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首页 [美]王德威:历史与怪兽:二十世纪中国的历史,暴力与叙事(加州大学 2004)

[美]王德威:历史与怪兽:二十世纪中国的历史,暴力与叙事(加州大学 2004)

[美]王德威:历史与怪兽:二十世纪中国的历史,暴力与叙事(加州…

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2008-10-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]王德威:历史与怪兽:二十世纪中国的历史,暴力与叙事(加州大学 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheMonsterThatIsHistoryTheMonsterThatIsHistoryHistory,Violence,andFictionalWritinginTwentiethCenturyChinaDavidDerweiWangUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeleyLosAngelesLondonUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,England©bytheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataWang,DeweiThemonsterthatishistory:history,violence,andfictionalwritingintwentiethcenturyChinaDavidDerweiWangpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn(alkpaper)isbn(pbk:alkpaper)ChinesefictionthcenturyHistoryandcriticismChinesefictionTaiwanHistoryandcriticismViolenceinliteratureITitleplw'dcManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationisbothacidfreeandtotallychlorinefree(TCF)Itmeetstheminimumrequirementsofansinisoz–(r)(PermanenceofPaper)contentsacknowledgmentsviiintroductionInvitationtoaBeheadingCrimeorPunishmentAnUndesiredRevolutionThreeHungryWomenOfScarsandNationalMemoryTheMonsterThatIsHistoryTheEndoftheLineSecondHauntingnotesbibliographyglossaryindexacknowledgmentsIammostgratefultomycolleaguesinChina,Taiwan,Japan,andtheStates,YungfaChen,ReyChow,AmyDooling,HowardGoldblatt,ShirinagaJun,MartinKern,Ch’ingmingKo,LeoOufanLee,FengLi,LiuZaifu,JianmeiLiu,ChialingMei,ShangWei,ShenWeiwei,ChengshengTu,BanWang,FansenWang,WangHui,andChinlungYang,fortheiradvice,comments,andsupportatthevariousstagesofthewritingofthisbookAboveall,IamdeeplyindebtedtotheworksandideasofProfessorCTHsiaIparticularlythankCarlosRojasforreadingthefirstdraftofthebookandmakinginsightfulsuggestionsIwouldalsoliketothankmystudentsMingweiSongandEnhuaZhangandmyresearchassistantKamloonWoofortheirassistanceinthepreparationofthemanuscriptSpecialthanksgotoElizabethBerg,RandyHeyman,andMarySeveranceoftheUniversityofCaliforniaPressfortheireditingexpertiseandprofessionalismPortionsofChapterappearedinIdeologyandPoliticsinModernChineseLiterature,edLiuKangandXiaobingTang(Durham,NC:DukeUniversityPress,),–,underthetitle“LuXun,ShenCongwen,andDecapitation”ChapterappearedinBecomingChinese:PassagestoModernityandBeyond:–,edWenhsinYeh(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,),–,underthetitle“CrimeorPunishmentTheForensicDiscourseofModernChineseLiterature”ChapterappearedinModernChineseLiteraryandCulturalStudiesintheAgeofTheory:ReimaginingtheField,edReyChow(Durham,NC:DukeUniversityPress,),–PartsofChapterappearedinChineseLiteratureintheSecondHalfofaModernCentury,edPangyuanCh’iandDavidDerweiWang(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,),–,underthetitle“ReinventingNationalHistory:CommunistandAntiCommunistFictionfromto”AllhavebeenextensivelyrevisedforthisbookviiIntroductionThisbookrepresentsanefforttointegratemyengagementoverthepastdecadewithliteratureandhistoryInstudyingfiction,poetry,anddramadrawnfromvariousperiods,thisbookdelineatesthemultivalenceofChineseviolenceacrossthepastcenturyandinquiresintoitsethicalandtechnologicalconsequencesItextendsitsargumentsbetweentworelatedaxes:historyandrepresentation,modernityandmonstrosityIunderstandthatIhaveundertakenadifficulttaskMostofthesubjectsthatoccupythefollowingpages,fromdecapitationtosuicide,fromhungertoscarring,arenotpleasantButIfeelcompelledtowriteaboutthembecausetheyconstituteamajorportionoftwentiethcenturyChinesehistory,ahistorywhosepoignantbeginningsandatrociousoutcomescannotbeoverstressedAnd,givenmybackground,ImustadmittopersonalmotivationsTheliteraturetobediscussed,particularlythatwhichdescribestheCommunisttakeover,thediasporaofChinesemainlanderstoTaiwanandoverseas,andthebreakdownoffamilyties,withaconcomitantdissipationofculturallegacies,inhabitsadarknicheinthearchitectureoffamilialandcommunalmemoryFictionmaybeabletospeakwherehistoryhasfallensilentAlongthepathwayofmyresearch,Ibecameincreasinglyalerttothepitfallsofsuchaproject,bothpersonalandimpersonalIhastentoemphasizethatIamwritingneitheratestimonialtoChinesesufferingnoranexposéofChinesecrueltyMorethanenoughfictionalandnonfictionalwritinghasbeenpublishedaboutthepainsandsorrowsofmodernChina,andonecanevenpostulatetheexistencetodayofculturalindustriesnurtureduponChineseatrocity,Maoistoppression,orsimplytheadolescentvandalismoftheCulturalRevolutionThesewritings,whilebearingwitnesstothehorrorofrecentChinesehistory,haveledtherestofustoadilemma:outcriesof“j’accuse”or“calltoarms”mayigniteajusticethatisascruelandunnecessaryastheoriginalcrimes,andoneperson’saccountof“tearsandblood”mayachievenothingmorethanasecondperson’sundeservedcatharsisInmystudyofmodernChinesehistoryandliteratureaboutviolenceandsuffering,IaddresstheseambivalentendingsButIdohopethatIhaveconfrontedsomehardissuesIbelieve,forexample,thatsufferingdoesnottranslatedirectlyintovirtuethatsurvivingacalamitydoesnotauthorizeonetospeakforthosewhoperishedinitthatjustice,eitherasaconceptorasaninstitution,isoverdeterminedandthereforesubjecttocontinuedcontestationAtthebeginningofmodernChineseliterature,LuXun(–)alreadynotedtheambiguityofwritingandreading(orhearingandwatching)violenceandpainHeobserveshowthebloodypunishmentofbeheadingcouldbetransformedintopublicentertainment(“TheTrueStoryofAhQ,”),andhowapeasantwoman’sreportofhermisfortunecouldfirstinducetearsand,afterseveralrepetitions,endupincitinglaughter,mockery,andfinallytotalindifference(“NewYear’sSacrifice,”)ThelinebetweentheselfdefensemechanismsthatareoperativeinsurvivingandrecollectingbrutalitiesandtheneedtoconsumebloodyspectacleshasneverbeensothinasinLuXun’sworldButstoriesabouthowChinesecivilizationhasbeenmaimedanddistortedacrossthecenturymustbetoldandretoldsoastoberememberedThedialecticofhistoricalviolenceandits(impossible)representationshouldnotserveasanimpedimentto,butratherasanimpetusfor,“themoralityofform”ThisiswheremybookstartsInmyview,modernChinesehistoriographyhasnotsufficientlyaddressedthescaleorthemoralandpsychologicalaftermathofChina’sviolenceandpain,andIcontendthatliterature,particularlyfictioninmycase,canbedrawnonasacomplementingandcontestingdiscourseOnecanhardlyreadmodernChinesehistorywithoutnoticingaseeminglyendlessbrutalitytottedupindishearteninglylargefiguresForinstance,atleastonemillionChineselosttheirlivesduringtheWarlordandNationalistperiods,andmorethanfourteenmillionwerekilledduringtheSecondSinoJapaneseWarMorethantwomillionfledChinaaftertheCommunistseizureofpower,whilealmostfivemillionperishedduringthesameperiodAfterthefoundingofthePeople’sRepublic,atleastthirtymillionperishedduringMao’sGreatLeapForward,whichwasfollowedbytheGreatFamineandRetrenchmentperiod,andanestimatedfifteenmillionwerepersecutedandexecutedeveryyearbetweenthosefamouslybloodywars,campaigns,andmovementsWhilethesefactscanbegathered,screened,analyzed,andanalyzedawayinhistoricalaccounts,literatureperhapsdoesintroductionmorebyresurrectingindividuallivesfromtheoblivionofcollectivememoryandpublicdocumentationinreenactingtheaffectiveintensitiesofprivateandinadmissibletruthTherehasalwaysbeenamutualimplicationofhistoricityandnarrativity,tobesure,inChinesehistoriographicalandliterarystudiesButneverhaveweseensuchamomentaswehaveinmoderntimes,whenofficialhistoryhasbeensodictatedbytheideologicalandinstitutionalimaginaryastovergeonadiscourseofmakebelieve,adiscourseoftenassociatedwithtraditionalfiction,andfictionsoarrestedbyadesiretoreflectthepastandfutureastoappropriatethefunctionsoftraditionalhistorywithrespecttocompletedfactHencethegenesisofthepeculiardoublebindofChineseliterarymodernityWiththisinmind,ItacklethewaysChinesewritersregisterthemanmadeandnaturaldisastersthatforgedacenturyofviolence:foreignaggression,civilwar,revolution,riots,clanconflict,famine,floods,andthecataclysmiccollapseoftimehonoredestablishmentsThesesignsofpalpableviolencewerecompoundedbycontendingideologicaltotemsandtaboos,whichravagedChineselifewithunprecedentedefficiencyandresultedinmentalandbehavioralwoundsfarbeyondfamiliardiagnosisTranscribingboththevisibleandinvisibleformsofviolenceposesalastingchallengetomimesisIalsocallattentiontothefactthatthemodernChineserepresentationofviolencecanbeunderwrittenasaviolenceofrepresentationForChinesewritersandreadersalike,torepresentpainandsufferingisnotmerelytoreflectexternalinstancesofviolenceratheritdemandstobeappreciatedandenlistedasaradicalagencyofchangeChineseliteraryhistoryfromtheLiteraryRevolutiontoRevolutionaryLiteraturehasleftampleevidenceoftheimaginaryandactualizedpowerofliteratureLiteraturethuspresentsitselfasameetinggroundwherepoeticjusticecontendswithlegaljustice,orinmorevolatileterms,whereinkdemandsbloodWritingandreadingaretakenasjuridicaleventscapableoftransformingsymbolicvictimsintosocialrebelsandfigurativehumiliationintomoralpassionModernChinesewritersandreadershavelearnedtowriteandreadinspiteofthemostcapriciouscensorship,defamation,bowdlerization,propaganda,purges,confiscation,incarceration,“rehabilitation,”exile,suicide,andexecutionThemostmenacingchallengetoliteratureistheimposition(orselfimposition)ofsilenceThesedecadessawalargenumberofwriterseitherchoosingorbeingforcedtogiveupwritingFewwerethosedeterminedagainstalloddstomaketheirvoicesheardTherewerecasesofwritersremainingsilentwhenthenameofinjusticecouldhavebeenspokenor,worse,becomingexuberantonbehalfofthatinjustice,therebyrevealinglitintroductionerature’scomplicitywithallmasternarratives,oldornewThis,Iargue,istheworstformof“theviolenceofrepresentation”Inviewoftheplentifulwritingaboutviolenceandsuffering,theremustbeanironyinthepaucityofcritical,ordiacritical,engagementswiththeissuesthatareraisedZhengZhenduo’s(–)invocationofaliteratureof“tearsandblood”inthesfirstestablishedthecontentanddesiredeffectofthemodernChinese“literatureofengagement”Zheng’sconceptwasechoedinthes,notwithoutatouchofsarcasm,byJosephLauasaliteratureof“tearsandsniveling”Whereaswritingfor“theinsultedandtheinjured”prevailedinthes,CTHsiafindsinitanditssuccessorsapenchantfor“hardcorerealism,”whichflauntsitsrawmaterialsandpracticesunabashedmoralexhibitionismAndinthewakeof“scarwriting”apowerfulliteratureindictingtheCulturalRevolution,ascriticssuchasLiuZaifuhavepointedout,Chineseliteratureundertheauspicesofleftistaestheticsstartedoutas“aliteratureagainstviolence”andbecamemere“literaryviolence”Meanwhile,thepremodernChinesetraditionofwritingviolenceandpainfromthedescriptionsofwarandthehardshipoflifeintheShijingtothetestimonialstonationalcrisisinDuFu’spoetry,fromthelateMingchroniclesofdynasticcataclysmtothelateQingrecollectionofthe“historyofpain”hasbeenoverlookedbymoderncriticsWhentherepresentationofviolenceisatissue,wehavetendedtoresorttoWesternparadigms,amongwhichthecritiqueoftheHolocaustusuallytakesthemostprominentpositionAmongotherprovocations,thereisTheodorAdorno’sfamousstatementthat“afterAuschwitz,itisnolongerpossibletowritepoems”Bythis,Adornoindicatestheunbridgeablegapbetweensufferingandwritingaboutsuffering,betweenthearticulatedtestimonialsofthosewhosurvivedtheHolocaustandtheeternallymutedprotestsofthosewhowerekilledFromapsychoanalyticalperspective,theoristsoftraumahavetakenupwhereAdornoleftoffWhatshouldhaveneverhappenedhadhappenedThesecriticsaskwhetheritispossibletofindanyliteraryrhetoricorclinicalanalysistoproperlyexplainthisunlikelyhistoricalwoundBeyondthesemodels,itwillberecalled,GeorgesBatailledirectsone’sattentiontothedark,violentundercurrentofthesocialandpoliticalunconsciousnessViolenceanddeathwishestakeonambiguousdimensionsinhisidiosyncraticobservationofrituals,religions,andpolities,somuchsoastogeneratean“erotics”ofannihilationandecstasyRenéGirardoffersatriangulardiagramofsacrificialritual,violence,andmimesisforthehumanagencythatcontainstheinscrutableandundesirableforcesinsocietyExercisinganalternationofJewishmysticismandapocalypticMarxism,WalterBenjaminimaginesaViolencethatcouldsubsumeallformsofviolenceintroductionEquallyintriguingisMikhailBakhtin,whohighlightedcarnivalesquefestivityasawayinwhichasocietyparodiesandcritiques,indulgesandtranscends,itsdeepseatedimpulsesfordisorderandviolenceOnemustbearinmindthedebateoverthemoderntechnologyofviolenceinallitsrecognizedforms,fromtotalitariancontroltototalisticrevolution,fromcolonialruletoubiquitousmicroandmacropowerWhereasHannahArendtlaunchesherattackonmodernviolenceanditspoliticalsanctificationintotalitarianregimes,JeanBaudrillardcontemplatestheillusorynatureofthespectacleofterrorisminpostmodernsocietyAndwhocanimproveonMichelFoucaultindrawingagenealogyofWesternmodernityinlockstepwithaprogressionofviolencefromthe“theaterofbloodshed”tothesupervisionofthebodyFinally,inthedeadlyaftermathofeveryformofviolence,thetaskofmourningisanalyzedandimposedUsingthecontroversyoverthe“deathofMarxism”asacaseinpoint,JacquesDerridaimaginesa“hauntology”toreplaceconventionalontologicalthought:whenthedeaddonotrestpeacefullyandthreatenrepeatedlytoreturntolife,Derridasuggests,historyrevealsitstieswithitsspectralother“Hauntingishistoricalbutitisnotdated,itisneverdocilelygivenadateinthechainofprecedentsaccordingtotheinstitutedorderofthecalendar”ThereisnoshortageofmodernformsofviolenceandthereisnoshortageofmoderntheorieseitherWhileacknowledgingandindeedutilizingtheseandothermodelsofviolence,thisbookisdirectedtowardopeninganewcriticaldimensionbylookingintotherichrepositoryofChinesehistoriographicalimaginationIpayspecialattentiontoastrainofhistoricaldiscoursethatstresseshistory’spotentialtowitness,andsometimeseveninstantiate,whatisviolentandpotentiallyundesirableinhumanityNumeroushistoricalaccountshavebeeninscribedtotestifyto,indict,andrepairtheevilconsequencesofmanmade,natural,andsupernaturaldisastersItissaidthatConfuciuscompiledtheChunqiutocurbmaliciousschemesbytreacherousofficialsandevildoersTheZuozhuanandtheShiji,twoofthemostprominentancientChinesehistories,incorporateabundantmaterialsontyrannicalrulersandbrutaladministrators,underscoredbyaprojectofcondemningevilandhonoringvirtueThecalltoappeaseevilandviolenceindeferencetomoralrectificationremainedstrongamongpremodernChinesehistorians,amidechoesofConfucius’swishfulremarkthat:“Ifastatecouldberuledbythosewhohavevirtuecontinuouslyforonehundredyears,brutalitymightwellbeovercomeandslaughtermightwellbedoneawaywith”Ofcourse,historysinceConfucius’stimehasproventobeotherwiseEvilhascontinuedtoproliferatefromonegenerationtoanotherdespitethepreintroductionsumedvindictivepowerofhistory,somuchsothatwithatwistoflogic,onemayevenponderifevilandtheviolenceitentailshavenotbecomepartoftheraisond’êtreofhistoryMoremenacingarethemomentswhenwritinghistoryassuchrisksviolenceIamthinkingofthenumeroushistorianswhochroniclefactsandpreservetheirvocationalintegrityagainstalladversityThelegendaryHistorDongHuoftheJinandtheHistorJianoftheQi,whoriskedtheirlivesbytranscribingfactsastheywere,havebeenhailedasmodelhistoriansAndwhocanforgethowviolenceandsufferingservedasthemotivationforthearchhistorian,archcastrato,andtherebyarchsingeroftales,SimaQian(orbc–),tocompletetheShijiWhileofficialhistoriographyderiveditslegitimacyfrommoraldeterminism,skepticalvoices,howeverminorandwayward,wereheardallalongBythelateMingandearlyQingperiod,therehadarisenacounterdiscourseregardingviolenceasanintrinsiccomponentofhistoryandwritingabouthistoryAmongthemoreremarkableexamplesareDingYaokang(–),whowroteTianshi(Historyofheaven)tostudytheirredeemableatrocitiesofbygoneperiodsLiZhi(–),whoframedhisFenshu(Burningbooks)withaforeknowledgeofthelethalconsequenceshisrecalcitrantwritingwouldentailandAina,whoconcludedhisstorytellingcollectionDoupengxianhua(Casualtalksunderthebeanarbor)bycontemplatingthecomplementaryrelationshipbetweenviolenceandhumanityIfurthersuggestthattheintertwinedrelationsofviolenceandhistoricityhavetheirmythopoeticcounterpartsThetitleofthisbook,TheMonsterThatIsHistory,drawsontheancientChineseconceptofthemonstertaowu,knownforbothitsferociousnatureanditsdivinatorypowerInclassicssuchastheShenyijing(Theclassicofthefantasticandthestrange),thetaowuisdescribedasacreaturethat“looksliketiger,withhairtwofeetlongIthasahumanface,atiger’sfeet,apig’steeth,andatailaslongaseighteenfeet”Fromsuchmenacingorigins,thetaowuunderwentvariousincarnationsoverthecenturies,tothepointwhereitwasidentifiablewithhumansofevilinclination,asevincedbyaccountsintheZuozhuan,Shangshu,andShijiItissaidthatPrinceZhuanxu’sson,Guen,wasofsuchwaywardnaturethatheearnedhimselfthemonstrousnameofTaowuTogetherwiththreeotherevilsofthetime,thishumantaowuwastamedandexiledtothefrontiers,whereitscaresawayghostlymountainspirits,

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