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首页 [英]S·史密斯著:中国与俄国的革命与人民:比较历史(剑桥大学 2008)

[英]S·史密斯著:中国与俄国的革命与人民:比较历史(剑桥大学 2008)

[英]S·史密斯著:中国与俄国的革命与人民:比较历史(剑桥大学…

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简介:本文档为《[英]S·史密斯著:中国与俄国的革命与人民:比较历史(剑桥大学 2008)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

RevolutionandthePeopleinRussiaandChinaThisbookisauniquecomparativeaccountoftherootsofCommunistrevolutioninRussiaandChinaSteveSmithexaminesthechangingsocialidentitiesofpeasantswhosettledinStPetersburgfromthesto,andinShanghaifromthestothesRussiaandChina,thoughverydifferentsocieties,werebothdynasticempireswithbackwardagrarianeconomiesthatsuddenlyexperiencedtheimpactofcapitalistmodernityThisbookarguesthatfarmorehappenedtothesemigrantsthansimplybeingtransformedfrompeasantsintoworkersItexploresthemigrants’identificationwiththeirnativehomeshowtheyacquirednewunderstandingsofthemselvesasindividualsandnewgenderandnationalidentitiesItaskshowtheseidentitytransformationsfedintothewiderpolitical,socialandculturalprocessesthatculminatedintherevolutionarycrisesinRussiaandChina,andhowtheCommunistregimesthatemergedviewedthesetransformationsintheworkingclassestheyclaimedtorepresentSASMITHisProfessorofHistoryintheDepartmentofHistory,UniversityofEssexHispreviouspublicationsincludeLikeCattleandHorses:NationalismandLaborinShanghai,–(),ARoadisMade:CommunisminShanghai,–()andRedPetrograd:RevolutionintheFactories,–()RevolutionandthePeopleinRussiaandChinaAComparativeHistorySASmithTheWilesLecturesforCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBN©SASmithInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgpaperbackeBook(NetLibrary)hardbackContentsAcknowledgmentspageviiIntroduction:CapitalistModernityandCommunistRevolutionMemoriesofHome:NativeplaceIdentityintheCityTheAwakeningSelf:IndividualityandClassConsciousnessAfterPatriarchy:GenderIdentitiesintheCitySavingtheNation:NationalandClassIdentitiesintheCityWorkersandCommunistRevolutionIndexvAcknowledgmentsThisbookoriginatedinaninvitationbytheSchoolofHistoryatQueen’sUniversity,Belfast,todelivertheWilesLecturesinTheselectures,foundedbyMrsAustenBoydininmemoryofherfather,ThomasSWiles,withtheencouragementofSirHerbertButterfield,setthelecturerthedauntingtaskofrelatinghisorherhistoricalresearch‘tothegeneralhistoryofcivilization’orto‘reflectiononthewiderimplicationsofmoredetailedhistoricalstudies’IcannotclaimthatthefourlecturesthatconstitutethecentralchaptersofthisbookgoanywhereneartomeetingthechallengesetbytheWilesTrusteesHowever,theinvitationprovidedmewithanopportunitytothinkafreshabouttherootsofrevolutioninRussiaandChinaandtotryoutasomewhatunusualstyleofcomparativehistoryTheWilesLecturesareawonderfulinstitutionthatallowthelecturertopresentambitiousideastoaninformedaudience,consistingofmembersofQueen’sUniversity,membersofthewidercommunityinBelfast,andhalfadozeninvitedscholarsofhisorherchoosingIwouldthusliketothanktheTrusteesandtheSchoolofHistoryfortheinvitationtogivethelectures,andmyaudiencefortheirthoughtfulandcriticalresponsestomyrudimentaryeffortstosketchoutmyideasIwouldalsoliketothanktheSchoolofHistoryforitsmagnificenthospitality,especiallyProfessorDavidHempton,thenDirectoroftheSchool,nowoftheSchoolofTheologyatBostonUniversity,andthelateProfessorPeterJudd,whoorganizedsomememorabletripsformyselfandmyguests,includingtourstotheNorthernIrelandAssemblyatStormontandtheUlsterFolkMuseumFortheirpatienceandcriticalengagement,Iwouldliketothankmyguests,whoincludedGregorBenton,DeliaDavin,HenriettaHarrison,CatrionaKelly,DianeKoenker,RanaMitter,DavidMoonandChrisWard,andIanKershawandTerenceRanger,boththenWilesTrusteesGregorBentonandChrisWarddeserveadditionalthanksforprovidingmewithcriticalfeedbackonthemanuscriptofthebookFinally,mylongstandingcolleague,viiJohnWalter,gavecharacteristicallyastuteadviceinthelaststagesofrevisionTheusualdisclaimersappertain:allerrorsoffactandjudgmentaremyownFinally,IoweadebtofthankstotheNuffieldFoundationfortheawardofaSocialScienceResearchFellowshipin–whichallowedmetoundertakemuchoftheresearchforthelecturesAspresentedinchapterstoofthebook,thelectureshavebeenmuchrevisedandexpanded,butIhavetriedtopreservesomethingoftheiroriginalspiritTheyareintendedasargumentsaboutthepastthatwillstimulateargumentabouttherootsofrevolutioninthemoderneraTheycannothopetomakeacontributionto‘thegeneralhistoryofcivilization’,butiftheyprovokedebateonsomebighistoricalquestions,IshallbehappyAcknowledgmentsviiiIntroduction:CapitalistModernityandCommunistRevolutionThisbookisanexplorationofhowthesocialidentitiesofpeasantswholefttheirvillagestoworkandsettleinStPetersburg,fromthesto,andinShanghai,fromthestothes,weretransformedundertheimpactofcapitalistmodernityStPetersburgandShanghaistoodoutastheexemplarsofcapitalistmodernityinRussiaandChina,respectively,twosocietiesthatwereverydifferentinculturaltermsyetwhichsharedtheconditionofbeingoverwhelminglyagrarianandpoliticallyenfeebledThebookexploreshowtheexperienceofwagelabourandcitylifechallengedmigrants’understandingsofthemselves,andaskshowchangesintheirsocialidentitiescontributedtothepolitical,socialandculturalfermentthateventuatedinrevolutionItisanattempttoexploretheformationofaworkingclassfromanewangle,byfocusingontransformationsofsocialidentitythatdidnotrelatedirectlytothegrowthofclassconsciousnessortothegrowthofrevolutionarypoliticalsentiment,theaspectsofclassformationonwhichthehistoriographytodatehastendedtoconcentrateItscentralthesisisthattheidentitiesofpeasantswhobecameworkersweretransformedbyanumberofprocessesotherthanthosedirectlyrelatedtowagelabourandcapitalistproductionandalonganumberofaxesotherthanthatofclass,andthatcapitalistmodernityprovidesabetteropticthancapitalistproductionthroughwhichtoanalyseidentityformationIn,accordingtotheUnitedNations,theearth’spopulationforthefirsttimetiltedfrombeingpredominantlyruraltopredominantlyurbanThesubjectsofthisbook–thosewholeftthecountrysideduringthefirstwaveofcapitalistindustrializationandurbanization–maybeseenasharbingersofthismostsignificantoftwentiethcenturydevelopmentsThefocusofthebookisonthatsubsetofruraltourbanmigrantswhochosetosettleinthecitiesofStPetersburgandShanghaiThisgroupmayhavebeenoutnumberedbyseasonalmigrantsandJonathanWatts,‘InvisibleCity’,Guardian,Marchtemporarysojourners,butitwastheywhoevolved,howeverunevenly,intoanindustrialworkingclassanditwasamongthemthattransformationsinsocialidentityweremostmarkedThesocialidentitieswithwhichthefourcentralchaptersdealare,respectively:nativeplaceidentity,ietheidentificationofthesepeasantsturnedworkerswiththeirplaceofbirthindividuality,ietheirnewunderstandingsofselfhoodgenderidentity,ietheirchangedconceptionsofthemselvesasmenandwomenand,finally,theiridentificationswiththenationstateEachchapteraskshowfaridentitiesdidchangeasaresultofthemovetothecityandthenanalysestheimplicationsofanysuchchangesforhowpeasantsturnedworkersconceivedoftheirplaceinthelargersocialandpoliticalorderThebookcontendsthatwecanbestappreciatewhymigrantsrespondedtorevolution–howevershortlivedthatresponsemayhavebeen–bysituatingtheirexperiencesandselfunderstandingsagainstabackdropinwhichcapitalistmodernityirruptedintoeconomically,sociallyandpoliticallybackwardsocietiesItarguesthattheresponseofworkerstorevolutionwasshapednotonlybytheexperienceofcapitalistexploitation,bleakthoughthatwas,butalsobythecrisisofanentireorderthatencompassedautocraticgovernment,ruralpatriarchy,theconstraintsoftheConfucianmoralorder,whichwascompoundedbytheupheavalswroughtbywarandforeignimperialismmorepositively,itwasshapedbyexposuretothedisorientationandspeedofurbanlife,tothepleasuresofconsumerculture,totheintimacyofthenuclearfamily,andtotheemancipatinginfluenceofliteracyandmassentertainmentTheargumentisnotthatthechallengesposedbycapitalistmodernityinacontextofeconomicandpoliticalbackwardnessservedseamlesslytorenderworkersreceptivetorevolutionWorkersexperiencedthesechallengesvariablyandtheirsignificancewasalwayscontestedindeedmanyoftheneworientationsfosteredbymodernity,suchasinterestinfashion,pulpfiction,ornewformsofreligiousaffiliation,wereseenbyrevolutionariesasfundamentallyantipathetictothepromotionofrevolutionaryconsciousnessBywideningtheanalyticalfocusinthisway,however,thebookhopestoshowthattheidentitytransformationundergonebymigrantstoStPetersburgandShanghaiwentbeyondthetransformationofpeasantsintoproletarians,andhopestohelpanswerthequestionposedbythelateReginaldZelnik,pioneeringDanielBrowerreckonsthatinuptoonefifthofthepopulationofMoscowandStPetersburghadeitherjustarrivedorwouldleavebeforetheendoftheyearDanielBrower,‘UrbanRevolutionintheLateRussianEmpire’,inMichaelFHamm(ed),TheCityinLateImperialRussia(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,),pRevolutionandthePeopleinRussiaandChinahistorianofRussianlabour,whoaskedwithcharacteristicperspicacity:‘Whatfurtherreadingsofworkers’lifeexperienceswouldhelpustomakesenseoftherevolutionintheirvaluesthatprecededtherevolutioninthestreets’InbothRussiaandChinapowerfulworkingclassmovementssprangupinsocietieswheremanyoftheprerequisitesconventionallydeemedcrucialtoworkingclassformation–suchassignificantlevelsofindustrializationandurbanization,basicrightstoorganize,arelativelyhighlevelofpopulareducation–wereabsentIntherevolutionsofandinRussiaandinthe‘nationalrevolution’of–inChina,asmallindustrialworkingclass,comprisingmainlyifnotexclusivelyformerpeasants,cametotheforeoftherevolutionarymovementThisisnottoclaimthateitherrevolutionwas‘proletarian’inanysubstantialsenseInRussiain,thepoliticalleverageexercisedbythegeneralstrikewascriticalinforcingNicholasIItoconcedeaconstitutionalmonarchybutformostofthatyear,thenascentlabourmovementoperatedinuneasyconjunctionwiththeliberalandradicaloppositiongroupsinan‘allnationstruggle’againstautocracySimilarly,in,workersprovedtobethemostorganizedandpoliticallyconsciousofthemobilizedmasses,spearheadingtheformationofsoviets,factorycommittees,tradeunionsandotherorganizations,yetthelabourmovementwasonlyoneoftheforces–theothersbeingapeasantwaragainstthelandowninggentry,amutinyinthearmyandnavy,andmobilizationbynonRussianethnicities–thatunderminedtheProvisionalGovernmentInChinathepoliticalpotentialofthetinyworkingclassbecameevidentintheMayThirtiethMovementof,abroadbasedantiimperialistmovement,triggeredbytheshootingofunarmeddemonstratorsintheBritishcontrolledInternationalSettlementinShanghai,whichspilledoverintoasixteenmonthlongstrikeboycottinGuangzhou(Canton)andHongKongDuringtheNorthernExpeditionof–,whentheGuomindang(GMD),orNationalistParty,anditsNationalRevolutionaryArmyledanarmedcampaigntosuppresswarlordismandreunifythecountry,conditionswerecreatedthatwereconducivetotheformationofmassassociationsofworkers,peasants,students,womenandevenmerchantsThroughoutthisperiodof‘nationalrevolution’,masspoliticstookplacewithintheframeworkofa‘unitedfront’(–)betweentheChineseCommunistParty(CCP)andtheGMDInspring,workersledbytheCCPbrieflytookpowerReginaldEZelnik,‘OntheEve:HistoriesandIdentitiesofSomeRevolutionaryWorkers,–’,inLewisHSiegelbaumandRonaldGrigorSuny(eds),MakingWorkersSoviet:Power,ClassandIdentity(IthacaNY:CornellUniversityPress,),pIntroductioninShanghai,expellingnorthernwarlordforcesfromtheChineseareasofthecityinadvanceofthearrivaloftheNationalRevolutionaryArmyThisprovokedChiangKaishekintobrutallysuppressinghiserstwhileCommunistalliesThereafter,itisoftensuggested,theCCPwasforcedoutofthecities,withtheresultthattheChineserevolutionbecamea‘peasantrevolution’RecentscholarshiphasquestionedthischaracterizationLocalstudiesoftheCCP’sactivitiesinruralareasintheperiodoftheSinoJapanesewar(–)andthecivilwar(–)suggest,aboveall,thatthekeytotheCCP’ssuccesslayinitsskillinbuildingcoalitionsofdiversesocialconstituencies,includingteachers,students,intellectuals,‘enlightenedgentry’,merchants,nationalistarmyofficers,formerwarlords,workers,religiousgroupsandsecretsocietymembersCertainly,peasants–usuallymiddleratherthanpoorpeasants–weremobilizedbytheCCP,butusuallyonlyafterithadmanagedtoestablishasecurebasebymanipulatingtheaforementionedsocialcoalitionsInthewordsofLucienBianco,‘thefactthattherevolutiontriumphedwiththeassistanceofthepeasantrydoesnotmakeitapeasantrevolutionThepeasantsparticipatedinarevolutionundertakenanddirectedbyothers,andthislittlebylittlemodifiedtheirconceptionsandbehaviour’Theworkingclass,moreover,didnotdisappearasanagentofrevolutionafter,especiallyinShanghaiWorkersinthatcitymadeamajorcontributiontothenationalsalvationmovementofthes,asubstantialcontributiontothecreationoftheCommunistNewFourthArmyafter,andamoremodestcontributiontotheCCP’sfinalvictoryinInbroadterms,asOdoricWoucontends,‘therevolutionwasacircularmovementthatshiftedfromthecitiestothecountrysideandthenbacktothecities’IntheformerSovietUnionandinMaoistChina,theofficialexplanationofthepoliticalprecocityoftheworkingclassrestedheavilyonanarrativeofproletarianizationPeasantscomingtothecitiesweredeemedtohavebeenproletarianizedbothobjectively,ieseparatedfromtheirmeansofproductionandmadefullydependentonwagedwork,andsubjectively,ietohaveundergoneatransformationofconsciousnessastheywentfrombeingaclass‘initself’toaclass‘foritself’Accordingtothelegitimatingideology,theacquisitionofclassFengChongyiandDavidSGGoodman(eds),NorthChinaatWar:TheSocialEcologyofRevolution,–(LanhamMD:RowmanandLittlefield,)OdoricYKWou,MobilizingtheMasses:BuildingRevolutioninHenan(Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,)LucienBianco,Jacqueriesetr�evolutiondanslaChinaduXXesi�ecle(Paris:�EditionsdeLaMartini�ere,),pWou,MobilizingtheMasses,pRevolutionandthePeopleinRussiaandChinaconsciousnesswasmadepossiblebecauseofthepoliticalleadershipprovidedbytheBolshevikpartyandtheCCPAccordingtoMaoZedong,theChineserevolutionduringits‘newdemocratic’stagetookthehistoricallyoriginalformof‘NewDemocracy’,abloccomprisingworkers,peasants,theintelligentsiaandsectionsofthepettybourgeoisie,yetitfelltotheproletariattoleadthebloconwardtowardssocialismIntheSovietUnion,wherethestateclaimedtohavebeenbornoutofaproletarianrevolution,thenarrativeofproletarianizationspawnedahugehistoriographythatsoughttodemonstratethatamajorityofworkersintsaristRussiahadbecomeproletarianizedSoviethistoriansinvestedgreatenergyinanalysingsuchissuesasworkers’ownershipoflandinthecountrysidetheextenttowhichtheyfarmedittheextenttowhichworkers’familiesresidedinthevillagetheextenttowhichworkerssentmoneybacktothevillagetheproportionofworkerswhowerechildrenofworkersandorwhohadbeenborninthecityWhilewesternhistorianswerebroadlyscepticaloftheclaimthatmostRussianworkershadcuttheirtieswiththelandandbecomefullydependentonwages,theyneverthelesstendedtocasttheirownresearcheswithinthispeasanttoproletarianparadigmThisbooktriestobypassthisnowratherstaledebate,byexploringhowtheexperienceofmovingfromvillagetothecitysetintrainamultiplicityoftransformationsinsocialidentitythatcannotbecapturedbysinglemindedfocusonclassidentityThebookexaminestransformationsinworkers’socialidentitiesinthebroadcontextofcapitalistmodernityratherthanofcapitalistindustrializationnarrowlyunderstoodItseesthedifferentdimensionsofmodernity–technologicalinnovation,industrialization,urbanization,demographicgrowth,theforgingofnationstates,andmasspoliticalmovements–asultimatelyembeddedinwhatMarshallBermancallsthe‘everexpanding,drasticallyfluctuating’capitalistworldmarketTowardstheendofthetwentiethcentury,itbecameincreasinglyclearthatdespiteitswesternorigins,capitalistmodernityhasdevelopedinMaoZedong,‘OnNewDemocracy’(),SelectedWorksofMaoTsetung,vol(Peking:ForeignLanguagesPress,),pp–Withinhistoriographyingeneraltherehasbeenarevivalofinterestin‘modernity’asaresultoftheshiftfromsocialtoculturalhistoryInthecaseofRussia,thishasledtoalesseningofemphasisonthetraditionalismofRussiansociety,onthecrisisofautocracy,therevolutionarymovementandthegrowthofsocialclassesandanewemphasisonthefragmentationofsocialgroupsandonthewaysinwhichidentitieswereconstructedwithindifferentculturalfieldsDavidHoffmanandYanniKotsonis(eds),RussianModernity:Politics,Knowledge,Practices(Basingstoke

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[英]S·史密斯著:中国与俄国的革命与人民:比较历史(剑桥大学 2008)

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