothecommunitypasses’Thesamecanbesaidofotherformsofconsumption,includingopiumsmokingRocheemphasisedthatoneshouldpayattentiontothewholeaswellastothepartsthesignsthatindicateIntroductionminorities,thecoloursthatcancharacterisesocialfunctionsandmembershipofdifferentgroups,thecut,thematerial,thetypesofjewelleryForthis,referencethesmokingsetsandaccessoriesthataccompaniedopiumsmokingRochealsoadvancedmuchmore:‘thehistoryofconsumptionmustincludeanalysisofdemand,andthereforeofthestructuringofneeds,theclassificationofconsumers,thecircuitsofdistributionandthespatialorganisationofsupply’Tounderstandneeds,wemustunderstand‘thetextureofourordinarylife’,thatis,‘therealweightofeverydaylife’,orthe‘historyofwhatseemstohavenohistory:materiallifeandbiologicalbehaviour,historyoffood,historyoftheconsumptionoffood’FortheChinese,opiumsmoking,liketeadrinking,wasmateriallifeandbiologicalbehaviour,ahistoryoffoodandacultureofconsumptionPierreBourdieuissignificanthereHisinfluentialLaDistinction:critiquesocialedujugementstudied‘thescienceoftasteandculturalconsumption’BourdieuappliedthissciencetotheconsumptionoftheartsandmusicIshallextendittothatofopiumBourdieusawtasteas‘markersofclass’andconsumptionas‘predisposed,consciouslyanddeliberatelyornot,tofulfilasocialfunctionoflegitimatingsocialdifferences’Thiswastruewithopiumasitsvanguardconsumers,theliteratiandofficials,enjoyedopiumlongbeforethe‘ordinary’peopleheardaboutitItwastheywhomadeopiumsmokingculturedandastatussymboltheywhomarkedthemselvesapartfromthosebelowthem,legitimatingtheirsocialdifferencesBourdieuanalysedtheconsumptionofpictorialandmusicalworks‘Aworkofarthasmeaningandinterestonlyforsomeonewhopossessestheculturalcompetence,thatis,thecode,intowhichitisencoded’AnopiumpipecarvedwithanepicpoemandservedbyahighlyliteratecourtesanwaslimitedtoandhadmeaningforthosewhocouldappreciatethepoetryandexchangecodedlanguageBourdieuhad‘onefootinstructuralMarxismandtheotherinculturalstudies’ThecaseofopiumsupportsthisapproachOpiumwasanaristocraticluxuryitemduringtheMingdynastyItbecameanecessityduringthelatenineteenthcenturyThestoryofopiumisthestoryoftasteanddistinctionitisalsothestoryofpoliticsandclassformationOneofthemostinfluentialworksonconsumptionisJeanBaudrillard’sLaSocie´te´deconsommation:sesmythes,sesstructuresForBaudrillard,consumptionis‘alanguage’Breakingawayfromastandardproductivistorientation,thepostmodernsocialtheoristbelievedthatconsumptionwas‘bothamoralityandacommunicationsystem,astructureofexchange’Thiswascertainlytrueofopiumsmoking,whereofferingthesmoketofriends,colleaguesandguestsinvolvedafundamentalChineseTheSocialLifeofOpiuminChinasocioculturalvalueinthelateQing–earlyRepublicaneraRegardlessofwhetheronesanctionedopiumornot,onemustofferthesmokeinordertobe‘timian’(politeorfashionable),thusaChinese‘morality’,‘communicationsystem’and‘structureofexchange’wascreatedManysoughttocatchupwiththeJonesesconsumptionbecameconspicuousConsumptionitselfissubjecttoindividualmanipulationitisalso‘subjecttosocialcontrolandpoliticalredefinition’ParallelscanbedrawntoalcoholingeneralandvodkainparticularOpiumisaperfectexampleofthepoliticalredefinitionofconsumptionWhentherichsmokedit,itwasculturedandastatussymbolwhenthepoorbegantoinhale,opiumsmokingbecamedegradingandultimatelycriminalThelowerclassesmadetheconsequencesofsmokingvisibleandsocialtheliteratiandofficialshadthepowertoreinterpretconsumptionConsumptionhasneverbeenasimpleeconomicmatterMaryDouglasproposed‘adistinctiveanthropologicalperspective’inConstructiveDrinkingAnthropologistsbrought‘theirownprofessionalpointofviewtobearinterestinglyuponthesamematerialsstudiedbyspecialistsonalcoholabuse’TheyarguedthatmedicalandsociologicalresearchexaggeratedtheproblemsAsDwightHeathpointedout,‘Evenpractitionersofthesocalled“hardsciences”acknowledgethatsocialandculturalfactorsmustbetakenintoaccount,togetherwithphysiologicalandpsychologicalfactors,whenoneattemptstounderstandtheinteractionofalcoholandhumanbehaviour’Iextendthisdistinctiveanthropologicalperspectivetoopiumbecausedrinkingandsmokingaretheobviousanalogies‘Drinkingisessentiallyasocialact,performedinarecognizedsocialcontext’soitwaswithopiumsmokingManyauthorshavestudiedthesocialcontextofconsumptionDavidChristian’sLivingWaterarguedthatvodkaplayedacrucialroleinRussiansocietyontheeveoftheRevolutionThomasBrennanillustratedthe‘positiveusesofdrinking’inprerevolutionaryParisAndDavidHardimanexposedthedifferentpoliticalagendasinjectedintodrinkingincolonialIndiaBrennan’sworkisimportantbecauseitchallengedtheheavilyusedaccountsoftheintermediaries,‘thethreerobes’–theclergy,thenobilityandtheliberalprofessions–theircondemnationoftavernsandconsequentlytheirinfluenceonthestudyofpopularcultureHere,Iwillchallengetheheavilyusedaccountsof‘theChineserobes’DeborahLuptonhasfurtheredourunderstandingofthehistoryoffoodandthecultureofconsumption‘Foodandeatinghabitsandpreferencesarenotsimplymattersof“fuelling”ourselves’,shewritesThiswastrueofopium,sincesmokingdidnotfillone’sstomach‘FoodisinextricablyIntroductioninterlinkedwithgroupmembershipaswellaskinship’,Luptoncontinues,andagain,opiumisagoodexamplewherefriendsandfamilygatheredtoshareleisurethroughsmokingFoodis‘theultimate“consumable”commodity’sowasopiumGeorgeRitzerhasidentified‘McDonaldization’,aprocesswh

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[英]郑扬文:中国鸦片社会生活史(剑桥 2005)

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