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首页 [美]托妮·艾克菲德:唐代皇陵,618—907:天堂中的政治(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]托妮·艾克菲德:唐代皇陵,618—907:天堂中的政治(劳特里奇 2005)

[美]托妮·艾克菲德:唐代皇陵,618—907:天堂中的政治(…

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简介:本文档为《[美]托妮·艾克菲德:唐代皇陵,618—907:天堂中的政治(劳特里奇 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ImperialTombsinTangChina,–Thisimportantlandmarkbookexaminesthereligious,political,socialandartisticsignificanceoftheimperialtombsoftheTangdynasty(AD–)Itexplores,indetail,thefinestrecentlyexcavatedChinesetombsoftheTangperiod,focusingonthearchitectonicformofthesemausoleaandthecontentandaestheticsoftheirmagnificentmuralpaintingsInintroducingaselectionofimperial,aristocraticandofficialtombs,thebookhighlightsthefascinatingcircumstancesofburialTheauthorsetsthetombsinthebroadercontextofChinesecultureanddiscussessuchissuesastheTangconceptofthesoulandtheafterlife,thepoliticsofmausoleumarchitecture,theofficialstatusofwomenandtheimplicationsforthelivingoftheburialconditionsoffamilymembersThisintellectuallyandvisuallystimulatingbookisthefirstuptodate,accessiblepresentationoftheTangtombsDrToniaEckfeldisSeniorFellowinArtHistoryandAsianStudiesattheUniversityofMelbourneShelecturesinternationallyontheartandarchitecturalhistoryofChina,IndiaandJapanShehasconductedextensiveresearchthroughoutAsiaandhasreceivednumerousacademicawards,includingaresearchfellowshiptoHarvardRoutledgeCurzonStudiesintheEarlyHistoryofAsiaImperialTombsinTangChina,–ThepoliticsofparadiseToniaEckfeldImperialTombsinTangChina,–ThepoliticsofparadiseToniaEckfeldFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeCurzonParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeCurzonMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeCurzonisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©ToniaEckfeldAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataEckfeld,Tonia,–ImperialtombsinTangChina,–:thepoliticsofparadiseToniaEckfeldpcm–(RoutledgeCurzonstudiesintheearlyhistoryofAsia)InculdesbibliographicalreferencesandindexChina–Kingsandrulers–TombsChina–History–Tangdynasty,–Tombs–ChinaITitleIISeriesDSE'–dcISBN–––X(alkpaper)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNMasterebookISBNTomyparentsContentsListofillustrationsviiiChronologyofChineseperiodsxiAcknowledgementsxiiiIntroductionPARTIPlace,formandfunctionAmbitionandarchetypeLiXian’stombRelativestatusBuildersandpaintersPassagesofritesPARTIIVisionsofkingdomsPalatialquartersPleasuresandprotocolsCourtlywomenConclusionNotesIndexIllustrationsColourplates(betweenpagesand)XingninglingmausoleumShunlingmausoleumPotteryfigurinesofamilitaryofficialandacivilofficialfromLiXian’stombPaintingoffemaleattendants–Yide’stomb,rearchamberThepassageofLiXian’stombPaintingofprotectionguards–LiXian’stombpassagePaintingoftriplegatetowers–Yide’stombpassagePaintingofriderlesshorse,groomandattendants–LiShou’stombtunnelPaintingofChineseofficialsandforeignemissaries–LiXian’stombtunnelPaintingofahuntingscene(detail)–LiXian’stombpassagePaintingofacontemplativesage–WeiHao’stomb,frontchamberPaintingoflandscape(detail)–Jiemin’stombpassagePaintingoffemaleperformers–LiXian’stomb,frontchamberPaintingoffourfemalecourtattendants–PrincessXincheng’stombchamberPaintingofawomanwitharedshawl–LiXian’stomb,frontcorridorPaintingofWatchingabirdwhilecatchingacicada–LiXian’stomb,frontchamberFiguresExcavationofaTangtombMapofChinashowingtheareacontainingTangimperialtombsMapshowingthelocationsofthetombsofthefirsteighteenTangemperorsMapshowingthelocationsofthetombsoftheWesternHanemperorsStonesculptureofahorsesuppressingaforeignman–MaolingReconstructedmapofTangChang’anStonesculptureofarhinoceros–XianlingStonereliefsculptureofahorse–ZhaolingRooftile–ZhaolingViewofQianlingmausoleumLayoutofQianlingmausoleumStonesculptureofanostrich–QianlingmausoleumStonesculpturesofforeignemissaries–QianlingmausoleumMapshowingthedistributionofattendanttombsatQianlingOutlinegenealogyoftheTangimperialfamilyuptothemideighthcenturyLiXian’stomb,QianlingRubbingsofLiXian’sepitaphtabletsDiagramofLiXian’stombcompoundDiagrammaticlayoutofLiXian’stombSilverplatedbronzemirrorfromLiXian’stombRubbingofthestonedoorwayinLiXian’stombPlanofLiXian’stomb,rearchamberPotteryfigurinesofagroomandhorse–LiXian’stombPotteryfigurinesofagroomwithBactriancamel–LiXian’stombPotteryfigurineofaheavenlyking–LiXian’stombPotteryfigurinesoftwoapotropaicbeasts–LiXian’stombStonesculptureofasheep–LiXian’stombPaintingofsevenHaneunuchofficials–Yide’stombSignatureontheceilingofYide’stomb,frontchamberYongtai’sepitaphtabletcoverandtabletDiagramsshowingthepictorialprogrammeinLiShou’stombDiagramofthepictorialprogrammeinPrincessXincheng’stomb,eastwallNorth–southsectionalviewofYide’stombNorth–southsectionalviewofLiXian’stombPaintingofgatesurveillanceguards–LiXian’stombPaintingofaeunuchgatemonitor–LiXian’stombRubbingoflineinciseddecorationonLiXian’sstoneoutercoffinRestoredviewoftheHanyuanThroneHallPaintingofguardsandhalberdrack–LiShou’stombPaintingofarackofhalberds–LiXian’stombJourneyscene–rubbingofastonelintelfromaHantombDiagramofmuralsinLouRui’stombIllustrationsixDiagramofthepictorialprogrammeinPrincessXincheng’stombpassageDiagramofthemuralsinYongtai’stomb,eastwallofthepassagePaintingofahuntingscene(detail)–LiXian’stombPaintingofapoloplayer–LiXian’stombPaintingofofficialsofthePalaceService–Yide’stombPaintingofamatron,femaleofficialandfemaledwarf–LiXian’stombPaintingofadancer–LiXian’stombPaintingofConsortFangwithfemaleattendants–LiXian’stombTablesStagesinthedevelopmentofTangtombsSui–TangperiodsandtheirinterestinparticularmortuarywaresThemainTangtombtypesComparisonoffourTypetombsMaincharacteristicsinthethreeextraordinaryTypetombsComparisonoftheprestigeofmaincharacteristicsinthreeTypetombsxIllustrationsChronologyofChineseperiodscBCBCShangdynastycZhoudynastycWesternZhouEasternZhouSpringandAutumnperiodWarringStatesperiodBCBCQindynastyBCADHandynastyBCADWesternHanADADXinEasternHanThreeKingdomsperiodWeiShuHanWuJindynastyWesternJinEasternJinNorthernandSoutherndynastiesSoutherndynastiesSongQiLiangChenNortherndynastiesNorthernWeiEasternWeiNorthernQiWesternWeiNorthernZhouSuidynastyTangdynastyFivedynastiesperiodLiaodynastySongdynastyNorthernSongSouthernSongJindynastyYuandynastyMingdynastyQingdynastyxiiChronologyofChineseperiodsAcknowledgementsMychancediscoveryofafolioofphotographsoftombpaintingsinalittlebookshopinMelbourne’sChinatowninwasatinyeventwhichledmeonagreaterjourneyofdiscovery,bothintellectualandactual,tothetombsofTangdynastyChina,builtmorethanathousandyearsagointheseventhtoninthcenturiesThepicturesofmagnificentmuralpaintingsbelongingtothetombofCrownPrinceLiXian(–)raisedmorequestionsthantheyansweredExcavationofthetomb,andthefewChinesepublicationsavailablewhichdocumentedit,datedfromtheCulturalRevolution,andmyimmediateinvestigationsuncoveredlittletosatiatemycuriosityaboutthecharacter,historyandpurposeofthetombandthefateofitsoccupantWhatfollowedwasaquesttounlockthemysteryandmeaningofthattombMypreoccupationforthenextthreeyearstookmeacrosstheworld,andculminatedinmydoctoralthesis‘TheTombofLiXian:PosthumousRehabilitationandPoliticalLegitimacy’ThatanalysisoftheTangdynasty’suseofimperialtomblocation,architectonicformandmuraldecorationtoaffirmtheposthumousstatusofthedeceasedandthepoliticallegitimacyoftheemperor,wasthefirstdetailedandthoroughstudyofasingleTangtombIwasfortunatetoreceivegrantsfromtheUniversityofMelbourneandtheAustralianGovernmenttosupportmyresearch,fieldworkinChina,andsixmonthsasaresidentscholaratHarvardUniversityduringthatperiodThisworkwasenrichedbymyexperienceasalecturerinFineArts,thenResearchFellowintheMelbourneInstituteofAsianLanguagesandSocietiesattheUniversityofMelbournefromto,andwascompletedwhileaSeniorFellowthereinPublicationofthisbookhasbeenassistedbyagrantfromtheUniversityofMelbourneIamgratefultothefollowingpeoplewhoadvisedmethroughmydoctoralwork:DavidRMarshall,LiLiu,HanWei,ZhangJianlinandWilliamHCoaldrakeDameJessicaRawsonandLotharvonFalkenhausenprovidedinvaluablecommentsonitIappreciatetheassistanceofJiaoNanfeng,XiaoJianyi,DuLiping,PeechinTanandEugeneWangTheShaanxiArchaeologyInstitute,ShaanxiHistoryMuseum,andQianlingMuseumprovidedinvaluableShaanxishengwenwuguanliweiyuanhui,TangLiXianmubihua,Wenwuchubanshe,Beijing,helpwithdataandphotographicmaterialsWithouttheworkoffinearchaeologistsinChina,thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossibleIthankfamilyandfriendsfortheirencouragement,andmyfather,ReinholdEckfeld,inparticular,forhisunfailingsupportWilliamCoaldrake,bothfriendandcolleague,sharedthepassionforEastAsianartandarchitecture,andmadeeverythingseempossibleTranslationsandphotographsarebytheauthor,anddiagramsarebyReinholdEckfeld,unlessotherwiseacknowledgedxivAcknowledgementsIntroductionStandingatthemouthofafreshlyopenedTangdynasty(–)tomb,fromwhichrichShaanxiloamisbeingremoved,IamimpatienttoseethetantalizingbeautyofitsburiedtreasuresandgrandwallpaintingsIameagertoexamineitscontentsforthestoriestheyhavetotellIreflectonthepeoplewhocametothisplacemorethanamillenniumagowhenthetombwasbeingsealed,andrecallthewordsoftheTangpoetZhangYue(–):Allwhocomeandgofollowthisroad,ButlivinganddeaddonotreturntogetherIamremindedthattombsaremuchmorethanmerecontainersofbodiesandartefactsTheyaresitesofconsolationandritualcelebration,bridgesattheboundaryoflifeandafterlife,andrepositoriesfortheuniversalmysteriesofdeath(Figure)ThetombsofeighteenofthetwentyTangemperorstothenorthoftheWeiRiverinthevicinityoftheTangcapitalcity,Chang’an(presentdayXi’an),aremonumentsasimpressiveasthemountainsinsidewhichmostwerebuilt(Figuresand)Theyweredesignedaswalledcitieswithundergroundpalaces,abovegroundtemples,halls,altars,andresidencesoccupiedbyloyalretainerswhosedutyitwastomaintainthetombcomplexesandservetheemperors’spiritsExtravagantlyambitiousaffirmationsofTangimperialauthority,theirscalerivalledthatofthegreatpalacesatthecapitalToday,passingthroughthemaingatewayatQianling,thebestpreservedTangemperor’stomb,itisaweinspiringtoapproachthegiantmountainpeakbeneathwhich,insealedchambers,liethebodiesofEmperorGaozong(LiZhi,–)andhisEmpressWuZetian(WuZhao,–)Mammothstonesculpturesstandassentinelstotheleftandrightofthemainroadapproachingthetomb,withonlythefoundationsextantofQianling’sotherabovegroundstructuresThusfar,onlyoneTangemperor’stombhasbeenexcavated–thatofEmperorXizongsmallandofinferiorquality,itwasbuiltwhentheTangwasindeclineinthelateninthcenturyAllotherTangemperors’tombsremaintobeopened,sowemustrelyontheirabovegroundfeaturesforstudyInthecategoryof‘imperialtombs’therearenotonlyemperors’tombs,butalsothoseofimperialfamilymembersoccupyingcelebratedpositionswithinemperors’tombcomplexesThetombsofprincesandprincessesprovideuswiththebestavailableknowledgeoftheinteriorformanddecorationofimperialtombsThreetombsbelongingtochildrenofemperorshavebeenconservedandareopentovisitors,althoughmodifiedforculturaltourismTheseareatQianling,belongingtoLiXian(CrownPrinceZhanghuai,–),LiChongrun(CrownPrinceYide,–),andLiXianhui(PrincessYongtai,–)Afourth,atQiaoling,knownasHuiling,inwhichthebodyofEmperorRuizong’sfirstson(d)wasinterred,mayalsobeopenedtovisitorsResplendentwithillusionisticmuralscoveringeveryinchofwallandceiling,theseimpressivetombinteriorsvividlyrecreateimperialpalacesandmansionsinhabitedbydozensoffigures,manylifesize,providingforthedailyneedsandfestivepleasuresofthetomboccupantsThroughexcavations,theinteriorsofanumberotherprinces’andprincesses’tombsareknown,asarethoseofsomearistocrats,civilandmilitaryofficials,andothersburiedatemperors’tombcomplexesandelsewhereAboutfiftyTangtombscontainingmuralpaintingshavebeenexcavatedintheXi’anareasince,atimperialandaristocraticfamilycemeteries,theirrichnessandsplendourdemonstratingtheexceptionalposthumousprivilegesawardedtotheirdeceasedownersMostofthesedatefromtheseventhoreighthcenturyThesehavebeenIntroductionFigureExcavationofaTangtombDUNHUANGLHASAYellowRiverBEIJINGYellowRiverWeiRiverKAIFENGZHENGZHOULUOYANGHanXI'ANBAZHOUJialingRiverRiverRiverRiverMinRiverWUHANHuaiRiverYangtzeYangtzeXiangXiRiverRiverNANJINGSHANGHAIKOREACHENGDUGUANGZHOUHONGKONGTAIWANHAINANkmNFigureMapofChinashowingtheareacontainingTangimperialtombsnearXi’anIntroductiondocumentedalthoughtheywerenotpreservedafterexcavation,duetopracticalproblemssuchasthedegradationofinferiormaterials,poorworkmanship,erosion,waterseepage,risinggroundwater,anddeliberatedamagebylootersandvandalsthroughthecenturiesStudyofthetombs’scaleandconfiguration,fittingsandfurnishingsinmetal,wood,ceramic,andstone,allcontributetoourTangemperors’tombsEmperorTaizu(LiHu)EmperorShizu(LiBing)EmperorGaozu(LiYuan)EmperorTaizong(LiShimin)EmperorGaozong(LiZhi)EmpressWuZetian(WuZhao)EmperorZhongzong(LiXian)EmperorRuizong(LiDan)EmperorXuanzong(LiLongji)EmperorSuzong(LiHeng)EmperorDaizong(LiYu)EmperorDezong(LiShi)EmperorShunzong(LiSong)EmperorXianzong(LiChun)EmperorMuzong(LiHeng)EmperorJingzong(LiZhan)EmperorWenzong(LiAng)EmperorWuzong(LiYan)EmperorXuanzong(LiChen)EmperorYizong(LiCui)EmperorXizong(LiXuan)EmperorZhaozong(LiYe)EmperorAizong(LiZhu)ImperialancestorImperialancestor––––,––,–––––––––––––––HelingYongkanglingXingninglingXianlingZhaolingQianlingQianlingDinglingQiaolingTailingJianlingYuanlingChonglingFenglingJinglingGuanglingZhuanglingZhanglingDuanlingZhenlingJianlingJinglingWenlingLingqian,SanyuancountyYaodiandong,XianyangYonghevillage,XumuinSanyuancountyJiuzongmountain,LiquancountyLiangmountain,QiancountyLiangmountain,QiancountyLongquanmountain,XingpingcountyFengmountain,PuchengcountyJinsumountain,PuchengcountyWujiangmountain,LiquancountyTanmountain,FupingcountyCuo'ermountain,JingyangcountyJinwengmountain,FupingcountyJinzhimountain,PuchengcountyYaomountain,PuchengcountyChaijiayao,LingqianSanyuancountyTitleandnameReignTombnameLocationTianrumountain,FupingcountyTaogouvillage,XumuinSanyuancountyZhongmountain,JingyangcountyZijinmountain,FupingcountyJizidui,QiancountyLuoyang,HenanprovinceHeze,ShandongprovinceFupingPuchengWeiRiverLuoRiverYellowRiverQianxianLiquanXianyangJingyangXI’ANCityEmperor’stombFigureMapshowingthelocationsofthetombsofthefirsteighteenTangemperorsIntroductionunderstandingabouttherelationshipbetweentheentitlementtoprestigesymbols,socialstructureandthepoliticsoftheTangForthereader,IhaveendeavouredtodescribetheoriginalstateofthetombsasfarascanbedeterminedIntermentinatombwithanexternalmound,undergroundchambers,internalfittingsandmortuaryaccoutrementswaspartofalongtraditioninChinesemortuarypracticeChinesetombshadalongandrelativelystablehistorypriortotheTangperiod,withtheirformsandcontentsreflectingtheirtomboccupants’temporalwealthandsocialstanding,aswellaswhatwerethoughttobehisorherposthumousneedsEarlyChinesetombshavebeenthesubjectofstudy,yetmanyquestionsaboutthetombsoftheTangperiodremaintobeansweredWhatantecedentsinspiredthedesignofthetombsWhobuiltanddecoratedthetombsWhowasburiedinsidethemWhatwasthesignificanceofthelocationofthetombsWhywereparticularconfigurationsanddecorativeelementsusedWhatfunctionsdidthetombsserveWhatwastherelationshipbetweenpolitics,religion,socialstatusandtheconstructionofagrandtombWhatwasthoughttohappentopeopleaftertheydiedAnumberofearlytextualsourcesshedlightonthesequestionsTheeulogiesinscribedonstoneepitaphtabletsinterredinthetombsarethemostimmediatetextualsource

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[美]托妮·艾克菲德:唐代皇陵,618—907:天堂中的政治(劳特里奇 2005)

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