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首页 [美]齐思敏:万物有德:古代中国的伦理和身体(布里尔 2004)

[美]齐思敏:万物有德:古代中国的伦理和身体(布里尔 2004)

[美]齐思敏:万物有德:古代中国的伦理和身体(布里尔 2004)

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2008-10-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]齐思敏:万物有德:古代中国的伦理和身体(布里尔 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MATERIALVIRTUESINICALEIDENSIAEDITEDBYWLIDEMAINCOOPERATIONWITHPKBOL•BJTERHAAR•DRKNECHTGESESRAWSKI•EZÜRCHER•HTZURNDORFERVOLUMELXVIMATERIALVIRTUEEthicsandtheBodyinEarlyChinaBYMARKCSIKSZENTMIHALYIBRILLLEIDEN•BOSTONOnthecover:AdetailofslipsonethroughtwelveoftheGuodianWuxing,fromHubeishengJingmenshibowuguan,GuodianChumuzhujian()ThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataACIPrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISSNISBN©CopyrightbyKoninklijkeBrillNV,Leiden,TheNetherlandsKoninklijkeBrillNVincorporatestheimprintsBrillAcademicPublishers,MartinusNijhoffPublishersandVSPAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,translated,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherAuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluseisgrantedbyBrillprovidedthattheappropriatefeesarepaiddirectlytoTheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,SuiteDanvers,MA,USAFeesaresubjecttochangeprintedinthenetherlandsCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERONEBACKGROUNDOFTHERUVIRTUEDISCOURSEVirtuesintheRucontextKongzi’sdisciplesandtheunityoftheRuExternalcriticismsoftheRuvirtuediscourseCHAPTERTWOMORALPSYCHOLOGYOFTHEWUXINGExcavationoftheWuxingMoralmotivationintheWuxing§TheanatomyofthevirtuesintheWuxing§TheidentificationoftheWuxingandtheZisimythCHAPTERTHREEMORALPSYCHOLOGYANDHUMANPHYSIOLOGYINTHEMENGZITheMengziandtheWuxingProblemsofpluralandconflictingvaluesThephysiognomyandphysiologyofvirtueintheMengziMetaphorsforselfcultivationintheMengziCHAPTERFOURTHESAGE’STRANSCENDENTBODYNatureandtheoriginsofthesage’sculminantvirtueBeingattunedtotheWay:thesageandthejadechimestoneTheMengzi’stranstemporalsageCHAPTERFIVEMATERIALVIRTUEINTHEEARLYEMPIRETheWuxingcommentaryandtheqiofthevirtuesJiaYi’sdevelopmentoftheWuxingandMengzitraditionSageandstateinearlyimperialChinaCONCLUSIONAPPENDIXONEThereconstructedZisiAPPENDIXTWOTheGuodianWuxingAPPENDIXTHREETheMawangduiWuxingandcommentaryviCONTENTSBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXINTRODUCTIONOverthepastfourdecades,ChinesearchaeologyhasyieldedtremendousnewresourcesforthestudyofancienthistoryFromthelegalandadministrativedocumentsunearthedfromtombsatShuihudiၨڴϙ,Juyan׍עandZhangjiashanઠࣁʱ,tothewidevarietyoftechnicalandphilosophicalworksfromMawangduiਠ̙੧,totheprovocativemixtureofdivinatoryandadministrativetextsfromBaoshan̸ʱ,Wangjiatai̙ࣁ͓,andYinwan˄ᝯ,tothepoliticalandreligiousessaysfromYinqueshanჿఅʱandGuodian௱מ,multiplenewvistashavebeenopenedonearlyChinesesocietyTheinfluenceofthesediscoveriesmaybemeasuredindifferentwaysUsingthemostgeneralscale,theyhavesubstantiallyexpandedthetextualrecordandprovidednewinformationabouthowtextswereintegratedintothematerialcultureoftombsUsingamoresensitivemeasure,thenewdiscoverieshaveaugmentedtherecordwithdifferentkindsoftext,challengingreceivednotionsofschoolandgenreBecausethesenewmanuscriptswereinterredforreasonsthatlikelyhadtodowiththepostmortempassagesofthetomboccupants,theyprobablyhadpersonalorsocialsignificancethatdifferedfromthatofpublicorarchivedtextsthatbecamethebasisofthecorpusthathasbeencontinuouslytransmittedtothepresentAdditionally,becauseexcavatedtextswerenotsubjectedtocenturiesofselectionandredaction,theyarefreeofsomeofthelayersofinterpretationandsubtlerecastingbywritersembroiledinsuccessivegenerationsofintellectualcontroversiesAssuch,theyreflectperhapsnotanoriginaryorpuremomentinthehistoryofChineseliterature,butatleastonelackingsomeoftheaccumulatedfiltersthathavecometobeseenasoriginalaspectsofthereceivedcorpusIntermsofmethod,howdoweintegratethesenewresourcesintoourunderstandingofearlyChinaThisquestion,too,maybeansweredinmorethanonewayItispossibletousetheexpansionofthetextualrecordasanoccasiontofillinlacunaeinthereceivedrecord:matchingexcavatedtextswithlosttitlesintransmittedrecords,attributingthesetextstoknownpersonalitiesoridentifyingthemwithfamiliarschoolsandlineagesConsistentwiththemorenuancedreceptionoutlinedabove,itisalsopossibletousethemasanoccasiontoreviseourINTRODUCTIONunderstandingofthestructuresoftraditionalthoughtHybridornovelcontentcallsintoquestiontheappropriatenessoftraditionaltaxonomies,alongwithcherishedassumptionsabouttheproductionandtransmissionoftextsFormalfeaturesofexcavatedtexts,includingthefrequentlackofexplicitinformationonauthorshiporaffiliation,compelustobegintowresttheseearlytextsfromtheirpopularassociationwithhermeticChinesephilosophers,thekindsooftenportrayedanachronisticallyaslonelyfiguresin“mountainsandrivers”stylepaintingsAmethodologythatcallsthesestructuresintoquestion,ofcourse,maynotonlystrikesomeasdeliberatelyandunnecessarilyprovocative,italsorequirestheconstructionofnewframeworkstomakeupforthenewlycreateddisorderThisstudygrowsoutofworkononerecentlyexcavatedtextthatcallsattentiontopreviouslyunappreciated,or,occasionally,misunderstoodaspectsofthereceivedrecordInintroducingthistext,IsetouttocontextualizeitinarevisedaccountofthelivelyethicalandepistemologicaldebatesofitstimeThemostdifficultstageofwritingofthisstudywasthepointwhenaconversationaboutthenatureofthevirtuesmovedfrombackgroundcontextforastudyofanexcavatedtexttotheforegroundAsaresult,thesubjectbecamethemoregeneralstudyoftheperceivedmaterialityofthevirtuesbasedonmultipletexts,bothreceivedandexcavatedTheresultingworkislessanattempttoengagethelegaciesofthelegendaryphilosophersofancientChinathanarecastingofthewrittenrecord(throughwhichtheirbiographieswereconstructed)asthepartialaccountofavitalconversationthat,takenasawhole,appearsratherdifferentfromitsconstituentpartsconsideredindividuallyOfcourse,thenotionthatonecanextractatwothousandyearold“conversation”outofthestaticofsurvivingreceivedandexcavatedtextsisnotwithoutitsproblemsNotonlyisitrareforatexttobeexplicitaboutitsdialogwithanothertext,butthereisnoreasontoassumethattherulesforconversationswithwhichwearefamiliarwouldevenapplytoancientChinaYetthereareelementsofthismetaphorthatareunquestionablyusefulA“conversation”canusuallybedistinguishedbyfactorssuchasasharedvocabulary,theengagementofcommonpropositionsandarguments,andappealstocommonepistemologicalfoundationsTheseconsiderationsarethebasisfortheclaimthattherewasanimportantconversationaboutthenatureofthevirtuesinChinafromthefourththroughthesecondcenturiesBCE,onethatincludedthedevelopingtheorythatvirtueshadmaterialattributesinsidethebodyInordertointroducethespecifictopicofthisstudy,itisperhapsbesttobeginwithastoryINTRODUCTIONInthesummerofBCE,anofficerofthestateofQinamedTianChangΉગarrestedhisownsovereignThetersechronicleofeventsofthetimecalledtheChunqiuݱ߲(SpringandAutumn)recordsthatlaterthatyear,TianChangwentevenfurtherandhadtherulerexecutedThisactionsoondividedthepopulationofQibetweenthoseloyaltothepreviousleaderandthosewhosupportedhisyoungerbrother,nowinplaceasTian’spuppetTianaddressedthisdivisionbyinvitingallthecitizensofQitopledgetheirloyaltytohim,vowingtokillthosewhodidnotdosoalongwiththeirfamiliesThosewhohadbeenloyaltotheoldrulernowfacedaquandary,accordingtothesecondcenturyBCEHanshiwaizhuanᓟ༶͙෭(Han’sOuterCommentarytotheOdes)ThatworkusesthewordsofaQiofficialofthetimenamedShiTuoΔ̧toillustratethepredicament:ڣѼ̣η፶ۍ׫ʛૠ፶̣АѼ˃ՖۍҨʛ̧۱ʿ঻೸ʿຼݵଓѳ፶ʛનʆЩຼݵࠌѳѼʛToabandonone’srulerinordertopreservethelivesofone’sparentsistodenyloyaltyToabandonone’sparentsinordertodieintheserviceofone’slordistodenyfilialpietyForthesereasons,Icannot(doeither)Thus,nottopledgeisthesameaskillingmyparents,buttofollowothersandpledgeistoturnmybackonmyrulerShiTuo’sonlyrecourseistopledgehisloyaltytothenewrulerinordertosparehisparents,andthenimpalehimselfonhisswordinordertodieforhislordThecommentarybyHanYingᓟᏮ(flBCE)ChunqiuZuozhuanzhengyiab(CfLegge,v,pages)TheZuozhuanͣ෭(Zuocommentary)recordsthatintheneighboringstateofLu,anofficialnamedKongQiu˱̞wasalsotroubledbytheeventsinQi,butsawthedivisionsinQiasanopportunityforLu’smilitaryTheZuoexplanationoftheChunqiurecordsthatKongspentthreedayspurifyinghimselfbyfasting(zhaiᄫ)andthenrequestedthatLuattackQi(ChunqiuZuozhuanzhushuab)Kong’sactionsarealsothesubjectofapassageintheLunyuቈგ(Analects),wherethedifferencesbetweentheZuoandAnalectsaccountsofhiswordshavebeenthesubjectofconsiderablecriticalconsternationSeeLunyujishi(cfLau,)Hanshiwaizhuankaozheng()v,cfHightower,AparallelinthefirstcenturyBCEXinxu๘Һ(Xinxujiaoshi)isfollowedbyanaccountofthedilemmaofaQihighofficialwhoisimpaledonthehornsofadilemmabetweenbenevolenceandcourage(Xinxujiaoshi)TheZuozhuanpassagejustcitedusestherebel’soriginalnameChenHeng௾ݔ,asdotheXinxuandchapteroftheKongzijiayu˱ʪࣁგTheHanshiwaizhuanandShiji͑৩()usethelaternameTianChangΉગThisdifferencecanbeexplainedbythefactsthatthesurnameTianΉwastakenbythemembersoftheChen௾clanduringTianChang’stermasChancellorunderDukePingͦofQi(Shiji,n),andthatthewordHengݔwaschangedtoChangગinmanytextsfollowingitstaboosubsequenttothedeathofLiuHengᄸݔ,EmperorWenoftheHanDynasty,inBCEINTRODUCTIONcontinuesbycitingacoupletfromtheclassicShijing༶໩(ClassicofOdes)tosummarizeShiTuo’ssituation:ʆΠЉԵනਂ႕Զ“Peoplehaveasaying:‘Bothadvancingandretreatingareproblematic’”Thissamecoupletisusedtocommentonsimilarmoraldilemmas,anditsusehereillustratesthewaythat,byHanYing’stime,suchdilemmashadbecomeaconsciousproblemforwritersaboutethicsInthisstory,thecruxofShiTuo’sdilemmaisthathismoraldecisionmakingdependsonfollowingdifferentscriptswithrespecttothedifferentrolesthatheplaysinsocietyTianChang’scoupd’étatandsubsequentattemptstoconsolidatepowerplungeShiTuointoasituationwhereactingwithloyaltytohisformerlordandwithfilialpietytohisparentscallfordifferentbehaviorsSince“bothadvancingandretreatingareproblematic,”ShiTuochoosestodieratherthanbeeitherunfilialordisloyalThedispositionoffilialpiety(xiaoҨ)hehaddeliberatelycultivatedinthecontextofhishomelifeandthatofloyalty(zhong׫)specifictohisserviceatcourtclashafterleavingtheiroriginalspheresItissignificantthattheproblemisportrayedintermsofcompetingdispositionsorpatternsofbehavior,akintowhatphilosopherscall“virtues,”andnottheresultsoftheactionsthemselvesHissolutionisneithertoperformacostbenefitanalysistoselectthecoursewiththemostpositiveconsequences,noryetisittofallbackonasetofmaximsthathebelievesconstitutehumandutyTheseoptionsarenotopentohimbecauseheisoperatinginacontextinwhichgoodactionsflowfromasetofvirtuesembodiedinthebehaviorofexemplaryfiguresinancienttimesShiTuosaysasmuchinthepreambletothestatementofhisquandary:ͅ˃ՖѼږАմѼ˃Ֆ“Servingone’slordinancienttimeswasamatterofdyinginserviceofone’slord”ThiswayofthinkingaboutrightandwrongisThislinecomesfrom“Sangrou”टݾ(TenderMulberry,Mao),seeShijingzhuxiThisisthesamephrasequotedbyShuXiang֋ώinpraiseofYanziउʪintheYanzichunqiuउʪݱ߲,afterYanziexplainshowheisabletomaintainbothloyaltytoevenalazyrulerandthedeliberateness(xingм)whichisafacetofhisresponsibilitytothestate’ssubjects(Yanzichunqiujiaozhu)Hanshiwaizhuankaozheng()v,cfHightower,Thesameworkrecordsthetestimonyofamilitaryofficerwhosefatherisheldhostagebyhisenemies:͸Ѽ˃̣ٗଓմ̓ʑۍҨʪʛ“IfIcorrectlyapplythelord’slawsandinsodoingkillmyfather,thiswoulddenywhatitmeanstobeafilialson”InchaptertenoftheHanshiwaizhuan,HanYinginvokesthesamecoupletfromtheShijingtodescribethedilemmaofthebravemajorShenMingΌᄦ,whoseenemieshavetakenhisfatherhostageShenkillstheenemies,butnotbeforehisfatherisalsokilled,atwhichpointhetakeshisownlifeafterabriefspeechlamentingbeingunabletobothbeloyalandfilial(Hanshiwaizhuankaozhengv,cfHightower,INTRODUCTIONcharacteristicofthegeneralapproachknownas“virtueethics,”andfruitfulreadingsofearlyChineseethicsasvirtueethicshavebeendoneinrecentdecadesbyPhilipJIvanhoe,LeeYearley,andBryanWVanNorden,tonameafewInthisapproach,conflictsbetweenvirtuesmayleadtogenuinemoraldilemmas,seeminglywithnorecoursetorationalesthatallowonetojustifytheabandonmentofparticularvirtuesInthishistoryofthediscussionofthevirtues,theHanshiwaizhuan’sanalysisofShiTuoandcaseslikehissignalsasignificantmomentinearlyChinesewritingaboutethicsItisonethingtotalkaboutaspecificactiontakenbythesagekingShun൘inthepast(eg,hisinsistenceonproperconducttowardhisfamilydespitetheirrepeatedattemptstokillhim)andtoextolitasanexampleofamoregeneralpatternofbehaviorordispositioncalled“filialpiety”ItisanothertoleavetherealmofthehistoricalandtreattwoormoresuchpatternsordispositionsintheabstractasprescriptiveofdifferentcoursesofactioninthefutureThefirststepisoneofempiricalclassificationandculturalmemoryThesecondinvolvesextractingthepatternsfromparticularcontextsintheexemplarystoriesthatdefinedthemandimplicitlyaddressingatheoreticalquestion:oncecontextuallyandlocallydefinedpatternsordispositionsareuniversalized,aretheynecessarilymutuallyconsistentwitheachotherItisinthissecondsense,theextendeddiscussionofvirtuesbothabstractedfromparticularpastactionsandintheplural,thatitispossibletorefertoa“virtuediscourse,”usingtheterm“discourse”bothintheliteralsenseofthe“conversation”aboutthevirtuesandinitsextendedsenseastheculturalpatternsofmeaningthatunderpinwhatissaidandwrittenaboutvirtuesintheperiodItisinthecontextofthedynamicandmultivocalvirtuediscourseofthefourththroughsecondcenturiesBCEthatthecontestedconceptof“materialvirtue”inthetitleofthisbookaroseThephrase“materialvirtue”refersnarrowlytodescriptionsofthevirtuesintermsoftheirquasimaterialpropertiesMoregenerally,suchdescriptionsarecharacteristicoftheviewthat,oncecultivated,thevirtuesmanifestthemselvesthroughphysiologicalchangesinthebodythatmaybeobservedbyothersWhilefromsomephilosophicalperspectivesquestionssuchas:“Whatexactlyisavirtue–isitanimal,vegetable,or)TheseemingcontradictionbetweenthecourseofactiondictatedbyloyaltyandtheoneindicatedbyfilialpietyissimilartothedilemmafacedbyShiTuoSeeespeciallyYearley,,andIvanhoe,VanNordenprovidesanexemplaryoverviewINTRODUCTIONmineral”or“Canonetellaperson’smoralqualitiesbylookinghimorherintheeye”mightappearpedanticorevenbizarre,insomecirclesthatsortofquestionwasonethaturgentlymatteredIndeed,forsomethevirtueshadspecificquasimaterialcorrelatesinthebody,andassuchtheyweresubjecttophysicalprocessessuchasaccumulation,dissipationanddisorderThedevelopmentoftheoriesofmaterialvirtuemayhavebeeninparttheresultofexternalfactorssuchastheinfluenceofconceptionsofthebodyandsystematizingtendenciesfromoutsidethevirtuediscourseYettherewereparticularphilosophicalreasonsforlookingatthevirtuesinthisway,tooViewingthevirtuesasreducibletoacommonquasimaterialsubstancemetaphoricallyopeneduptheprocessofmoraldecisionmakingtothepossibilityof“measuring”thepullsofthedifferentvirtuesonapersoninthesamewayoneweighedmaterialobjectsonabalanceThepotentialforunifyingthevirtuesinsidethebodyheldoutthepossibilityofsolvingdilemmassuchasShiTuo’sbyimaginingaconditioninwhichmeasurablevirtueswerenevertrulyinconflictIndeed,manyofthetextsthatdeveloptheconceptofmaterialvirtuearethesameonesthatholdoutthepossibilityofreachingalevelofmoralperfectionwheremoralreactionsarespontaneousandgenuinequandariescannotariseForexample,whenasophisttriestotrapMengziׂʪ(MasterMeng,latefourthandearlythirdcenturyBCE)inaconundrum,thereplyisthatthecorrectcourseofactionissoclearthatonewhodoesnotfollowitisnotofthehumanracebutactuallyamemberofthechailang৵॑,literally“jackalsandwolves,”signifyingacompletelackofmoralimpulsesForthisreason,anaccountofmaterialvirtueinearlyChinaisanimportantpartof

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  • lion 您很专业啊,提供的都是汉学佳作,非常感谢!

    2010-09-16 01:09:54

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