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首页 [英]彼得·伯克:语言的文化史:近代早期欧洲的语言和共同体(剑桥 2004)

[英]彼得·伯克:语言的文化史:近代早期欧洲的语言和共同体(剑桥 2004)

[英]彼得·伯克:语言的文化史:近代早期欧洲的语言和共同体(剑…

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简介:本文档为《[英]彼得·伯克:语言的文化史:近代早期欧洲的语言和共同体(剑桥 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankLANGUAGESANDCOMMUNITIESINEARLYMODERNEUROPEInthismagisterialnewstudy,PeterBurkeexploresthesocialandculturalhistoryofthelanguagesspokenorwritteninEuropebetweentheinventionofprintingandtheFrenchRevolution,arguingthat,fromalinguisticpointofview,toshouldberegardedasadistinctperiodOnemajorthemeofthebookistherelationbetweenlanguagesandcommunities(regions,churches,occupationsandgenders,aswellasnations)andtheplaceoflanguageasawayofidentifyingothers,aswellasasymbolofone’sownidentityAsecond,linkedthemeisthatofcompetition:betweenLatinandthevernaculars,betweendifferentvernaculars,dominantandsubordinate,andfinallybetweendifferentvarietiesofthesamevernacular,suchasstandardlanguagesanddialectsWrittenbyoneofEurope’sleadingculturalhistorians,thisbookreplacesthehistoryofthemanylanguagesofEuropeinalargevarietyofcontextspeterburkeisProfessorofCulturalHistoryandaFellowofEmmanuelCollege,UniversityofCambridgeHehaspublishedovertwentybooks,whichhavebeentranslatedintooverthirtylanguagesTheWilesLecturesgivenatQueen’sUniversity,BelfastlanguagesandcommunitiesinearlymoderneuropepeterburkeCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridge,UKFirstpublishedinprintformat©PeterBurkeInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackPARAMARIALU´CIAContentsAcknowledgementspageviiiChronology–xPrologue:communitiesanddomains‘Speak,thatImayseethee’:thediscoveryoflanguageinearlymodernEuropeLatin:alanguageinsearchofacommunityVernacularsincompetitionStandardizinglanguagesMixinglanguagesPurifyinglanguagesEpilogue:languagesandnationsAppendix:languagesinEurope–BibliographyIndexviiAcknowledgementsInthefirstplace,mythanksareduetotheWilesTrustandtheDepartmentofHistory,Queen’sUniversityBelfast,fortheinvitationtodelivertheWilesLecturesforandfortheirhospitalityduringmytimeinBelfastPeterJuppinparticularwentoutofhiswaytomakemefeelathomeduringthatmemorableweekTheWilesTrustgenerouslyallowtheirlecturerstoinviteeightguestswhoparticipateintheoftenlivelyseminarsthatfolloweachofthepublicsessionsIamgratefultomyeightinterlocutorsforpertinentquestions,observationsandreferences:toRobertEvans,FelipeFernandezArmesto,AngelGurr´ıaQuintana,SteveMilner,RobertMuchembled,JensRahbeckRasmussen,HermanRoodenburgandRobertStGeorgeIanKershawalsomadeamemorablecontributiontothediscussionsOtherfriendsandcolleagueshaveofferedmuchappreciatedassistanceMarkPhillipssuggestedthatIaddthechapteron‘discovery’XavierGil,Gyo¨rgyGo¨mo¨ri,RichardHelgerson,LiesbethvanHouts,SimonKeynes,BertholdKress,MetinKunt,DavidWallace,KitWoolardandGhil’adZuckermannallofferedcommentsorreferenceswhichIhavetriedtotakeintoaccountXavieralsogavemebooksaboutCatalanthatweredifficulttoobtaininEnglandandallowedmetoreadhisunpublishedessay:‘PoliticalandApoliticalUsesofLanguageinEarlyModernSpain’AlessandraMantovanisentmehereditionofPontanoonlanguageattheverymomentImostneededitHanneSanderssentmebooksaboutSka˚neintheseventeenthcentury,whileHaroldGustafssonallowedmetoreadanduseanunpublishedchapterofhisonthesamesubjectParticipantsinmyCambridgeseminarsonthesocialhistoryoflanguage,includingtwocolleaguesfromtheneighbouringFacultyofModernandMedievalLanguages,WendyBennettandVirginiaCox,offeredsomestimulatingideasIamalsogratefultotheaudienceswhodiscussedchaptersofthisbookpresentedaslecturesinBa˚stad,Budapest,Canterbury,Dublin,Heidelberg,viiiAcknowledgementsixHelsinki,London,Oxford,SantaBarbaraandVienna,aswellastomyhostsonallthesepleasantoccasionsLookingfurtherback,itisimpossiblenottomentionthelateandmuchlamentedRoyPorter,withwhomIcollaboratedonthreevolumesofessaysonlanguageandwhoshouldhavebeenaroundtocommentonthisoneinhisinimitablewayStillfurtherback,Ithinkofmyfather,asometimeprofessionaltranslator,whoseboastitwasthathehadbeenintroducedatapartyas‘themanwhohadforgottentwentylanguages’IsupposethatIhavebeentryingtoemulatehimallthistimewithoutrealizingitReturningtothepresentandthefuture,Idedicatethisbooktomywife,MariaLu´cia,withwhomIbegantheadventureofintroducingaforeignlanguageintoeverydaylifeChronology–firstprintedbookinGermanfirstprintedbookinCzechfirstprintedbookinItalianfirstprintedbookinEnglishfirstprintedbookinCatalancfirstprintedbookinFrenchfirstprintedbookinFlemishfirstprintedbookinCroatfirstprintedbookinChurchSlavoniccfirstprintedbookinSpanishfirstprintedbookinPortugueseNebrija,Grama´ticacastellana(thefirstprintedgrammarofavernacular)firstprintedbookinDanishfirstprintedbookinSwedishfirstprintedbookinBretonfirstprintedbookinProvenc¸alCastellesi,DesermonelatinofirstprintedbookinPolish–Luther’sBibleBembo,ProsedellavulgarlinguafirstprintedbookinLatvianfirstprintedbookinpostclassicalGreekfirstprintedbookinHungarianAmaseo,DelatinaelinguaeusuretinendoDante,Devulgarieloquentia,publishedTrissino,PoeticaTory,ChampfleuryPalsgrave,LesclaircissementdelalanguefrancoyseWelshforbiddenincourtxChronologyxiOpta´t,GrammatikacˇeskaIckelsamer,TeutscheGrammaticafirstprintedbookinEstonianfirstprintedbookinYiddishOliveira,Grammaticadelinguagemportuguesa‘ActoftheEnglishOrder,HabitandLanguage’inIrelandEdictofVillersCottereˆtsPolishSejmruledthatlawsandedictsshouldbeinPolishSylvester,GrammaticaHungarolatinaBarros,LouvordenossalinguagemDolet,Laponctuationdelalanguefranc¸aisefirstprintedbookinIcelandicSwedishBibleSperoni,DialogodellalinguafirstprintedbookinRomanianfirstprintedbookinBasqueTolomei,IlCesanofirstprintedbookinWelshfirstprintedbookinLithuanianDuBellay,Deffenseetillustrationdelalanguefranc¸oyseLMeigret,Trette´delagrammairefranc¸oezeDanishBiblefirstprintedbookinSloveneWerve,TresoorderDuitscheTalePerion,DelinguaegallicaeoriginefirstprintedbookinAlbanianfirstprintedbookinRomanshREstienne,Grammairefranc¸aisFrenchreplacedLatinincourtsofSavoyPolishBible(Protestant)firstprintedbookinGasconfirstprintedbookinBulgarianfirstprintedbookinScottishGaelicPragmaticofPhilipIIagainstuseofArabicfirstprintedbookinIrishStatorius,PolonicaegrammaticesinstitutioVarchi,ErcolanoViziana,Alabanc¸asdelaslenguasCastellanayValencianaEstienne,DeuxdialoguesEstienne,Precellencedelalanguefranc¸aisexiiChronology–KraliceBibleCzechreaffirmedasthelanguageofcourtsinBohemiaFauchet,Originedelalanguefranc¸aiseStevin,WeerdigheytderduytschetaelAccademiadellaCruscafoundedBohoric´,ArcticaeHorulae(Slovenegrammar)Spieghel,NederduitscheLetterkunstMorales,DiscursosobrelalenguacastellanaGenevaBibleWelshBibleRybinski,DelinguapolonicapraestantiaHungarianBibleRhys,WelshgrammarZizanij,GramatikaslovenskaCittadini,FormazionedellalinguatoscanaAldrete,DelorigenyprincipiodelalenguacastellanaKasˇic´,InstitutioneslinguaeillyricaeBiffi,PrissiandaMilanNunesdeLea˜o,Origemdalı´nguaportuguesaEstatesofBohemiadeclaredCzechtobetheofficiallanguageAuthorizedVersion–VocabolariodellaCruscaBeni,AnticruscaCarew,OntheExcellencyoftheEnglishTongueFruchtbringendeGesellschaftfoundedSmotrickii,GrammatikislavenskijasyntagmafirstprintedbookinRussianBanchieri,DiscorsodellalinguaBolognesefoundationofAcade´mieFranc¸aiseDutchStates’BibleStEvremond,Come´diedesacade´mistessermonsinCastillianprohibitedinCatalonia(afterrevolt)governorgeneral’sedictthatslavescouldonlywearhatsandcapsiftheycouldspeakDutchFinnishBibleRist,RettungderedlenTeutschenStiernhielm,GamblasveaRehehusen,ManuductioadlinguamlettonicamPontoppidan,GrammaticadanicaChronologyxiiiVaugelas,Remarquessurlalanguefranc¸aisefirstprintedbookinSamiLinguafinnicainstitutioJonas,GrammaticaislandicaDupleix,Liberte´delalanguefranc¸aiseKlein,GrammaticaLituanicaMaunoir,BretongrammarGo¨sekenius,ManuductioadlinguamOesthonicam‘PartenioTosco’,EccellenzadellalinguanapoletanaSchottel,LobderTeutschenHaubtspracheBalbı´n,Dissertatioapologeticaprolinguaslavonicapraecipuebohemica(written)Ray,CollectionofEnglishWordsRudbeckbeganlecturinginSwedishKarlXIorderedtheformerDanishprovincestouseSwedishFrenchusedincourtinFlandersFrenchtheadministrativelanguageofAlsaceThomasiusannouncedlecturesinGermanCallie`res,Motsa`lamodeDictionnairedel’Acade´mieFranc¸aiseSperling,DedanicaelinguaeantiquagloriaPolishthesoleadministrativelanguageoftheCommonwealthLudolf,GrammaticarussicafirstprintedbookinCornishfirstprintedbookinManxreformofRussianalphabetRealAcademiaEspan˜olafoundedEgenolff,HistoriederTeutschenSprache–SpanishAcademy,DiccionariodelalenguacastellanafirstprintedbookinTurkishchairinItalianeloquencefoundedatTurinTrediakovsky,speechinpraiseofRussianRichey,IdioticonhamburgenseRibinyi,DeculturalinguaehungaricaeJohnson,ADictionaryoftheEnglishLanguageLomonosov,RussianGrammarTrediakovsky,Opervenstveslovenskagoyazykapredteutonicheskim(written)xivChronologyPortuguesemadeofficiallanguageinBrazilRussiandeclaredthelanguageofinstructionatMoscowUniversityCharlesIIIrequiredCastilianinadministrationandeducationGaliani,DeldialettonapoletanoRussianAcademyfoundedGermanmadeofficiallanguageinHabsburgEmpireRivarol,Discourssurl’universalite´delalanguefranc¸aiseSwedishAcademyfoundedLinguarumtotiusorbisvocabularia–RussianAcademy’sRussianDictionaryJosephIIrevokeddecreeofDobrovsky´,Geschichtederbo¨hmischenspracheChairofCzechfoundedatPragueUniversityJVargasyPonce,Declamacio´ncontralosabusosintroducidosenelcastellanoGregoire,RapportPrologue:communitiesanddomainsTheprincipalaimofthisbookistoreflectonthechangingrelationsbetweenlanguageandcommunity,or,moreexactly,betweenlanguagesandcommunitiesintheplural,inEuropeandotherareasinwhichEuropeanlanguageswerespoken,fromtheinventionofprintingtotheFrenchRevolutionThisisnotageneralsurveyofthehistoryofthelanguagesofEuropeintheearlymodernperiodsomuchasaseriesoflinkedessays(originallylectures)onafewmajorstrandsinthathistoryToday,languageisatopicalsubjectIndeed,theyearwasofficiallydeclaredthe‘EuropeanYearofLanguage’Thereshouldbelittleneedtoremindanyoneofthelinksbetweenlanguageandpolitics,or,better,theentanglementoflanguagewithpoliticsatatimewhenphrasessuchas‘languagerights’and‘identitypolitics’haverecentlyenteredoureverydayspeechAtatimeofinvolvement,thisbookmakesanattemptatdetachmentordistanciation,reculerpourmieuxsauterWhyshouldaculturalhistorianwriteaboutlanguageWhynotleavethetopictothelinguistsForonething,becauselanguageisalwaysasensitiveindicator–thoughnotasimplereflection–ofculturalchangeInthisrespect,thehistoryoflinguisticborrowings(below,ppff)issuggestiveWhatEnglishborrowedfromItalianinthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturies,especiallyartistictermssuchasaria,chiaroscuro,frescoandpiazza,tellsussomethingaboutbothcultures,aboutItalianleadershipintheartsandaboutEnglishinterestincatchingupInsimilarfashion,eighteenthcenturyFrenchborrowingsfromEnglish,notablypoliticaltermssuchas‘budget’,‘club’,‘jury’,‘pamphlet’and‘vote’,pointtodifferencesbetweenthetwopoliticalculturesandalsotoamovementofAnglophiliainFranceThisbookmightbedescribedasanessayinthe‘culturalhistoryoflanguage’,atatimewhenallhistoryseemstobebecomingculturalhistorySomelinguistsspeakof‘languageculture’(especiallyinGerman,LanguagesandCommunitiesinEarlyModernEuropeSprachkultur),torefertoacomplexorsystemofattitudestolanguageandimagesoflanguagestobefoundinagivenplaceandtimethesocialhistoryoflanguageThequestionasociologistorasocialhistorianwantstoaskatthispointis,ofcourse,whosecultureAsimilarpointmaybemadeaboutstudiesoflanguageconsciousness,SprachbewusstseinWhoseconsciousnessTosumupthelasttwohundredyearsoflanguagestudiesinasimpleformula,thefamoushistoricalturnofthenineteenthcenturyhasbeenfollowedbythestructuralandsocialturnsofthemidtwentiethcentury,andmorerecentlybythesociohistoricalturnofthesandsNineteenthcenturyhistorianstendedtofocusonnationalunityandtowriteaboutthe‘evolution’orthe‘growth’ofagivenlanguageasifitwereaplantoranimal,withoutconcerningthemselvesovermuchwithsocialvariationBycontrast,theadvancesinthesocialanalysisoflanguagemadeinthesandswereaccompaniedbyaturningawayfromhistoryIndividualsociolinguistsorsociologistsoflanguage,includingRobertHall,DellHymesandJoshuaFishman,retainedaninterestinhistoryFishman,forinstance,wastrainedasahistorianandhascontinuedtodrawonhistoricalmaterialPerhapsthebestexampletodateofaseriousattempttocombinealinguistic,asocialandahistoricalanalysisdatesfromthistime,theNeapolitanTullioDeMauro’sLinguisticHistoryofUnitedItalyAllthesame,thethrustofthesociolinguisticapproachwasawayfromhistory,atrendthatwasdueinparttotheinfluenceofstructuralismandinparttotheethnographicemphasisonfieldworkinsmallcommunitiesMorerecently,areturntohistoryhasbecomevisible,notablyinstudiesofpidgins,creolesandmixedlanguages(p)Moregenerally,onemightevenspeakoftheemergence,orinvention,ofanewfield,whichlinguistshavevariouslychristened‘sociohistoricallinguistics’,‘historicalsociolinguistics’–somethingofamouthful–or,moresimply,‘historicalRichardWBailey,ImagesofEnglish:aCulturalHistoryoftheLanguage(AnnArbor,)HaraldWeinrich,WegederSprachkultur(Stuttgart,)ErichStrassner,DeutscheSprachkultur(Tu¨bingen,)ThetermgoesbacktothelinguistsofthePragueCircleintheearlysJoshuaAFishman,LanguageinSocioculturalChange(NewYork,),ppxi–xiiTullioDeMauro,Storialinguisticadell’Italiaunita(:reviseded,Rome,)MichaelRichter,‘TowardsaMethodologyofHistoricalSociolinguistics’(:reprRichter,StudiesinMedievalLanguageandCulture,Dublin,),pp–PeterBakkerandMaartenMous(eds),MixedLanguages(Amsterdam,)Prologue:communitiesanddomainspragmatics’(aJournalofHistoricalPragmaticswasfoundedintheyear)Myownpreference,likethatofsomeotherhistoriansandlinguists,isforthe‘socialhistoryoflanguage’Thisphrasehastheadvantageofbringingthesocialfunctionsoflanguageintotheopen,leadingontoadiscussionoftheplaceoflanguageinexpressingorconstructingavarietyofsocialrelationships–dominanceandsubordination,friendshipandfraternity,toleranceandprejudice,themaintenanceandthesubversionofasocialorder,andsoonWhateveronecallsthisfield,thereislittledoubtthatitisgrowingfastThattheRegiusProfessorofModernHistoryattheUniversityofOxfordshouldhavedevotedhisinaugurallecturetothesubject,in,isanindicatorofchangeResearchgroupsinthefieldincludeoneattheUniversityCollegeofAberystwythstudyingthesocialhistoryofWelsh,anotherattheUniversityofHelsinkiworkingon‘SociolinguisticsandLanguageHistory’,athirdattheFreeUniversityofBerlinconcernedwiththe‘HistoricalAnthropologyofLanguage’,andafourthattheUniversityofLundfocusedonthe‘HistoryoftheModernSwedishLanguageintheLightofSocialChange’WorkonthesocialhistoryoflanguageisalsogoingonattheVrijeUniversiteitinBrussels,attheMeertensInstituteinAmsterdam,attheUniversityofCampinasinBrazil,anddoubtlessinothercountriesaswellThe‘socialhistoryoflanguage’maybearelativelynewprogrammebut,asisusuallythecase,theprogrammedoesnotsomuchinitiatethepracticeasfollowitAnimportantcontributionwasmadebyaninternationalcommunityoflinguistsinclassicstudiespublishedinthefirsthalfofthetwentiethcentury,includingFerdinandBrunotonFrench,ChristineMohrmannandJosefSchrijnenontheLatinoftheearlyChurch,PeterSkautruponDanish,VladimirVinogradovonRussian,andaFrenchscholarwhodiedyoung,AntoineMartel,ontheconflictoflanguagesinRutheniainthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesSuzanneRomaine,SociohistoricalLinguistics(Cambridge,)KlausJMattheier,‘Nationalsprachentwicklung,SprachenstandardisierungundhistorischeSoziolinguistik’,Sociolinguistica(),pp–ErnstHJahr(ed),LanguageChange:AdvancesinHistoricalSociolinguistics(Berlin,)DavidLeith,ASocialHistoryofEnglish(:seconded,London,)JoeyLDillard,TowardaSocialHis

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[英]彼得·伯克:语言的文化史:近代早期欧洲的语言和共同体(剑桥 2004)

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