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首页 [美]赖大卫:化干戈为玉帛:宋与契丹、辽的外交关系(布里尔 2005)

[美]赖大卫:化干戈为玉帛:宋与契丹、辽的外交关系(布里尔 2005)

[美]赖大卫:化干戈为玉帛:宋与契丹、辽的外交关系(布里尔 2…

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2008-10-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]赖大卫:化干戈为玉帛:宋与契丹、辽的外交关系(布里尔 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FROMWARTODIPLOMATICPARITYINELEVENTHCENTURYCHINAHISTORYOFWARFAREGeneralEditorkellydevriesLoyolaCollegeFoundingEditorstheresavannpaulcheveddenVOLUMEFROMWARTODIPLOMATICPARITYINELEVENTHCENTURYCHINASung’sForeignRelationswithKitanLiaoBYDAVIDCURTISWRIGHTBRILLLEIDEN•BOSTONCoverillustration:PaintingbyanunknownSungartistoffestivitiesforSungmilitaryforcesgiveninverylateJanuaryorearlyFebruaryata“northernfortress”(likelythenorthernsectionofShanchou)ThefestivitieswereattendedbytheSungemperorChentsungandwere,inpart,incelebrationofSung’srepulseofaKitanassaultonShanchouonJanuary,andthekillingoftheKitangeneralHsiaoTalinbySungcrossbowmenunderthecommandofLiChilung,thedefendinggeneralofShanchouThesefestivitieswerequitelikelyheldaftertheconclusioninlateJanuaryoftheCovenantofShanyüan,apeaceagreementthatendedtheconflictbetweenSungChinaandtheKitans(Source:ChunghuaTs’ungshuWeiyüanhui,ChunghuaMeishuT’uchi(Taipei,),v,huaSeealsoSchwarzSchilling,)ThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataWright,DavidCurtis,FromwartodiplomaticparityineleventhcenturyChina:Sung’sforeignrelationswithKitanLiaobyDavidCurtisWrightpcm(Historyofwarfare,ISSN)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)ChinaForeignrelationsChinaHistory,MilitaryChinaHistorySongdynasty,ChinaHistoryLiaodynasty,ITitle:Sung’sforeignrelationswithKitanLiaoIITitleIIISeriesDSW’’dcISSN–ISBN©CopyrightbyKoninklijkeBrillNV,Leiden,TheNetherlandsKoninklijkeBrillNVincorporatestheimprintsBrillAcademicPublishers,MartinusNijhoffPublishersandVSPAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,translated,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherAuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluseisgrantedbyKoninklijkeBrillprovidedthattheappropriatefeesarepaiddirectlytoTheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,SuiteDanversMA,USAFeesaresubjecttochangeprintedinthenetherlandsREMEMBERJEANNENEDOWDINGWRIGHTApril–February>ytijv'rdEqoμaeAlb,a}K'CONTENTSAcknowledgementsixAbbreviationsxiiiIntroductionChapterOne:SungLiaoDiplomacyintheHistoryofChineseForeignRelationsChapterTwo:TheSungLiaoWarof–andtheCovenantofShanyüanChapterThree:EmbassiesChapterFour:RoutineDiplomaticMissivesChapterFive:EmbassyReportsChapterSix:MidCenturyCrisisConclusionBibliographyGlossaryIndexACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAsaneandcivilisedteachingloadandminimaladministrativecommitteeworkattheUniversityofCalgaryhaveaffordedmethetimenecessarytofinishthisprojectMoneyhasalsobeennecessarytobringittocompletion,andIthanktheDepartmentofHistory,theCentreforMilitaryandStrategicStudies,andtheUniversityResearchGrantsCommitteeattheUniversityofCalgaryforfinanciallysupportingvarioustechnicalaspectspertainingtoitsfinalstagesofproductionIamalsogratefultothePacificCulturalFoundationoftheRepublicofChinaonTaiwanforagenerousgrantwhichmadepossiblemyresearchinlateattheAcademiaSinica’sInstituteofHistoryandPhilologyThereIwasveryhappytorenewfriendshipsandcontactswithtwoscholarswhohadhelpedmethroughthornytextualproblemsduringmyfouryearsasagraduatestudentatPrinceton(madepossiblebyaverygenerousJacobJavitsFellowshipfromtheUnitedStatesDepartmentofEducation)andmyoneyearasanExchangeScholargraduatestudentatHarvard(madepossiblebyfundsfromtheMellonFundsofthePrograminEastAsianStudiesatPrinceton):WangFanshenandHuangK’uanch’ungKellyDeVrieshasbeenencouragingofthisprojectforseveralyears,andsubsequenttomypleasantmeetingwithhimafterourpanelattheannualconferenceoftheAmericanHistoricalAssociationinWashington,DCinJaunary,hehelpeduntanglethemerrysagaofwhathappenedtomybookmanuscriptafterIsubmittedittotheBrillHistoryofWarfareseriesAtBrill,JulianDeahlandMarcellaMulderhavebeenencouraging,patient,andaccommodatingThanksarealsodueTanjaCowallforguidingmethroughtheproofreadingprocessIthankKellyDeVriesandBrillforallowingmetopublishthisbookintheWadeGilesromanisationIgreatlypreferoverthenewerPinyinsystemIsubmitthatChangHsüehch’ininWadeGilesisnolessmonstrousandobscurethanZhangXueqinisinPinyin,andIremainunconvincedthatallChinascholarsshouldadoptPinyinsimplybecauseitisnowthepreferredromanisationsystemoftherulingauthoritiesonmainlandChinaAdditionally,InotewithinterestxacknowledgementsChristopherBeckwith’sobservationthatWadeGilesis“theonlyEnglishlanguagetranscriptionsystemthatcorrectlyrepresentsthephoneticvaluesoftheinitialstopconsonantsinmodernMandarinChinese(whichlacksvoicedstops)”MyacademicdebtoflongeststandingistoSechinJagchid,whoseenduringandcontagiousinterestinthehistoryofSinonomadicrelationsandimperialChineseforeignpolicyhasbeenaninspirationsincemyundergraduatedaysinthesPaulVHyer,hissonEric,andDavidCMontgomeryhavealsoexertedpositiveandencouraginginfluencesonmyacademiccareersincethemidsDenisTwitchett,FWMote,DenisSinor,HerbertFranke,HuangK’uanch’ung,WangFanshen,JingshenTao,ThomasAllsen,ElizabethEndicott,NaomiStanden,PeterLorge,RalphSawyer,DavidBHoney,andananonymousreviewerforBrillreadthroughportionsofthismanuscriptandofferedsuggestionsandcriticisms,manyofwhichIfoundusefulandhelpfulFortheseIthankthembuthastentoaddthatIaloneamresponsibleforanyerrorsoffact,interpretation,orboththatremaininthisbookMartinHeijdraoftheGestOrientalLibraryatPrincetonUniversityhelpedmeobtaininformationaboutthepaintingfeaturedonthecoverdesignofthisbookImustthankElaineNgofLethbridge,AlbertaandRobinPoitrasofCalgary,AlbertaforexpertlytransformingmycrudetracedoutlinesandsmudgedscribblingsintothemapsthatappearinthisbookIgratefullyacknowledgepermissionfromtheJournalofSungYuanStudies,theResearchInstituteforInnerAsianStudiesatIndianaUniversity,andHarrassowitzVerlagtopublishrevisedandexpandedversionsofpreviouslypublishedarticlesForalmosttwodecadesnowmylongsufferingwifeandourtwosonshaveenduredmyhistoricalobsessionswithgraceandgoodhumourPerhapsonedayIcanmakeitalluptothemoratleastfindadequatewordstoexpressmygratitudeandaffectiontothemButfornowImuststilladmitthatIam,likemyfatherbeforeme,“absolutelyspeechless”Wewereallveryclosetomymother,whodiedsuddenlyandunexpectedlyofaheartattackinFebruarySincethenwehaveBeckwith,xivWright,xxviacknowledgementsxitriedto“restrainourgrief”and“conformtothechanges”inourliveswithouther,butoursenseoflossisattimesstillquitepoignantIdedicatethisbooktohermemoryIalsonotethatthisbookwillbepublishedin,theonethousandthanniversaryoftheconclusionoftheCovenantofShanyüanInmyopinion,theSungandLiaodiplomatswhodecidedthatapeaceagreementwaspreferabletocontinuedbloodsheddeservetoberememberedwithrespectandaffirmationManyofthepositivedevelopmentsineleventhcenturyChinamightwellhavebeenimpossiblewithoutthemCalgary,Alberta,CanadaOctoberSnowABBREVIATIONSCTKC:Ch’itanKuochih,byYehLungliCTS:ChiuT’angshuCYL(S):Ch’engyaoLu(shortversion)byLuChenCYL(L):Ch’engyaoLu(longversion),byLuChenHCP:HsüTzuchihT’ungchienCh’angpienHCPSL:LiT’aoHsüTzuchihT’ungchienCh’angpienSungLiaoKuanhsiShihliaoChilu,edsT’aoChinshengandWangMinhsinLS:LiaoshihLSCSPM:LiaoshihChishihPenmo,byLiYut’angSC:Shihchi,bySsumaCh’ienSHY:SungHuiyao,edHsüSungSLYL:ShihLiaoYülu,byCh’enHsiangSS:SungshihSSCSPM:SungshihChishihPenmo,byCh’enPangchanSTCLC:SungTachaolingChiTFYK:Ts’efuYüankuei,byWangCh’injoandYangIWYKSKCS:WenyüankoSsuk’uCh’üanshuMapFairbank,ed,RecentmajorcontributionstothestudyofSungLiaorelationsincludeRossabi(ed)andTaoWittfogelandFengisthemostextensivestudyofLiaohistoryinanylanguageandcontainsmuchfragmentaryinformationonSungLiaorelationsbutisnotasustainedmonographonthesubjectThenonpareilTwitchettandTietzeextensivelycoversmuchusefulinformationontheKitanLiaostateanditsrelationswithNorthernSungClassicJapanesestudiesofSungLiaodiplomacyincludeTamuraand–(ThelatterisagoodtreatmentofthecompositionofSungembassies,theirreceptioninLiaoterritory,andtheroutestravelledbySungembassiesitalsoincludesagoodmapoftheseroutes)ThemostcomprehensivetreatmentinaWesternlanguageoftheCovenantofShanyüan(AD)betweenSungandLiaoisstillSchwarzSchilling,althoughLauisasignificantrecentcontributionWrightBisastudyofthefightingandnegotiationsleadinguptotheconclusionoftheCovenantofShanyüanINTRODUCTIONItisnowgenerallyrecognisedthatSung(AD–)diplomacywithLiao(–)andChin(–)wasconductedonthebasisofsomethingapproximatingequalityordiplomaticparityMuchofourmodernunderstandingofthehistoryofChineseforeignrelationswaspreviouslybasedonassumptionsthatimperialChinaconsistentlyviewedtheworld’sotherpeople,alongwiththeirstates,asinferiorswhowouldneedtoaffirmthesuperiorityandrightfulsupremacyofChina’semperorifChinawastoreceivetheirdiplomatsatallTheseviewswerepopularisedduringthelatesbythelateHarvardChinascholarJohnKFairbankalongwithhiscolleaguesandstudentswiththepublicationofanimportantbookontheimperialChinese“worldorder”TheywerenotseriouslyquestioneduntilthesandthepublicationofafewworksonimperialChina’sforeignrelations,includingthegroundbreakingChinaAmongEquals:TheMiddleKingdomandItsNeighbors,th–thCenturies,editedbyMorrisRossabi,whichpointedouttheuniquenatureofdiplomaticrelationsbetweenSungandLiaoandarguedthatwhilesubordinationinfactorrhetoricmightwellhavebeentheimperialChineseideal,itwasnottheonlymodelorprecedentfordiplomacyEvenso,Fairbank’sideasremaininfluentialtoday,asChapterOnehereinwillshowThisbook,whichonbalanceismoreofahistoryofdiplomacythanadiplomatichistory,exploresinmoredetailsomeofthedepthintroductionandtextureofSung’sformalandroutineanddiplomacywithLiaoWiththeexceptionofChapterontherenegotiationsofannualpaymentsbySungtoLiaoduringtheearlys,itdoesnotdwellonparticulardiplomaticincidentsorcontroversies,eventhoughthereismuchresearchwaitingtobedoneonsuchtopicsByandlargeIacceptRossabi’spremisethatparitycharacterisedSungdiplomacy,butwiththefollowingcaveat:TheconceptofanentireinternationalcommunityofequallysovereignandindependentstatesdidnotexistinEastAsiaduringSungtimesNorthernSungChinadidnotseeitselfasonestateamongmanyequalsbutasastatewithonlyoneequal:LiaoTheextensionofdiplomaticparitytoanyotherstatewasabigstepforNorthernSung,oneittookonlywithreluctanceandundercompulsionWhatmadethedifferenceInaword,war,asChapterOnewillargueWarbetweenSungandLiaowaswagedintermittentlyfromSung’sfoundinginuntiltheconclusionofthedefinitiveCovenantofShanyüaninByandSung,orperhapsmoreaccuratelytheSungemperorChentsung,wasfinallyconvincedthattheSungstatecouldnotprevailoverLiaomilitarilyandrecoverhistoricallyChineseterritoryunderLiao’scontrolChapterOnewillalsoarguethatLiao,asaculturallySinicisedstate,hadboththemilitarystrengthandtheacquaintancewithChinesepoliticalculturetodemandthatitbetreateddiplomaticallyasanequalorpeerstateThecombinationofthetwofactorswasessentialpreviously,pastoralnomadicpeoplesoftenhadthemilitarymightbutnottheculturalorpoliticalwilltodemandequalitywithChina,whileotherSinicisedstateswhichmightpresumetoequalitywithChinaalmostalwayslackedthemilitarymuscletopushChinaintoofficiallyrecognisingitChapterTwocoversthefightingleadinguptotheconclusionoftheCovenantofShanyüaninandarguesthatanydecisivemilitaryshowdownbetweenthetwostateswouldhavemeantmorecasualtiesandlossesthaneithersidewaswillingtoriskLiaohadmoretoloseinthefightingthanSungdidandsotookthebiggergambleinlaunchinganalloutinvasionofSunginthefallofLiao’spurposeintheinvasionwasthreefold:recoveringterritoryThisisespeciallytrueofthecomplexandfascinatingtriangularrelationshipbetweenSung,Liao,andHsia,atopiclargelybeyondthescopeofthisbookintroductionunderSungcontrolthatit(Liao)claimed,protectingitsessentialsouthernagriculturalterritoriesagainstSungirredentistandrevanchistambitions,andcompellingSungintoconcludingadefinitive,bindingagreementthatwouldformallyendtheyearsoffightingandhostilitybetweenthetwostatesToaccomplishthisandbringSungtothenegotiatingtable,LiaohadtoposeasignificantandcrediblethreattotheSungstateanditscapitalatKaifengWhowaswinningthewaratthetimetheCovenantofShanyüanwasconcludedisnotcompletelyclear,butitseemsunquestionablethatLiaowonthenegotiationsandthepeaceShanyüanwasasignificantdiplomaticvictoryforLiao,onethatguaranteeditsveryviabilityasastateandempireandsecureddiplomaticequalitywithSungItalsoprovidedforsignificantannualpaymentsofsilverandsilkfromSungtoLiaoandledtotheroutine,formaldiplomacy(whetherannualorperiodic)betweenthetwostatesdescribedinthisbookAfterShanyüan,aroutinediplomacyofequalityreplacedmilitaryconflictasthemodeofcontactbetweenSungandLiaoChapterThreeisastudyofthevarioustypesofroutineSungembassiessenttoLiaoonbothregularandoccasionalbasesItsketchesthestructureofatypicalembassy,mapsmuchofwhatisknowoftheroutestravelledbySungembassiestoLiao,describeshostelaccommodationsforSungdiplomaticpersonnel,andofferstranslationsofpoemscomposedonthespotatstatedinnersbywellknownSungliteratiwhoservedasenvoysChapterFourexaminesandevaluatestheactualcontentsofsomediplomaticmissivessentbySungtoLiaoandoffersseveralsampletranslationsofthemAlthoughthesemissiveswerehighlyformalandformulaic,thechapterdoesnotaccepttheviewthattheycontainedonlyfinesoundingbutemptywordsInsteaditarguesthattheletterscontainedsentimentsandliteraryallusionsthatmightwellhavebeenappreciatedbytheLiaoemperorandcourtandservedasremindersofthesolemnpeaceconcludedinThechapteranalysestheThisobjectivewaseventuallydroppedduringthecourseofthenegotiationsthatendedthewarAnumberofprominentNorthernSungfiguresservedasenvoystoLiao,includingLüIchienin,HsiaSungin,SungCh’iin,HanCh’iin,LiangShihin–,FuPionseveraloccasionsbetweenand,YüChingbetweenand,PaoChengin,OuyangHsiuin,SungMinch’iuin,SuSunginand,ShenKuain,SuShihin,SuCh’ein,FanCh’unliinand,andT’ungKuaninintroductionmannerinwhichSungemperorsaddressedtheKitanemperors(andalsoempressdowagers)inofficialstatelettersormissivesItalsonotesthefictitiouskinshiprelationsbetweentheSungandLiaorulers,inquiresintotheinnerlogicofthesekinshipties,andanalysesthecarefulandfastidiousmannerinwhichtheSungandLiaoemperors(andempressdowagers,forthatmatter)kepttrackoftheserelationsItarguesthatthesekinshiprelationsconstitutedanimportantvehiclefordiplomacybetweenthetwostatesThechapteralsocontainsafewbriefdescriptionsofsomeofthetediousritualsinvolvedinpresentingthesemissivesattheLiaocourtbutdoesnotcommentatlengthonthemthisbookisnot,anddoesnotpretendtobe,aritualstudyChapterFiveexaminestheembassyreportsthatSungenvoyswererequiredtosubmitsoonaftertheirreturnfromtheirmissionsThereportswereessentiallyintelligencesummariesandgeographicaldescriptionsoftheseveralroutesthatSungenvoysfollowedtoaudienceswiththeLiaoemperorAssuchtheyconstitutedaregularsourceofintelligenceontheLiaostateandseemedtoinstitutionaliseorformalisetheroleofdiplomatsasspiesoratleastasintelligencegatherersTheinformationreportedinthesereports,however,soonprovedsoroutinelyrepetitiveandsuperfluousthatSungdoesnotseemtohavemadeseriouseffortstopreserveorrecordthemAsaresult,fewsuchreportssurvivetodayChapterSixistheonlychapterinthebookthatpertainsspecificallytonegotiatorymattersbetweenthetwostatesItconsidershowthetangledtriangleofSungLiaoHsiarelationsintheeleventhcenturyeventuallyinvolvedamajordisagreementintheearlysbetweenSungandLiaooverthedispositionoftheKuannanterritory,theterritoryLiaohadoriginallydemandedunsuccessfullyduringtheShanyüannegotiationsofearlyKnowingthattheSungmilitarycouldnotprevailinaclashwiththeKitansandtheirLiaostateatthistime,theSungdiplomatFuPididhisbesttopersuadetheKitanstodroptheirirredentistclaimsinexchangeforincreasedannualpaymentsHewasultimatelysuccessfulatthisandiswidelycreditedforhisdiplomaticskillindefusingapotentialexplosionbetweenSungandLiaoD

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