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首页 [美]格利高里·福利蒙特-巴恩斯主编:法国大革命与拿破仑战争百科全书:政治·社会与军事史(ABC…

[美]格利高里·福利蒙特-巴恩斯主编:法国大革命与拿破仑战争百科全书:政治·社会与军事史(ABC 2

[美]格利高里·福利蒙特-巴恩斯主编:法国大革命与拿破仑战争百…

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简介:本文档为《[美]格利高里·福利蒙特-巴恩斯主编:法国大革命与拿破仑战争百科全书:政治·社会与军事史(ABC 2pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEENCYCLOPEDIAOFtheFrenchRevolutionaryandNapoleonicWarsAPolitical,Social,andMilitaryHistoryTHEENCYCLOPEDIAOFtheFrenchRevolutionaryandNapoleonicWarsAPolitical,Social,andMilitaryHistoryVOLUMETHREEEntriesR–ZPrimarySourceDocumentsGregoryFremontBarnes,EditorSantaBarbara,CaliforniaDenver,ColoradoOxford,UnitedKingdomCopyrightbyABCCLIO,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,exceptfortheinclusionofbriefquotationsinareview,withoutpriorpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTheencyclopediaoftheFrenchrevolutionaryandNapoleonicWars:apolitical,social,andmilitaryhistoryeditor,GregoryFremontBarnespcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover:alkpaper)ISBN(ebook)FirstCoalition,Warofthe,–EncyclopediasSecondCoalition,Warofthe,–EncyclopediasFranceHistoryRevolution,–EncyclopediasNapoleonicWars,–EncyclopediasFranceHistory,Military–EncyclopediasEuropeHistory–EncyclopediasIFremontBarnes,GregoryDCEdcThisbookisalsoavailableontheWorldWideWebasaneBookVisitabccliocomfordetailsABCCLIO,IncCremonaDrive,POBoxSantaBarbara,California–ThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaSubmissionsEditorAlexanderMikaberidzeProjectAssistantWendyRosethProductionEditorMarthaRipleyGrayEditorialAssistantAlishaLMartinezFileManagementCoordinatorPaulaGerardMapProductionGeorgeBarile,AccurateArt,IncGeorgeZirfas,ChezD’Art,IncProductionManagerDonSchmidtMediaImageCoordinatorEllenBrennaDoughertyMediaEditorEllenRasmussenMediaManagerCarolinePriceTypesettingandInteriorDesignAndrewBerry,LetraLibre,IncvContentsVVOOLLUUMMEEOONNEEEEnnttrriieessAA––FFPrefaceandAcknowledgments,viiIntroductionbyCharlesJEsdaile,xvAbouttheEditor,xixAdvisoryBoard,xxListofEntries,xxiListofMaps,xxixKeytoMilitaryMapSymbols,xxxiChronology,xxxiiiGlossaryofMilitaryTerms,xliiiGlossaryofNavalTerms,xlviiContextualEssays,EntriesA–F,Index,IVVOOLLUUMMEETTWWOOEEnnttrriieessGG––QQListofEntries,viiListofMaps,xvKeytoMilitaryMapSymbols,xviiChronology,xixGlossaryofMilitaryTerms,xxixGlossaryofNavalTerms,xxxiiiEntriesG–Q,Index,IVVOOLLUUMMEETTHHRREEEEEEnnttrriieessRR––ZZListofEntries,viiListofMaps,xvKeytoMilitaryMapSymbols,xviiChronology,xixGlossaryofMilitaryTerms,xxixGlossaryofNavalTerms,xxxiiiEntriesR–Z,PrimarySourceDocuments,Bibliography,ListofContributors,Index,IviiPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsApocryphalthoughthestorymaybe,ithaslongbeenassertedthatwhen,atthecloseoftheBattleofWaterloo,GeneralCambronne,commanderofNapoleon’sImperialGuard,foundhimselfconfinedinasquareofgrenadiersandsurroundedatclosequartersbyBritishtroops,heansweredthesummonstosurrenderwithadeclarationaseloquentasitwasdefiant:“TheGuarddiesbutdoesnotsurrender!”Otheraccountsdismissthisassentimentalnonsense,insistingthathemerelycriedoutasimpleexpletivePerhapsitmatterslittletowhichversionofeventsoneascribesthetruth,fortheFrenchRevolutionaryandNapoleonicWarsproducedsomanyinstancesofheroism,folly,triumph,andtragedythatonemaybeforgivenforregardingthecharactersandeventsofthetimeassomehowlargerthanlifeIndeed,theextraordinaryandundyingappealofthesubjectiseasilyexplained,foritwasanagewhensoldiers,resplendentinornateuniforms,stillstoodshouldertoshoulderinthefiringline,orfoughtonhorseback,wieldingsword,saber,orlanceTheimpersonaleraofthe“invisiblebattlefield”hadnotyetdawnedasoldierinusuallyconfrontedhisopponentatlessthanahundredyards’distanceandoftenhandtohandHecouldeventracethepathofaroundshot,emergingfromthesmokeofthecannonwhenceitcame,boundingtowardhimItwasanagewhengreatliteratureandgreatmusicflourishedwhenempirescouldbevanquishedinafewshortmonths,onlytoriseagaintorenewthestruggleafewyearslateranagewhenasingleday’sencounterasatTrafalgarorWaterloocouldliterallychangethecourseofhistoryItwasanagewhenthesnowsofRussiacouldexposethevulnerabilityofthegreatestcommanderofhisandperhapsofeveryothertimeandreducehisarmyofgargantuanproportionstoashadowofitsformerselfItwasanagewhennewprinciplesandideologiessomeenthusiasticallywelcomed,othersdetestedwerespreadwithreformingzealatthepointofthebayonetatimewhenpoliticalobjectivesceasedtohavelimitsandbattlebecameabrutalcontestforadecisiveresultratherthanadistastefulmeasureoflastresortIfmilitarytechnologyhadchangedlittleintheprecedingcentury,theendtowhichitwasappliedunmistakablyhadForthesereasons,amongmanyothers,theFrenchRevolutionaryandNapoleonicWarscontinuetofascinatestudents,scholars,andarespectableportionofthepublicalikeMymotivesinpreparingthisencyclopediahavebeennumerous,includingadesiretoproduceausefulworkofreferencewhilethebicentennialofsomanyseminaleventsisnowheighteningbothpublicandscholarlyinterestinthisperiodtopresentamuchmorethoroughcoverageoftheconflictthanhasbeenpossibleinexistingsinglevolumedictionariesandencyclopediastoprovidearesourcethatincludesexhaustivelistingsofthevastandeverexpandingliteratureonthesubjectandtobringtogetherthewidersocial,cultural,scientific,andeconomicaspectsoftheperiodinordertoplacethemilitaryconflictintoproperperspectiveHoweverambitiousmyintentionswhenthisprojectcommenced,IsoondiscoveredthataworkofthissizecanneitherbeassembledseamlesslynorpresentfactsnotleasttroopstrengthsandlosseswithdefinitiveaccuracyIfCambronnetookpauseattheprospectofimminentdeath(cruelfate,intheevent,lefthimmerelywounded),atleasthewassparedthedauntingprospectofeditingaworkofsome,wordsStill,ithasbeen,forthemostpart,alaboroflove,forIhavebeenfortunateinhavingbeenabletodrawupontheexpertiseofcontributorsmanyofthemleadingauthoritiesintheirparticularfieldsfromaroundtheworld,includingtheUnitedStates,Canada,Britain,France,Germany,Austria,Italy,Poland,Russia,Australia,andelsewhereTheirefficiencyanddedicationensuredthatmercifullyfewwerethemomentswhenIfeltmyselfstrugglingtocrossaneditorialBerezina,withhowlingCossacksatmyheelsononesideoftheicyriverand,worsestill,imminentdeadlinesloomingontheotherTHEENCYCLOPEDIAOFtheFrenchRevolutionaryandNapoleonicWarsAPolitical,Social,andMilitaryHistoryNNootteessoonnTTeecchhnniiccaallPPooiinnttssAristocraticandOtherTitlesAgooddealoftimecanbespenttryingtomastertheintricaciesofaristocratictitlesofthisperiod,thoughonerisksprematuredeathdoingsoTitlesgivenintheentryheadarethosebywhichtheindividualwasknownbytheendoftheNapoleonicWarsin,anditisimportanttostressthattheymaynothavereceivedsuchatitleuntilwellintotheperiodunderstudyIndeed,manytitleswerenotgranteduntilthefirstdefeatofFrancein,inrecognitionfortheservicesrenderedbytherecipientThefulltitleofanindividualmaybefoundintheheadword,exceptinthecasesofFrenchmarshals,whooftenheldsuchlengthytitlesastorendertheirheadwordsunwieldyTheirfulltitlesmaybefoundintheentry“Marshalate”Greatcarehasbeentakentorenderallaristocratictitlesasaccuratelyaspossibleinthetext,notwithstandingtheacknowledgedproblemsthattheypresentAsmanytitlesinuseontheContinentdefyperfectEnglishtranslation,recoursehasbeenmadewhereverpossibletosupplytheirpropertitleintheirnativelanguageHence,comteispreferredtocountfreiherrinsteadofthelooselytranslatedbarongrafinsteadoftheinadequatesemiequivalent,countthesearetonamebutafewexamplesItshouldalsobenotedthatinBritain,marquiscanbespelledmarquessEvenifonemastersanunderstandingofthisminefield,thereisalwaystheproblemofadvancementuptheladderofranksThecaseoftheDukeofWellingtonisagoodexampleofthisHebeganhisserviceintheIberianPeninsulainasLieutenantGeneralSirArthurWellesleythatistosay,whilehehadbeenknighted,hehadnotyetbeenraisedtothepeerageAftertheBattleofTalaverain,however,hebecameViscountWellingtoninFebruary,theEarlofWellingtoninOctoberofthatyear,theMarquis(ortheanglicizedMarquess,whichisnotusedinthiswork)ofWellingtonandfinally,DukeofWellington,afterthefallofFranceinTechnicallyspeaking,therefore,hecannotinallaccuracybereferredtoastheDukeofWellingtonduringhisperiodofserviceinIberia,notwithstandingfrequenterrorstothecontraryinnumeroussourcesThus,withrespecttoWellington,andindeedwithallotherindividualswhatevertheirnationalityholdingaristocraticrank,considerablecarehasbeentakentoensurethatthesubject’stitleiscorrectwithinthecontextunderdiscussionInafewcases,aseriesofchangingtitlescancauseconfusion,suchaswiththeDukeofWellington’sbrother,RichardColleyWellesley,whomovedprogressivelyfromfirstViscountWellesley,tothesecondEarlofMornington,tofirstMarquisWellesleyConsistencydictatesthatheisidentifiedbyhispropertitleaccordingtotheperiodunderdiscussionThoseBritishofficerswhointhecourseoftheircareersreceivedaknighthoodareidentifiedassuchwiththetitleSirappearingbeforetheirnamesWhere,however,theysubsequentlyreceivedapeerage,itiscommonpracticetodropSirinfavorofthearistocratictitleAnumberofthemoreprominentPrussiangeneralsreceivedaristocratictitlesinthewakeofthecampaignofhence,readerswillnotereferencesto“GebhardvonBlücher”innumerousentries,forinstance,yet“GebhardBlüchervonWahlstatt”inthosecoveringtheperiodafterwhichhereceivedhisnewtitleMetternichheldthetitleGraf(Count)untillate,afterwhichhebecameFürst(Prince),thoughhedidnotusethetitlevonHethusappearsinslightlydifferentguisesbetweenandSimilarly,Napoleonmademanyofhisgeneralscountsbeginningin,andthusreaderswillfindthisdesignationforthoseindividualssoennobled,butonlyinthoseentrieswhichcovertheperiodafterwhichthetitlewasconferredItisalsooftenthecasethatreaderswillencounteranabbreviatedformofatitleonfirstmention,thefulltreatmentbeingreservedfortheheadwordoftheentryInafewcasesthereisdisputeastowhetherornotanindividualwasentitledtoholdaparticulartitle,suchaswithSirSidneySmithandAugustvonGneisenauInbothcases,commonacceptancehasprevailed,andthesemenareidentifiedasbearingthetitlesidentifiedaboveThenthereistheconsiderablysimplerproblemofcorrectinghistoricalerror,suchasthewidelybutmistakenbeliefthatGeneralJeanAndocheJunotwasamarshal,whichhewasnotNor,asmentionedabove,wasWellingtonadukeuntilafterNapoleon’sfirstdefeatIndividualsbearingaristocraticnamesareoftenidentifiedsolelybysuchnames,andnotbytheirfamilynames,thoughitisimportanttonotethatanumberofpersonalitieswereidentifiedbytheirfirstnames,aswithArchdukeCharles,orEugènedeBeauharnaisthelatteralwaysbeingknownasEugèneandneverasBeauharnaisTheformofaddressforNapoleonalsoraisesdifficulties,whichisdealtwithatlengthbelowunder“PersonalNames”Medals,Decorations,andOrdersForpurposesofspace,discussionofthenamesofthemedals,decorations,andordersheldbyindividualsmentionedinthetexthas,inmostcases,beenexcludedPunctuation,Spelling,Capitalization,andGeneralUsageReadersshouldnotethattheencyclopedia,withsignificantexceptions,aswhereconcessionshavebeenmadetoscholarlyconventioninthefield,generallyconformstothenotuniversallyacceptedChicagoManualofStyle(CMS)viiiPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsSomecapitalizationdecisionswillcauseraisedeyebrowsontheEuropeansideoftheAtlantic,wheretitlesarenormallycapitalized,forexample,EmperorofAustria,asopposedtoemperorofAustriaorkingofItalyWithrespecttoFrenchtitles,thisworkconformstotheFrenchmethod,employinglowercaseforaristocracy,suchascomtedeProvenceBritonsmayfindsuchformsaschancelloroftheexchequer,leaderoftheHouseofCommons,andsecretaryofstateforwarandthecolonies,ratheroffensivetotheeyeshowever,inanefforttobridgeCMSstyleandscholarlyconventionIhavetried(whetherboldlyorfoolishly)toreachacompromiseinfavorofhistoriansItshouldbenotedthattheCMSdoesmakeconcessionstousinguppercaseforBritisharistocratictitles,ifnotsomuchforpoliticalofficesThisworkhasalsodeviatedinsomecasesfromtheCMSwithrespecttothecapitalizationofEmperor,whenreferringtoNapoleon,aswellaswithrespectto(amongothers)Revolutionary,Romanticism,Allied,andAllies,thelatterinrefererencetobelligerentstatesformingpartofacoalitionagainstFranceConferredFrenchtitles,suchasKingofRome,forNapoleon’sson,andKingofSpain,forJoseph,Napoleon’sbrother,alsoappearcapitalized,whereasthisisnotthecaseforhereditarytitlesHyphensusedintheFrenchlanguagecanposeparticularproblemsforaneditor,notleastbecausedifferentsourcesidentifyindividualsbothwithandwithouthyphensbetweenforenamesForexample,MarieLouiseappearssometimeswith,sometimeswithouthyphens,dependingonthesourcePunctuationpresentedvariousproblems,notleastbecause,likegrammarandspelling,itisemployedslightlydifferentlyoneithersideoftheAtlanticItisofcoursesimpleenoughtouseAmericanspellinguniformly,andthusonewillnotfindcentre,butcenter,andcaliberinsteadofcalibrewhileinsteadofwhilstthatinsteadofwhichwaggoninsteadofwagoncolorinsteadofcolourtowardinsteadoftowards,andsoonThedominanceofAmerican,overBritish,Englishinthisworkisnomoreapparentthaninthepresenceofthesplitinfinitive,abhorrenttoBritisheyesandears,yetacommonandacceptablefeatureofEnglishasspokenandwritteninNorthAmerica“Toboldlygowherenomanhasgonebefore”continuestoproducesmilesofderisioninBritain,andnotforreasonsofpoorgrammaraloneThoseaccustomedtoBritishEnglishwillalsonotethatthisworkfollowstherecentAmericanpracticeofdroppinghyphensbetweencompoundnounsorwithranks,thusproducingsuchwordssuchantirevolutionary,noncommissioned,andViceAdmiralstill,Ihaveallowedsomehyphenstoberetained,aswithdemibrigade,proroyalist,andsansculotteTheoriginalorthographyforflêche(aVshapedearthwork)ispreferredoverthemoremodernflècheWhererevolutionaryrefersspecificallytotheFrenchRevolutionitappearscapitalized:TheFrenchRevolutionariesawaveofRevolutionaryfervorRevolutionarygovernmentsinFrance,andsoonNotso,however,forroyalist,republican,orotherdescriptivetermswhichhavenoassociationwitharecognizedmajorpoliticalmovementTheuseofarmyandArmyhasbeendictatedbythefollowingrule:Wherediscussionfocusesontheentireinstitution,itiscapitalizedwhereitdiscussesaspecificarmyinthefieldoraspecificfleetatsea,itisrenderedinlowercaseHence,itmaybesaidthatthousandsofIrishmenenlistedintheBritishArmyduringthecourseoftheNapoleonicWars,whereastheBritisharmylandedinPortugalinSimilarly,thePrussianArmyunderwentnumerousreformsbetweenand,whereasthePrussianarmyinwasledbyGeneralGebhardvonBlücherReadersshouldalsonotethatwherethetermRoyalNavyappears,thisisinvariablyareferencetothenavalestablishmentofBritain,therebeingnosuchinstitution,technicallyspeaking,asthe“BritishNavy,”inthesamewaythatonemayproperlyrefertotheUSArmybutnottothe“AmericanArmy”Wherethenamesofarmiesdonotalwaysbetraytheirnationality,theyareidentified,thus:(French)ArmyofItaly(French)ArmyofRome(French)ArmyofBatavia(Russian)ArmyofPolandandsoonPersonalNamesExceptinthecasesofthoseknownbetterbytheiraristocraticname,everyefforthasbeenmadetosupplytheforenameaswellasthesurnameofeveryindividualmentionedinthetextYetforenamesaresometimesdisputedbyhistorians,andevenanindividual’sentirenamecanappearinvarioustextsinabewilderingarrayofcombinations,notleastinthecasesofClaudePerrinVictorandToussaintLouvertureThereisalsotheconundrumofthemannerbywhichtheleaderofFranceshouldbeidentified:whetherBuonaparteasinhisearlyyears,Bonapartesomewhatlater,orNapoleon(or,strictlyproperly,Napoléon)throughoutBonaparteisusedinthepresentworkfortheperioduntilhisassumptionoftheImperialtitlein,andNapoleonthereafterReadersshouldthereforenotbesurprisedtofindthatthesamepersonmayappearasBonaparteandNapoleoninthesameentry,dependingontheperiodunderdiscussionForobviouspurposesofspaceandredundancy,readerswillnotfind“Bonaparte,Napoleon”inthe“Seealso”sectionoftheentriesNorhaveNapoleonandJosephinebeenidentifiedasNapoléonandJoséphinewhich,thoughtechnicallycorrect,areveryrarelyrenderedassuchinanEnglishspeakingcontextPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsixItwasacommonfeatureofthisperiodfornationalsofonecountrytoserveinthearmyofanotherThus,numerousGermansheldseniorpositionsintheRussianArmyhence,onemayencounternamesthatseemoutofplace,suchasPeterKhristianovich(originallyLudwigAdolf)GrafzuWittgenstein,thesonofaWestphaliannoblemanwhosettledinRussiaSimilarly,someofficers,asthedescendantsofimmigrants,appeartohaveunlikelynamesThus,therewasJoaquínBlake,aSpanishgeneralofIrishdescent,andJacquesEtienneMacdonald,aFrenchmarshalofScottishextractionVariousItaliansandWalloonsservedintheAustrianArmy,onthebasisofwhosenamesalone,givennootherinformation,onecouldbeforgivenforassumingthattheyfoughtfortheFrenchIncaseswhereanindividualisbestknownbyhisorhernameinitsanglicizedform,ithasbeenrenderedsoThus,theAustrianemperorisgivenasFrancisratherthanFranz,thekingofPrussiaasFrederickWilliamratherthanasFriedrichWilhelm,andthekingofSpainasCharlesratherasCarlosRussiannames,beingtransliteratedbydifferenthistoriansindifferentpermutations,willlead

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[美]格利高里·福利蒙特-巴恩斯主编:法国大革命与拿破仑战争百科全书:政治·社会与军事史(ABC 2

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