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首页 [美]谢尔顿·H

[美]谢尔顿·H.哈里斯:死亡工厂:美国掩盖的日本细菌战犯罪(劳特里奇 1995)

[美]谢尔顿·H

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FactoriesofDeathInManchuria,beforeandduringWorldWarII,theJapanesearmyconductednumerous,andquitehorrific,biologicalwarfareexperimentsuponlivehumanbeingsAfterthewar,theJapanesescientistswhohadbeenengagedintheseactivitiesweregrantedimmunity,bytheUSarmy,frominvestigationforwarcrimes,inreturnfortheresultsoftheirexperimentsSheldonHarris’sbookisacontroversialinvestigationoftheactivitiesoftheJapanesescientistsinvolvedintheseexperimentsandthesubsequentUScoverupTheauthorcoversthesensitiveareasconcerningwhichscientistswereinvolvedandwhointheupperechelonsofthearmyandthepoliticalestablishmentknewoftheactivitiesgoingoninsideManchuriaHarrisalsoinvestigatestheclaimsthatalliedPOWsweresubjecttoexperimentationInthesecondpartofthebookthequestionsconcerningwhythescientistswerenotprosecutedaswarcriminalsandthenatureofthedealthatwasstruckwiththeUSoccupationauthoritiesareexaminedSheldonHarrishasproducedaworkthatisbackedupbyrigorousfieldworkandresearchinChinaHehasalsoobtainedaccesstoUSandKGBarchivescontainingmaterialpreviouslyunavailabletootheracademicsThisbookshouldappealtothoseinterestedinJapanesehistory,theethicsofscientistsandtheconductofarmiesinwarSheldonHHarrisisEmeritusProfessorofHistory,CaliforniaStateUniversity,NorthridgeInhebecameinvolvedinresearchonJapanesebiologicalwarfareexperimentationinManchuriaHisresearchledhimtodeliverseveralpaperstointernationalconferencesonscienceandethicsandtothepublicationofanumberofscholarlyarticlesthathavearousedconsiderableinterestintheUnitedStates,Europe,JapanandChinaFactoriesofDeathJapanesebiologicalwarfare–andtheAmericancoverupSheldonHHarrisLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYFirstpublishedinpaperbackRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©SheldonHHarrisAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanicalorothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)TomywifeSheilaandtothethousandsofChinesemartyredinthestruggleforfreedom,SeptembertoJuneContentsPlatesbetweenpagesandPrefacetothepaperbackeditionixAcknowledgementsxiiiPartIDeathfactoriesIntroductionManchuriaMajorIshiiShirocomestoManchuriaBeiyinhebacteriafactoryPingFan:thefirstphasePingFan’sversionofhellHumanexperiments:“secretofsecrets”Unit’sBWdeathfactoriesinChangchunNanking’sBWdeathfactoryBWexperimentsonprisonersofwarWhoknewPartIICoverupTheUnitedStatesBWprogramDiscoveryofthe“secretofsecrets”InvestigationsScientistsandthecoverupThemilitaryandthecoverupEpilogueAppendicesviiiContentsNotesSelectbibliographyIndexPrefacetothepaperbackeditionIJapan’sunconditionalsurrendertotheUnitedNationsinmidAugustmarkedtheendofactivefightinginWorldWarIIOnehalfcenturylaterreverberationsfromthemosthorrificwarofthetwentiethcenturystillshockgenerationsborninthepostwareraFormerwarcriminals,nowelderlymenlivingintheUnitedStates,Canada,GreatBritainandelsewherearestillbeingdiscoveredandchargedwithexecutingheinouscrimesagainsthumanityInGermany,thenationisconstantlyremindedoftheunspeakablehorrorscommittedbytheNazisduringtheirtwelveyearreignoveranationthatonceproducedaBeethoven,aSchillerandaGoetheCuriously,theJapanese,unliketheGermans,donotconfronttherealityoftheactionsperpetratedbytheirmilitaristicleadersbeforeandduringWorldWarIIThehorrorsoftherapeofNanking,theexploitationofhundredsofthousandsofKoreanandFilipinoyoungwomenas“comfortwomen”(sexslaves)forJapanesetroops,andtheuseofhumansbyscientistsinexperimentsdesignedtodevelopviablechemicalandbiologicalwarfareweaponsarenotdiscussedinmostJapanesecirclesOverthepasthalfcentury,JapanwitnessedchangesingovernmentleadershipmanytimesNotoneofthevariousprimeministersortheirspokesmenrepudiatedtheactionsofthepastUntilrecently,nooneinpowerevenapologizedfortheircountry’swartimemisdeedsThepowerfulandreactionarybureaucratswhorunJapan’sMinistryofEducationturnedtheseactionsintononeventsThisministry’sminionsexciseanymentionofNanking,comfortwomenorbiologicalwarfarefromtextsbeforetheyareapprovedforuseinJapaneseschoolsConsequently,theaverageJapanesecitizentodayisignorantofhiscountry’spastbrutalityHereandthereanisolatedvoiceattemptstorousethenationInthesSeiichiMorimurashockedthenationwithhisnovel,TheDevil’sGluttony,whichdescribedinrealisticdetailJapan’sbiologicalwarfareresearchonhumansProfessorKeiichiTsuneishiisdevotinghisprofessionalcareertooutliningthehistoryofJapanesebiologicalwarfareactivitiesIntheearlyxPrefacestheCitizens’CommitteefortheExhibitofUnitCrimesmountedanexhibitiondetailingJapan’sbiologicalwarfareresearchTheexhibitiontouredmanycitiesinJapanmorethan,peopleviewedtheexhibitAnd,morerecently,DrShingoShibata,ProfessorEmeritusofPhilosophyandSociologyatHiroshimaUniversity,begantoexposethequestionableresearchactivitiesonhumansofJapan’sNationalInstituteofHealthUnfortunately,theiractivitiesthusfarhavemadelittlepermanentimpactonthenationIISecretresearchconducteduponhumansinManchuriaandChinabyJapanesescientistsintheirquestforviablebiologicalwarfareweaponsisamajorthemeofthisbookOfequalimportanceisthediscussionoftheUnitedStates’coverup,andthemotivesforthecoverup,oftheseinhumanpracticesinthepostwarperiodThetimeframeforthisstudyisroughly–whentheTokyoWarCrimeTrialswereconcludedwithnoneofthoseresponsibleforhumanexperimentsbroughttothebarofjusticeItmustbeemphasizedthatitwasscientistswhoinitiatedthemovementtocreatebiological,chemicalandnuclearweaponsNeitherthemilitarynorthepoliticiansinthosecountrieswhosupportedresearchintheseareasconsideredsponsoringsuchprojectsuntiltheywereapproachedbytheirnation’sleadingscientistsItwastheGermanchemistFritzHaberinhisNobelPrizespeechwhodeclaredthatpoisongasis“ahigherformofkilling”AlbertEinsteinandothereminentscientistsurgedPresidentFranklinDRoosevelttosponsorresearchthatwouldleadultimatelytothedevelopmentoftheatomicbombInJapan,IshiiShiroandhisfellowresearcherspromoteddevelopmentofbiologicalwarfareweapons,notthefanaticalmilitaristswhodominatedgovernmentinthedecadesbeforeWorldWarIIMostdistressingisthefactthattheultimatedisclosuresinthemidtolatesofJapanesebiologicalwarfarehumanexperimentationdidnotappallthoseindividualswhowereapprisedofthesecriminalactsInstead,thedisclosureswhettedtheappetitesofscientistsandmilitaryplannersamongboththevictorsandthevanquishedRatherthanbeingmotivatedtoabandonsuchactions,researchusinginvoluntaryoruninformedsubjectshasproliferatedoverthepastfiftyyearsScientistsintheUnitedStatesaloneconductedatleastseveralhundredtestswithhumansubjectswhowerenotinformedofthenatureoftheexperiments,orofthedangertotheirhealthOthersubjectsweremisinformedordeceivedconcerningtheobjectivesoftheexperimentsforwhichtheywererecruitedtovolunteerTheresultsofthesemassivestudiesarebeingrevealedtodayreluctantlyandinpiecemealfashionTheUnitedStates,theformerSovietUnion,Japan,SouthAfricaand,possibly,thePeople’sRepublicofChina,continuedtoworkwithhumansubjectsinfranticattemptstodevelopevenmorehideousPrefacexiweaponsofmassdestructionthanthosewhichdevastatedsomuchofEuropeandAsiainthefirsthalfofthesEquallyalarmingisthegrowingknowledgethatsocalledThirdWorldcountriessuchasIraq,IranandLibyaareactivelyengagedinattemptstoproducebiologicalwarfareweaponswithwhichtheycanthreatentheirneighborsInandtheClintonadministrationbegantolifttheveilofsecrecyconcerningUnitedStates’experimentswithhumansubjectsinhundredsofstudiesduringandsincetheendofWorldWarIIWenowknowthatAmericanscientiststestedhumanswithmustardgas,otherchemicalagents,exposedotherstoradiationtests,andstillotherstoavarietyofpathogenswithoutthesubjects’knowledgeorconsentInmanyinstances,themostdistinguishedscientistsfromthemostprestigiousAmericanuniversitiesparticipatedbothindeceivingtheirpatientsandinconductingtheexperimentsEventoday,thosescientistsstillactiveinthefield,andtheirhostuniversities,denyinvolvementRecentlyopenedformerSovietarchivesdisclosethattheSovietUnioninauguratedalargescalebiologicalwarfareprogrambeginninginthemidsHumanswereusedofteninexperimentsthatcoveredavarietyofdiseasespotentiallyusefulinbiologicalwarfareResearchfacilitieswereestablishedthroughoutthatvastnation,and,accordingtoRussia’sPresidentBorisYeltsin,suchresearchcontinuescovertlytodayTheSovietcoverwaspartiallyblowninwhenamassiveoutbreakofanthraxaffectedalargeareaaroundtheUralscityofSverdlovskThemostconservativeestimatesarethatatleastninetysixpeoplewereinfected,andthatsomesixtysixpeoplediedasaresultoftheoutbreakThetruefigures,nodoubt,arehigherThemostterrifyingaspectoftheoutbreakwasthedisclosurethattheSverdlovskbiologicalwarfareplantaccidentallyreleasedlessthanonegramofanthraxspores,possiblyaslittleasseveralmilligramsItdoesnottakemuchimaginationtocalculatehowmuchdeathanddestructionthereleaseofafewgramsofanthraxsporesintoaheavilypopulatedcommunitycouldcauseInJapan,scientistswhoparticipatedininvoluntaryhumanexperimentsduringWorldWarII,andearlier,dominatedtheadministrationandcontrolledtheareasofresearchofthecountry’sNationalInstituteofHealthforonehalfcenturyafterthewarendedAlthoughtheroleofthesemenisdiscussedinthetext,itshouldbenotedherethatatleastsevenoftheNIH’sDirectorsandfiveoftheInstitute’sViceDirectors,duringthesands,engagedinbiologicalwarfareexperimentswhichemployedhumantestsubjectsTheNationalInstituteofHealthisagovernmentsupportedagencyYettheseknownwarcriminalswereemployedbythisinstitution,weregivengreatpowerswithintheorganizationandcontinuedtousehumanswithouttheirconsent,andoftenwithouttheirknowledge,ininvestigationsthatwerecarriedonduringthecourseofmorethanfortyyearsItisknownthatexperimentswereauthorizedonprisoners,babiesandpatientsinpsychiatrichospitalsin,andfromuntilbytheNIH’sViceDirectorxiiPrefaceMasamiKitaokaAnotherresearcherconductedbacteriologicalexperimentsoninfantshospitalizedinTokyo’sNationalFirstHospitalinLater,thissameresearcher,fromuntil,usedshigellainexperimentsonsoldiersinJapan’sSelfDefenceForcesInMay,anNIHresearcherexperimentallyinjectedanunapprovedvaccineagainstaJapaneseencephalitisvirusintonearlyhospitalizedchildrenwithouttheirparents’consentAtdifferenttimesoverathreeyearperiod,,,,KuniakiNeromeexperimentallytestedtwotypesofgeneticallymodifiedvaccineagainstinfluenzaonapproximatelyfortyhospitalizedchildrenTheirparentswereunawareofthetestsanddidnotgivetheirinformedconsentforthevaccinestobeusedontheirchildrenThereareanumberofinternationaltreatiesbeingdrawnupthatseektooutlawbiologicalwarfare,and,byimplication,involuntaryhumanexperimentationTheUnitedStates,Russia(theformerSovietUnion)andJapanaresignatoriestothevariousinternationalagreementsoutlawinghumanexperimentation,andtheproductionofbiologicalwarfareagentsNevertheless,boththeseactivitiesappeartobeflourishingtodayinallthreecountries,aswellaselsewhereinvariouspartsoftheworldItappearsthathumantesting,biologicalandchemicalweaponswillbepartofformerPresidentGeorgeBush’ssocallednewworldorderforsometimetocomeNOTESSeealsotheLosAngelesTimes,February,pANewYorkTimes,September,pALosAngelesTimes,September,pAl,SeeScience,November,andtheNewYorkTimes,November,pAProfessorShingoShibatatothewriter,Tokyo,JanuaryTokyoShimbun,NovemberweeklySundayMainichi,JulyDrBenjaminGarrett,adistinguishedbiologicalandchemicalwarfaredisarmamentspecialisttothewriter,Moscow,MarchAcknowledgementsAlthoughonenameappearsonthetitlepage,thisbookwaswrittenwiththecollaborationofcountlessscholars,researchers,andinterestedandinformedpersonsThesepeoplesharedwithmetheirgreatknowledge,andgenerouslytooktimefromtheirownworktoassistmeinamultitudeofwayswiththisprojectIntruth,thebookcouldnothavebeenwrittenwithouttheirhelp,andIregardthemasmycoauthorsTheyprovidedmewiththeinformationthatisthebasisforthebook,butIaloneamresponsibleforanyerrorsoffactorinterpretationIfsomenamesareomittedbelow,itisduetoanunfortunatemistakeonmypartIapologizefortheoversightProfessorDingZeminofNortheastNormalUniversity,Changchun,People’sRepublicofChina,firstsuggestedthetopictomein,andhasbeenacontinuoussourceofencouragementovertheyearsHiscolleagues,ProfessorsTienZiHeiandZhuYuan,andgraduatestudentAnYuFeng,patientlyhelpedmetolearnthehistoryofChangchunandtheactivitiesofUnitMrLiMaoJie,DirectoroftheEmperorPuYiMuseuminChangchun,kindlyprovidedmewithphotographsoftheUnitcampaswellasotherusefulinformationMrHanXiao,DeputyDirectoroftheUnitMuseuminPingFan,wasaninvaluableresourceHeisChina’sleadingexpertonUnit’sactivities,andunselfishlysharedwithmethefruitsofhismanyyears’researchinthistreacherousfieldInHarbin,IwashelpedbyHarbinTeachersUniversityProfessorsXuWei,LiHongan,andShengZhanJie,andbyMrLiChangshan,HeadoftheUniversity’sForeignAffairsOfficeDonaldandClairEgge,twoAmericanteachersresidinginHarbin,wereoftremendousassistanceduringadifficulttimeinJuneMrZhouRuYi,DirectorofHarbin’sMuseumoftheMartyrs,providedusefulinformationMyfriendsProfessorsHeZhongyiandYenPeirenofBeijingInstituteofTechnologyassistedmeinmanywaysduringmyfrequentresearchtripstoChinaIamgreatlyindebtedtothemInHailar,InnerMongolia,IwasextendedeverycourtesybyMrWuLiJi,ChiefofAlliance(GovernorofHulunbeiereProvince),oftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionHulunbeiereAllianceMrWu’sassociates,MrFengTianMin,ForeignAffairsSectionChief,MrZhouChunMei,SecretaryGeneraloftheHailarCityPeople’sGovernmentForeignAffairsOffice,MrZhaoHua,xivAcknowledgementsDirectoroftheHailarCityPeople’sGovernmentForeignAffairsOffice,MrGeZhanxue,AssistanttoMrWu,MrEErdun,oneofInnerMongolia’sleadinglocalhistorians,MsQiXinjun,andMsZhuXiaoYangdevotedcountlesshourstoshowingmethesiteofHailar’sbiologicalwarfarecamp,thecity’smassgraveofmartyredChinesevictimsofbiologicalwarfareexperiments,andtheremainsofamajorJapaneseencampment,duringanextraordinarythreedayvisittotheareainJuneIntheUnitedStates,IwasaidedimmenselyinmyresearchbyMrJohnTaylorandMrRichardBoylanoftheNationalArchivesThesegentlemen,andtheirassociates,aretrulydedicatedpublicservantsMygratitudetoRichardandJohncannotbeexpressedinafewsimplewordsMrNormanCovert,PublicInformationOfficeratFortDetrick,Maryland,isoneofthoserareindividualsoccasionallyfoundingovernmentserviceHeisknowledgeableandpersonable,knowswheremanyofthebodiesareburied,andiswillingtohelpresearcherstothebestofhisabilityHeisanotherofthehardworkingpublicservantswhorarelyreceiveacknowledgementandappreciationfortheirservicetoscholarsMrsHazelSolomon,MajorRobertHorelik,MrRonStricklett,andMrFredBakershowedmeeverycourtesyduringmyvisittoDugwayProvingGrounds,Dugway,UtahCongressmanWayneOwens(Dem,Utah)andhisassistant,MrMikeYeager,wereanessentialelementinhelpingmereceivepermissiontodoresearchatDugwayCongressmanHowardBerman(Dem,Calif)andSenatorAlienCranstonDem,Calif)alsofacilitatedmysecuringaccesstomaterialthatseveralgovernmentagenciessoughttowithholdfrompublicviewDrMarkRyan,ProfessorMiltonLeitenberg,DrEricArnettoftheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience,MrJohnFosholtoftelevisionstationKUSA,Denver,Colorado,MrEdwardABoone,Jr,ArchivistattheGeneralDouglasAMacArthurMemorialLibrary,MsJudithSchiff,ArchivistatYaleUniversity,MrJimSeino,formerPublicInformationOfficeratFortMeade,Maryland,MrKalWang,Jr,MrAlbertYo,MrsCaroleLevitt,ProfessorBennoMullerHillofCologneUniversity,DrFriedrichHansenofHamburg,Germany,ProfessorMichaelKator,DrJamesPoupard,ArchivistoftheAmericanSocietyforMicrobiology,ProfessorRayZilinskasoftheCenterforPublicIssuesinBiotechnology,UniversityofMaryland,BaltimoreCounty,ProfessorJohnEllisvanCourtlandMoon,ProfessorShuichiKatooftheUniversityofCalifornia,Davis,SchoolofMedicine,MrEddieShujiNoguchiofJapan’sNHKTelevision,Colonel(Ret)DonaldRReinhardofGeneralAtomicsCo,eachintheirownway,helpedmeinmyworkMrGregoryRodriguez,Jr,MsPeggyTadej,MrJohnWPowell,Jr,andthelateLtColonel(Res)SigSchreinerdeservespecialacknowledgementGregandPeggyhaveconductedextensiveresearchonthequestionofpossibleJapanesebiologicalwarfare(BW)experimentswithAmericanprisonersofwarTheyunselfishlysharedwithmealloftheirfindingsTheyalsoextendedtomemanyothercourtesiesduringmyfrequentvisitstoWashington,DCAcknowledgementsxvBillPowe

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