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首页 [英]文迪·帕金斯:塑造身体政治:衣着、性别与公民身份(柏格 2003)

[英]文迪·帕金斯:塑造身体政治:衣着、性别与公民身份(柏格 2003)

[英]文迪·帕金斯:塑造身体政治:衣着、性别与公民身份(柏格 …

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2008-10-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]文迪·帕金斯:塑造身体政治:衣着、性别与公民身份(柏格 2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FashioningtheBodyPoliticFashioningtheBodyPoliticDress,Gender,CitizenshipEditedbyWendyParkinsOxford•NewYorkFirstpublishedinbyBergEditorialoffices:CowleyRoad,Oxford,OXJJ,UKBroadway,ThirdFloor,NewYork,NY–,USA©WendyParkinsAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanymeanswithoutthewrittenpermissionofBergBergisanimprintofOxfordInternationalPublishersLtdLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN(Cloth)ISBN(Paper)TypesetbyJSTypesetting,Wellingborough,NorthantsPrintedintheUnitedKingdombyBiddlesLtd,GuildfordandKing’sLynn–v–ContentsAcknowledgementsviiNotesonContributorsixListofIllustrationsxiIntroduction:(Ad)dressingCitizensWendyParkinsTheFormationandCurrencyofaVestimentaryStereotype:TheSansculotteinRevolutionaryFranceRichardWrigleySubjectsintoCitizens:ThePoliticsofClothinginImperialRussiaChristineRuaneTailoringtheNation:FashionWritinginNineteenthCenturyArgentinaReginaARoot‘TheEpidemicofPurple,WhiteandGreen’:FashionandtheSuffragetteMovementinBritain–WendyParkinsScouts,Guides,andtheFashioningofEmpire,–TammyMProctorPeekingUndertheBlackShirt:ItalianFascism’sDisembodiedBodiesSimonettaFalascaZamponi–vi–ContentsCamisasNuevas:StyleandUniformityintheFalangeEspañola–MaryVincentBlankets:TheVisiblePoliticsofIndigenousClothinginAustraliaMargaretMaynardChildren’sDay:TheFashionablePerformanceofModernCitizenshipinChinaStephanieHemelrykDonaldAfterthought:RedressingtheBalanceinHistoriographyRogerGriffinBibliographyIndexAcknowledgementsIamverygratefultoallmycontributorsfortheircommitmentandenthusiasmforthisprojectThequalityoftheirworkandtheirfriendlyemailshaveencouragedandsustainedmyworkaseditorIwouldalsoliketothankeveryoneatBergfortheirassistancethroughoutthisprojectMaikeBohn(formerlyofBerg)wasinvaluableingettingthisvolumeoffthegroundandKathrynEarlehasbeentremendouslyhelpfulandsupportivefromstarttofinishFinally,IwanttoacknowledgetheloveandsupportofmyfamilyGeoff(asever)hasbeenagreatsourceofencouragementandinspirationMadeleinehasbeenverypatientwhilemumfinishedherbookandGabriel(whoappearedhalfwaythroughthisproject!)wasawonderfulsleeper–vii–NotesonContributorsSimonettaFalascaZamponiisAssociateProfessorofSociologyattheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbaraHerworkfocusesontherelationshipbetweenpoliticsandcultureHerpublicationsincludeFascistSpectacle:TheAestheticsofPowerinMussolini’sItaly()RogerGriffinisProfessorofModernHistoryatOxfordBrookesUniversity,wherehespecializesinthetheoryandevolutionofgenericfascismSincethepublicationofTheNatureofFascism(Pinter,London,)hehascontinuedtohaveaimpactonfasciststudieswithdocumentaryreaders,encyclopediaandperiodicalarticles,andchapterswhichexploretheimplicationsforspecificaspectsoffascismofthecentralityofthemythofnationalrebirthHislatestprojectisaninvestigationoftherelationshipbetweenmodernityandfascistprojectsfortherenewalofWesterncivilizationStephanieHemelrykDonaldisSeniorLecturerinMediaandCommunicationsattheUniversityofMelbourneSheistheauthorofPublicSecrets,PublicSpaces:CinemaandCivilityinChina,TheGlobalMediaAtlasandTheStateofChinaAtlasSheiscoeditorofMediainChina:Content,ConsumptionandChangeandPicturingPowerinthePeople’sRepublicofChina:PostersoftheCulturalRevolutionMargaretMaynardstudieddresshistoryattheCourtauldInstituteinLondonSheisaSeniorLecturerinArtHistoryintheSchoolofEnglish,MediaStudiesandArtHistory,TheUniversityofQueenslandShehaspublishedextensivelyondress,design,culturalstudiesandAustraliancolonialartandphotographyHersecondbook,entitledOutofLineAustralianWomenandStylewaspublishedbyUNSWPressinWendyParkinsisaLecturerintheSchoolofMedia,CommunicationandCultureatMurdochUniversity,WesternAustraliaShehaspublishedarticlesonsuffragettebodiesinFeministTheoryandContinuum:JournalofMediaandCulturalStudies,andonwomen’smodernityinWomen:ACulturalReviewandTulsaStudiesinWomen’sLiterature–ix–TammyMProctorisanAssociateProfessorofHistoryandDirectoroftheUniversityHonorsProgramatWittenbergUniversityinSpringfield,OhioSheistheauthorofarticlesonGuidingandScoutinginInterwarBritainandSouthAfricaaswellasaforthcomingbook,OnTheirHonor:GuidingandScoutinginInterwarBritainCurrently,sheisworkingonahistoryofwomenandintelligenceduringWorldWarIReginaARoot,anAssistantProfessorofSpanishatOldDominionUniversity,Norfolk,Virginia,writesontheinterrelationshipbetweenfashionandliteratureinLatinAmericaShehasconductedextensivearchivalresearchofnineteenthcenturyfashionmagazinesinArgentina,ChileandUruguayMostrecently,herworkhasappearedinFolios,FashionTheoryandDesignisSheiscurrentlyatworkonTheLatinAmericanFashionReaderChristineRuaneisAssociateProfessorandDirectorofGraduateStudiesinHistoryattheUniversityofTulsaSheistheauthorofGender,Class,andtheProfessionalizationofRussianCityTeachers,–andiscurrentlyworkingonahistoryoftheRussianfashionindustryfromtoMaryVincentisSeniorLecturerinHistoryattheUniversityofSheffield,UKHerCatholicismintheSecondSpanishRepublicwaspublishedbyOUPinwhilearticlesonreligionandgenderinsSpainhaverecentlyappearedinHistoryWorkshopJournalandGenderandHistoryShealsoeditsthejournalContemporaryEuropeanHistoryandiscurrentlyworkingonastudyofFranco’s‘Crusade’RichardWrigleyisPrincipalLecturerintheHistoryofArtatOxfordBrookesUniversity,andtheauthorofThePoliticsofDressinRevolutionaryFrance(forthcomingBerg)NotesonContributors–x–ListofIllustrationsGodefroy:‘LeJongleurPittsoutenantavecuneloteriel’équilibredel’Angleterreetlessubsidesdelacoalition’(ThejugglerPittmaintainingEngland’sbalanceandhersubsidiesforthecoalitionwithalottery),etching,firsthalfofAntoineDenisChaudet:‘LeCharlatanpolitique,ouleléopardapprivoisé’(ThePoliticalCharlatan,ortheleopardtamed),etching,firsthalfofAnonymous:‘DansonslaCarmagnole’,etching,frontispiece,LaRépubliqueenvaudevillesPrécédéesd’unenoticedesprincipauxévénemensdelarévolution,pourservirdeCalendrieràl’année(Paris,)ARussianfamilyportraitfromthesNicholasIIdressedinthegarmentswornbyhisancestor,TsarAlexisfortheballattheWinterPalaceFederalistsandUnitariansdancea‘cielito’tocelebrateindependencefromSpainFederalistsoldiersor‘corazeros’patrolthecountrysideDerryandTom’sadvertisement,publishedinVotesforWomen(May,:)DerryandTom’sadvertisement,publishedinVotesforWomen(June,:)JamaicanScoutsattheJamboreeinBirkenhead(Liverpool)ThreeAlgerianScoutsOlaveBadenPowellwithaninternationalcontingentofcampersattheFirstWorldCampatFoxlease(UK)inEarlyversionoftheblackshirtFascism’sbodypoliticSecciónFemininamemberssewinglinen‘KingGeorgeVI’ofRavensbourne,CedarCreek,receiveshisgovernmentblanketfromtheProtector,VincentBradyleadingaprotestmarchtobringattentiontoAboriginaloppositiontothebicentenarycelebrations,Brisbane,–xi–Introduction––––Introduction:(Ad)dressingCitizensWendyParkinsOnFebruary,femalelegislatorsfromboththeleftandrightofthepoliticalspectrumworejeanstotheItalianparliamentAcoupleofdayslater,womenintheCalifornianStateAssemblyalsoworejeansinsupportoftheirItaliancounterpartsBothgroupsofwomenwerestagingaprotestagainstarulinginItaly’sSupremeCourtofAppealsthatitisimpossibletorapeawomanwearingjeansTheItaliancourt,overturningtheconvictionofayearolddrivinginstructorearlierfoundguiltyofrapinghisyearoldstudent,hadruledthatjeanscannotberemoved‘evenpartially,withouttheactivecooperationofthepersonwearingthem’(Nadotti:seealsoTagliabue)Intheseprotests,jeans,possiblythemostubiquitousitemofclothingintheWesternworld,becameasiteofsemioticcontestationasthefemalelegislatorsdisputedthecourt’sinterpretationthattheremovalofawoman’sjeanssignifiedcomplianceratherthanviolentassaultThisitemofclothingwasalsogivenapoliticalsignificance,however,aswomen,whointheirelectedcapacityaslegislatorsrepresentedthebodypolitic,woreanitemofeveryday,casualclothinginadomainwheresuchdresswouldusuallybeconsideredinappropriate,signifyingacasualordisrespectfulattitudetothesoberbusinessoflawmakingSuchviolationofthedresscodewasintendedtosignifythewomen’soutrageattheAppealsCourt’sfailuretorecognizethephysicalviolationatthecentreofthecasebeforethemandgesturedtowardstheimplicationsforallwomenwhenanitemofclothingaloneisconstruedtosignifyconsentAsAnnaYeatmanhasargued,modernpoliticalsubjecthooddependsontheconceptofanindividualwhoisnotsubjecttotheauthorityofanyotherexceptbytheirconsentandwhoisalsofreetowithdrawthisconsent(:)Thecapacityforconsent,then,liesattheheartofmoderncitizenshipThe‘denimdefense’protestsdrewattentiontothefactthat,despitethepresenceofwomeninstateandnationalparliaments,thestatusofwomen’scitizenshipremainsproblematicinthemodernbodypoliticwhere,asNancyFraser(:)hasargued,‘thecapacitiesforconsentandspeech,theabilitytoFashioningtheBodyPolitic––participateonaparwithothersindialogueareconnectedwithmasculinity’inmoderndemocraciesInshowingthebodypolitictobeagenderedconstruction,thewomenprotestorsalsodemonstratedthewaynotionsofcitizenshipmaybeboundupwithandunderstoodthroughnotionsandpracticesofdressTheseprotestscanbereadasattemptstorefashionthebodypoliticthroughdrawingattentiontothesignificance–andthesignification–ofdressinpoliticalcontextsTheincidentsinItalyandCaliforniaprovideacontemporaryexampleofthecentralconcernsofthisbook:howformsoritemsofdress–fromtheceremonialtotheeveryday–canthemselvesbecomesitesofpoliticalstruggle,howtheycanbeusedvariouslytocontestorlegitimatethepowerofthestateandthemeaningsofcitizenshipItisagroundingassumptionofFashioningtheBodyPoliticthat,asRitaFelski(:)hasputit,symbolicpoliticalpractices,‘ratherthansimplyexpressinganalreadyconstitutedsphereof“realpolitics”groundedintheeconomyorthestate,maythemselvesoperateasinstrumentsoftransformation,waysofreconstitutingthesocialandpoliticalworld’Practicesofdressandfashionwillbeviewednotsimplyasreflectingsocialandpoliticalchangebutrather,asJoanneEntwistle(b:)hasputit,understoodaspracticesthatare‘alwaysandeverywheresituatedwithinasocietyandaculture’(emphasisadded)Beginning,then,withaconsiderationoftheconceptofthebodypoliticasanenablingmythofmodernnationstates,thisintroductionwillconsiderthemeansbywhichthebodypoliticmaybefashionedThecorporealmetaphorofthe‘bodypolitic’isadeliberatelychosenoneinthiscontext,asitoffersadifferentemphasisfromunderstandingthepoliticaldomaininthemodernnationstateas,say,apublicsphereByinsistingthatpracticesofbodilydisplayandperformanceassociatedwithdressmaybeunderstoodaspolitical(althoughnotalwayscontestatory),acritiqueofaHabermasianmodelofasphereof‘legitimate’politicsasonlythatbasedonrationalityanddeliberationwillalsobeofferedInmedievalandearlymodernEurope,asNicholasMirzoeff(:)states,‘thequasidivineBodypoliticwassymbolizedbytheritualanointingofthemonarchduringthecoronationceremony,whichseparatedthekingfromallotherlaypersons’Inthemedievaldoctrineoftheking’stwobodies–whichpositedthatthesovereignhadbotha‘bodynatural’(thephysical,mortalbody)anda‘bodypolitic’(thestateasametaphysical,immortalcorporation)–‘thenaturalbodyofthekingthusrepresentedthebodypolitic’(Peters:,emphasisinoriginal)Throughportraitureandsculptureaswellasthroughthevestitureoftheking’smaterialbody,thebodypolitic‘becameentirelydependentonIntroduction––visualrepresentation’(Mirzoeff:)AsAndrewandCatherineBelseyhavearguedintheiranalysisoftheportraitureofElizabethI,forexample,portraitsofthemonarchsoughttosymbolizethelegitimateauthoritysheembodiedElizabeth’sportraits,attimesvergingontheanatomicallyimpossible,representeda‘disembodied,extrahumanQueen’(BelseyandBelsey:)andthroughthemorphologyofthequeen’sbodyanditsextravagantdressproclaimedhersovereigntyandrighttorule(BelseyandBelsey:–)Thesignificanceofvisualrepresentationinthepoliticaldomain,asignificanceobviousinthesplendourandconspicuousdisplayofthemonarchicalstatesofLouisXIVorElizabethI,isshowninFashioningtheBodyPolitictobeanongoingifproblematiconeinthemoderneraofdisembodiedauthority‘Ifthestateisfiguredorganically’,arguesMirzoeff(:)inhisexaminationofthebodypolitic,‘itscorporealrepresentationiscentraltomaintainingthecentralillusionofmodernstatefetishism,thatthestateisareallyexistingandpalpablebodyHowcanthisbodybeimaginedwithoutusingthemediumoftheking’sbody’Thisproblemofrepresentingthestateaftertheking’sbodywasrevealedashuman,asinfactonlyonebodyandthatexpendable,wasaproblemnotonlyforFranceduringandaftertheRevolutionbutmoregenerallyinmodernnationstatesand,asseveralcontributorstothisbookargue,practicesofdresscouldbedeployedbystatestoresolvethisproblemofrepresentationThereis,however,astrongtraditionofmodernpoliticalthought(fromRousseautotheFrankfurtSchool),suspiciousoforopposedtoanykindofspectacularizationortheatricalizationofthepolitical,summedupbyWalterBenjamin’scritiqueofthe‘aestheticizationofpolitics’Inthisview,anykindofvisualrepresentationofthestateorsymbolicpoliticsencodesillegitimate,antidemocraticandoppressiveformsofpowerForJurgenHabermas,forinstance,thetransitionfromabsolutemonarchytomodernnationstateisatransitionfrom‘representativepublicity’–anillegitimateformofpoliticsbasedonthedisplayoftheking’sbodyaswellasenactedinthecostume,speech,andbodilycomportmentofthemonarchandcourt(Habermas:Peters:)–toalegitimateformbasedoncriticaldialogueandrationaldeliberation(seeFraser:Landes:–)‘Representativepublicity’whichmadevisibletheking’ssocialpowerorhisembodimentofthestate,can,forHabermas(:),onlybeunderstoodas‘completelyunlikeasphereofpoliticalcommunication’itisfundamentallyopposedtodialogueordebateandsignalsalackofpublicparticipation(Peters:–)‘Thesourceoflegitimacy’,forHabermas,‘isdeliberationitself’(Habermas:,quotingManin):‘likeRousseauandKant,HabermasassumesFashioningtheBodyPolitic––thataformalorproceduralconceptionofpubliclifealoneisenough’(Peters:)AsJohnDurhamPeters(:)hassuccinctlyputit,‘Beyondallsymbolicpolitics,forHabermas,lurkstheking’sbody,whichmustnotberesurrected’WhilethechaptersbySimonettaFalascaZamponiandMaryVincentaredevotedtoexaminingthedeploymentofsymbolicdressbyfasciststatesinthes,aHabermasiandismissalofpracticesofdisplayasalways‘badpolitics’overlooksthemultiaccentualityofdressinpoliticalcontexts,thecapacityofdresstobearticulatedtoavarietyofcausesandcontextsAsthechaptersbyReginaRootandmyselfargue,practicesofdisplayoradornmentcouldbedeployedwithinasphereofpoliticalcommunicationbythoseunenfranchisedbyoropposedtoexistingpoliticalformationsasameansofcontestationorcritiqueThenarrativetrajectoryfrom‘bad’displayto‘good’speech,whichHabermasposits,moreover,hasbeendisputedbyhistorians,especiallythoseexaminingthepoliticalcontextinFrancebothpriortoandduringtheFrenchRevolution(see,forexample,HuntLandesandHuetHarris)Theworkofthesehistoriansinsistsontheimportanceofperformanceanddisplayinthepolitical–whatJoanLandes(:)hasidentifiedasan‘alwaysalreadytheatricalizedpublicsphere’–andshowsthesemioticcapacityofpracticesofdresstoeithercontestorreinforceexistingarrangementsofpowerand‘fleshout’themeaningsofcitizenshipThisemphasismakesthisanimportantreferencepointforanyconsiderationofdress,genderandcitizenship:notonlydidthepoliticalcultureoftheFrenchRevolutiongeneratemanyoftheideasandpracticesofpoliticsthatpersisttoday,butitalsoillustratedtheimbricationofpoliticswithculture(Hunt:,)DuringtheFrenchrevolutionaryperiod,asHunt(:)hasargued:Differentcostumesindicateddifferentpolitics,andacolour,thewearingofacertainlengthoftrousers,certainshoestyles,orthewronghatmighttouchoffaquarrel,afistfight,orageneralstreetbrawlDuringtheRevolution,eventhemostordinaryobjectsandcustomsbecamepoliticalemblemsandpotentialsourcesofpoliticalandsocialconflictColours,adornments,clothing,plateware,money,calendars,andplayingcardsbecame‘signsofrallying’toonesideoranotherBymakingapoliticalpositionmanifest,theymadeadherence,opposition,andindifferencepossibleInthiswaytheyconstitutedafieldofpoliticalstruggleClothingbecameinvestedwithpoliticalsignificanceduringtherevolutionaryperiod,fromthewearingofthenationalcockadetoproposinganationalciviluniformAsRichardWrigleydiscussesinhisIntroduction––chapterandelsewhere(Wrigley),itemsofclothingsuchasthoseassociatedwiththesansculottesformedpartofacomplexvisualeconomyinwhichpoliticalmeaningsandvalueswerecontested,reconfiguredandrestatedThefluidityandcontestationofmeaningsassociatedwithrevolutionarydressmayperhapsaccountforagrowingmovementfromlatetoregulateandprescribecertainformsofdress(Harris

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[英]文迪·帕金斯:塑造身体政治:衣着、性别与公民身份(柏格 2003)

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