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首页 [英]劳伦斯·高曼:维多利亚时代英国的科学、改革与政治:社会科学研究会,1857—1886(剑桥…

[英]劳伦斯·高曼:维多利亚时代英国的科学、改革与政治:社会科学研究会,1857—1886(剑桥 2

[英]劳伦斯·高曼:维多利亚时代英国的科学、改革与政治:社会科…

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2008-10-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]劳伦斯·高曼:维多利亚时代英国的科学、改革与政治:社会科学研究会,1857—1886(剑桥 2pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankSCIENCE,REFORM,ANDPOLITICSINVICTORIANBRITAINTheSocialScienceAssociation–Science,Reform,andPoliticsisastudyoftherelationshipbetweensocialthought,socialpolicyandpoliticsinVictorianBritainGoldmanfocusesonaremarkableorganisation,theNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScience,knownastheSocialScienceAssociationForthreedecadesthisservedasaforumforthediscussionofkeyVictoriansocialquestionsandasaninfluentialadvisertogovernments,anditshistorydiscloseshowsocialpolicywasmadeintheseyearsItsparticipantsincludedmanynotablefigures,amongthempoliticians(forexample,GladstoneandRussell),intellectuals(MillandRuskin),publicadministrators(ChadwickandKayShuttleworth),reformers(BroughamandShaftesbury)andthepioneeringfeministsoftheage(BarbaraBodichonandBessieRaynerParkes)TheAssociationhadinfluenceoverpolicyandlegislationonmattersasdiverseaspublichealth,crimeandpunishment,secondaryeducation,classandindustrialrelations,andwomen’slegalandsocialemancipationTheSSAhasanimportantplaceinthehistoryofsocialthoughtandsociology,showingthecomplexrootsofthesedisciplinesinthenonacademicmilieuofnineteenthcenturyreformItsinfluenceintheUnitedStatesandEuropeallowsforacomparativeapproachtopoliticalandintellectualdevelopmentinthisperiodLAWRENCEGOLDMANisLecturerinModernHistoryattheUniversityofOxfordandaFellowofStPeter’sCollegeHewasawardedtheSaraNortonPrize(UniversityofCambridge)forresearchinAmericanHistoryin,andtheThirlwallPrizeandMedalforhistoricaldissertation(UniversityofCambridge)inHeistheauthorofDonsandWorkers:OxfordandAdultEducationsinceSCIENCE,REFORM,ANDPOLITICSINVICTORIANBRITAINTheSocialScienceAssociation–LAWRENCEGOLDMANThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAWilliamstownRoad,PortMelbourne,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlarcón,Madrid,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricahttp:wwwcambridgeorgFirstpublishedinprintedformatISBNXhardbackISBNeBookCambridgeUniversityPress(AdobeReader)©ToMadeleineContentsListofillustrationspageixAcknowledgementsxNoteoncitationsinthetextxiiiListofabbreviationsxivIntroduction:thecontextsoftheSocialScienceAssociationPARTI:POLITICSTheoriginsoftheSocialScienceAssociation:legalreform,thereformationofjuveniles,andthepropertyofmarriedwomenin‘theAgeofEquipoise’TheSocialScienceAssociationandthestructureofmidVictorianpoliticsOrganisingtheSocialScienceAssociationPARTII:REFORMLiberalismdividedandfeminismdivided:womenandtheSocialScienceAssociationTransportation,reformation,andconvictdiscipline:theSocialScienceAssociationandVictorianpenalpolicy–Victoriansociomedicalliberalism:theSocialScienceAssociationandstatemedicineviiviiiContentsLabourandcapital:theSocialScienceAssociation,tradeunionism,andindustrialharmonyTheSocialScienceAssociationandmiddleclasseducation:secondaryschooling,endowments,andprofessionalisationinmidVictorianBritainTheSocialScienceAssociationandthemakingofsocialpolicy:iTheSocialScienceAssociationandthemidVictorianstateiiThemakingofmidVictoriansocialpolicy:Bentham,bureaucrats,andideasiiiExpertiseanddemocracy:theSocialScienceAssociationandmidVictorianpoliticalthoughtPARTIII:SCIENCESocialscienceindomesticcontext:popularscience,sociology,anda‘scienceofreform’SocialscienceincomparativeinternationalcontextPARTIV:DECLINEThedeclineoftheSocialScienceAssociation:Liberaldivision,specialisation,andtheendofEquipoiseConclusion:TheSocialScienceAssociationandsocialknowledgeAppendixI:ThefoundersoftheSocialScienceAssociation,JulyAppendixII:SocialScienceAssociationCongresses,–AppendixIII:PresidentsoftheSocialScienceCongresses,–AppendixIV:Departmentalpresidents,–SelectbibliographyIndexIllustrations‘LordBroughamdeliveringtheopeningaddressintheFreeChurchAssemblyHall’(Edinburgh,)(IllustratedLondonNews,Oct,vol,)pagexvi‘GreatgatheringofworkingmenintheCircus–LordBrougham,Chairman,addressingthemeeting’(Edinburgh,)(IllustratedLondonNews,Oct,vol,)‘Soire´eoftheSocialScienceAssociationatWestminsterHall’(London,)(IllustratedLondonNews,June,vol,)‘ReceptionroomoftheSocialScienceCongressintheGuildhall,York’()(IllustratedLondonNews,Oct,vol,)‘TheSocialScienceCongressatYork:conversazioneintheAssemblyRooms,BlakeStreet’()(IllustratedLondonNews,Oct,vol,)‘TotheTempleofFame’(Punch,Oct,)‘TheOldRealReformer’(Punch,Oct,)‘LordBroughamopeningtheSocialScienceCongressatSheffield’()(IllustratedLondonNews,Oct,vol,)ixAcknowledgementsIacknowledgethegraciouspermissionofHerMajestyTheQueentocitelettersfromtheRoyalArchivesCitationsandquotationsfromtheCastleHowardArchiveshavebeenincludedbykindpermissionoftheHonSimonHowardfromLordShaftesbury’sjournalsbypermissionofLordBrabourneandtheTrusteesoftheBroadlandsArchivesfromtheHamptonpapers(SirJohnPakington)bypermissionofLordHamptonfromthepapersofSirJamesKayShuttleworthbypermissionofLordShuttleworthfromtheDaviesandParkesPapersbypermissionoftheMistressandFellowsofGirtonCollege,CambridgefromtheHoughtonandWhewellpapersbypermissionoftheMasterandFellowsofTrinityCollege,CambridgefromthepapersofThomasHarebypermissionofthePresidentandFellowsofStJohn’sCollege,OxfordfromthepapersofCarolineDallbypermissionoftheMassachusettsHistoricalSocietyfromthemanuscriptautobiographyofEdwardJarvisbypermissionoftheHoughtonLibrary,HarvardUniversityandfromJarvis’lettersbypermissionoftheFrancisACountwayLibraryofMedicine,Boston,andtheConcordFreePublicLibrary,Concord,MassachusettsChaptersandusematerialfrommyarticle‘APeculiarityoftheEnglishTheSocialScienceAssociationandtheAbsenceofSociologyinNineteenthCenturyBritain’,PastandPresent,(February),–,andisreprintedwithkindpermissionChapterincludesmaterialfrommyarticle‘TheSocialScienceAssociation,–:AContextforMidVictorianLiberalism’,whichappearedintheEnglishHistoricalReview,,(January),–ResearchforthisbookbeganinCambridgeandwasfinishedinOxfordIwouldliketothanktheMasterandFellowsofTrinityCollege,Cambridgeforelectingmetoajuniorresearchfellowshipintheearlystagesofwork,andtheMasterandFellowsofStPeter’sCollege,OxfordforprovidingsupportandencouragementinthelaterstagesAsaxAcknowledgementsxiVisitingProfessorintheDepartmentofHistoryattheUniversityofSouthCarolina,Columbia,IwasabletocompleteresearchontheAmericanSocialScienceAssociationandIvaluethehospitalityprovidedbycolleaguesthereIamparticularlygratefultomyfellowhistoriansatStPeter’s,pastandpresent:HenryMayrHarting,HenriettaLeyser,andMarkWhittowForhelpatdifferentstagesIwouldliketoacknowledgetheassistanceofDerekBeales,RichardBellamy,EugenioBiagini,JohnBurrow,thelateHesterBurton,PeterClarke,StefanCollini,JohnDavis,AnnDingsdale,DavidEastwood,MichaelFreeden,PeterGhosh,EwenGreen,ATHarrison,BrianHarrison,AngusHawkins,GeoffreyHawthorn,PamHirsch,RogerHood,MichaelIgnatieff,AlonKadish,MichaelLobban,RossMcKibbin,JonParry,thelateHenryPelling,JackPole,RoyPorter,SimonSzreter,PhilipWaller,GavinWilliams,DonaldWinch,andmembersoftheformerCambridgeSocialHistorySeminarincludingJenniferDavis,JoannaInnes,DeborahThomandStevenTollidayForhelpwiththeAmericanthemesinthisbookIamgratefultoMaryFurner,GeraldNGrob,ThomasHaskell,MichaelLacey,DanRodgers,DorothyRoss,DavidShribman,andAmyStanley,thoughIamconsciousthatnotallmembersofthisgroupwillagreewithmyconclusionsForadvice,guidance,andinterestinthisprojectspecialthanksareduetomysupervisor,VicGatrell,andtoDavidFeldman,BoydHilton,GarethStedmanJones,JoseHarris,JanetHowarth,andthelateColinMatthewMarkCurthoysreadacompletedraftofthetextandhasmadevaluablecommentsandsuggestionsformorethanadecadeJeanFieldeditedthetypescriptwiththegreatestcareandsavedmefrommanyinfelicitiesandinconsistenciesIthankRichardFisheratCambridgeUniversityPressforhisconstantpatienceandoccasionalfirmnessThecontributionsoftwopeoplewhotookaspecialinterestinthisworkbutdidnotlivetoseeitpublishedshouldalsoberecognisedProfessorAdrianHastingsmadeavailabletomethepapersofhisgrandfather,GeorgeWoodyattHastings,thefounderandanimatingspiritoftheSocialScienceAssociationOliverRossMcGregor,LordMcGregorofDurris,allowedmetouseacopyofthemanuscriptbibliographyhecompiledofallthepapersandcontributionstotheSSAfromthestothesItistobehopedthatthiswillfindapublisherinduecourseandsomakemoreaccessibletheremarkablesourcesforthesocialhistoryofVictorianBritainthattheAssociationleftbehindLibrariansandarchivistsinmanydifferentinstitutionsshowedgreatcourtesyandxiiAcknowledgementsingenuityindealingwithmyrequestsbutIwouldliketoacknowledgethehelpofstaffintheWestRoomoftheCambridgeUniversityLibraryandtheUpperReadingRoomoftheBodleianLibraryinparticularFinally,mydeepestthanksgotomywife,Madeleine,whocameintomylifeataboutthesametimeastheSocialScienceAssociationandwhohastoleratedthisstrangeme´nagea`troisformanyyearsHersupporthasbeenunfailingThisbookisdedicatedtoherAnoteoncitationsinthetextofpaperspublishedintheTransactionsandSessionalProceedingsoftheSocialScienceAssociationForreasonsofspaceithasbeennecessarytocurtailfullreferencingofquotationsandcitationsfromthepublicationsoftheSocialScienceAssociationInmostcasesreferenceistothevolumeandpageonlytheauthorandtitleofapaperarenotgiven(thoughtheidentityofthespeakerwritershouldbeclearfromthetext)Occasionally,wherefulldetailsmaybehelpfultothereader,orthepaperisofspecialimportance,acompletecitationhasbeenprovidedinthefootnotesPapersfromthesesourceshavenotbeenincludedinthebibliographyasseparateitemsxiiiAbbreviationsInstitutionsARAAdministrativeReformAssociationASSAAmericanSocialScienceAssociationBAASBritishAssociationfortheAdvancementofScienceBLBritishLibraryBMABritishMedicalAssociationISSAAssociationInternationalepourleProgre`sdesSciencesSocialesLASLawAmendmentSocietyNAPSSNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScienceNRUNationalReformatoryUnionSICSchoolsInquiryorTauntonCommissionSSASocialScienceAssociationSourcesBMSSBroughamPapers,UniversityCollege,LondonPublicationsBMJBritishMedicalJournalDNBDictionaryofNationalBiographyJSSLJournaloftheStatisticalSocietyofLondonJSSJournalofSocialScience(NewYork)LAJLawAmendmentJournal(–)PPParliamentaryPapersSP(year)SessionalProceedingsoftheNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialSciencexivListofabbreviationsxvT(year)TransactionsoftheNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScience(yearofcongress)VolumeswerepublishedinLondonintheyearfollowingeachannualcongressTLASTransactionsoftheLawAmendmentSociety(–)TSSTrades’SocietiesandStrikesReportoftheCommitteeonTrades’Societies,AppointedbytheNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScience(London,)‘LordBroughamdeliveringtheopeningaddressintheFreeChurchAssemblyHall’(Edinburgh,)INTRODUCTIONThecontextsoftheSocialScienceAssociationITheNationalAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScience,knowntocontemporariesastheSocialScienceAssociation,wasfoundedinLondononJulyandhelditsinauguralcongressinBirminghamsomeweekslaterinearlyOctoberThereafter,itsannualmeetingscapturednationalattentionforagenerationHeldinallthemajorcitiesofBritainandattendedbythousands,theywereafocusforsocialandinstitutionalreforminmidVictorianBritainTheSocialScienceAssociationwasanopenforumforthediscussionofallaspectsofsocialpolicyandwasvariouslyreferredtoasan‘outdoorparliament’,a‘supplementaryparliament’,an‘unofficialparliament’,an‘amateurparliament’,anda‘parliamentoutofsession’,staffed,accordingtoTheSpectatorbythe‘volunteerlegislatorsofGreatBritain’InthewordsofLordBrougham,itsfirstpresident,itwas‘toaidlegislationbypreparingmeasures,byexplainingthem,byrecommendingthemtothecommunity,or,itmaybe,bystimulatingthelegislaturetoadoptthem’Afterparticipatinginitsfirsttwocongresses,LordJohnRussell,themidVictorianprimeminister,describeditas‘ayearlyCouncilfornationalandlocalgovernmenttogoby’AccordingtoJohnStuartMill,‘itreallybringstogetherpersonsofallopinionsconsistentwiththeprofessionofadesireforsocialimprovement’TheTimessawitas‘acentreforthecommunicationandinterchangeofideasoncurrenttopicsofpoliticalandsocialTheTimes,April,DailyNews,Sept,Oct,WesternDailyPress(Bristol),Oct,TheTimes,Oct,TheSpectator,June,‘InauguralAddress’,T,RusselltoGWHastings,Oct,GWHastingspapersinthepossessionofthelateProfessorAdrianHastings,LeedsJSMilltoTBPotter,MarchinTheLaterLettersofJohnStuartMill–,edFEMinekaandDNLindley(Toronto,),inCollectedWorksofJohnStuartMill(edJMRobson)(volsToronto,–),XV,Introductioninterest’AccordingtotheDailyTelegraphitsfunctionwas‘totakeuptherawmaterialsofsociallegislation,and,bythehelpofstatistics,statementsanddiscussions,toreducethe“hardfacts”totheconditionofmanageablematter’Thusithadlinkeditself‘moreandmorewiththecurrentbusinessofthestate’andbecome‘apowerintheImperialSystem’Oneprovincialnewspaperwroteofit‘gatheringtogethertheexperienceofthenation’Thepioneerfeminist,BessieRaynerParkes,describeditasa‘conventionofthemostweightymenandwomeninEngland’ToEdwinChadwick,speakingfortheemergentclassofprofessionalmenwithexpertsocialknowledgeonwhomtheAssociationcametodependandtorepresent,theSSAservedtobring‘intopersonalcommunicationwitheachotherpersonswhogivetheirattentiontospecialsubjectsassanitarians,educationists,lawreformersandpoliticaleconomists’TheSocialScienceAssociationdivideditsdeliberationsintofive‘departments’onlegalreform,penalpolicy,education,publichealth,and‘socialeconomy’(concernedwithindustrial,commercial,andwelfarequestions)andmaintainedacentralorganisationinLondontocoordinatethelobbyingofparliamentandtheadministrationofthedayItcommandedaninfluentialmembership:intheprocessofitsformationitsthreepatronswereRussell,twiceprimeministerStanley,whocouldhaveinheritedtheleadershipoftheConservativePartyfromhisfather,thefourteenthearlofDerby,andsodisplacedDisraeli,hadhesoughtforthehighestoffice,andwhowaslatertoserveinbothConservativeandLiberalcabinetsandBrougham,thegreatchampionfromthepastofantislavery,populareducation,andparliamentaryreformTheSSA’sinauguralcouncilincludedeighteenpeerstwentyeightMPsleadingrepresentativesfromthatgiftedgroupofmidcenturypublicadministratorsincludingChadwick,WilliamFarr,JohnSimon,andJamesKayShuttleworthand,fromamongtheintellectuals,Mill,Ruskin,Kingsley,andMauriceItgatheredtogetherleadingfiguresfromthepolitical,administrative,andprofessionalclassesofmidVictorianBritainandbroughtthemintocommunicationwiththepublicduringaperiodinwhichpoliticswerebeingpopularisedandbeginningtoencompasssocialTheTimes,Sept,DailyTelegraph,Oct,GlasgowDailyHerald,Oct,BessieParkestoBarbaraBodichon,Sept,BessieRaynerParkespapers,GirtonCollege,Cambridge,BRPVConstitution,AddressandListofMembersoftheAmericanAssociationforthePromotionofSocialScience(Boston,),–T,xv–xviThecontextsoftheSocialScienceAssociationquestionsTheSocialScienceAssociationwasuniquelyrepresentativeofthesocialconcernsofmidVictorianBritainduringthistransition,mediatingbetweenpoliticiansandanexpandingpoliticalnationItsrepresentationssecuredtheTauntonCommissionof–fromwhichfollowedtheEndowedSchoolsActinandthereformofsecondaryeducationItpromptedtheappointmentoftheRoyalSanitaryCommissionof–whichledtoreformsinpublichealthintheearlys,culminatingintheconsolidatingPublicHealthActofItwasprincipallyresponsiblefortheMarriedWomen’sPropertyActofandforthewiderpromotionoffeministreformsAftermanyyearspublicising‘reformatoryprinciples’inthetreatmentofcriminals,theSSAdictatedthetermsoftheHabitualCriminalsActinandthePreventionofCrimesActinItsextensiveresearchintotradeunionism,publishedinasTrades’SocietiesandStrikesassistedpublicacceptanceandlegalrecognitionoforganisedlabourinthesTherewashardlyasocialquestionexcludedfromtheSSA’sdebates,andithadaparttoplay,whethergreaterorlesser,intheresolutionofmanyofthem–thoughtoassessitintermsofitslegislativesuccessesalonedoesadisservicetoanorganisationwithbroadersocialandculturalinfluenceaswellIITheextentoftheAssociation’sinterests,itsheterogeneouscomposition,andthedifficultyofdiscoveringtheextentofitsinfluencemayhavedeterredhistoriansfromtryingtounderstanditasawholeandinthecontextofitsageGenerallyithasbeendiscussedinrelationtodiscreteaspectsofmidVictoriansocialdevelopment,amongthemthelawsgoverningwomeninmarriage,secondaryeducation,publichealth,penalpolicy,legalandcommercialreform,thetreatmentofpovertyForanearlysummaryseeBria

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