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首页 [美]马立博:老虎、稻米、丝绸与淤泥:帝制中国晚期江南的环境与经济(剑桥 2004)

[美]马立博:老虎、稻米、丝绸与淤泥:帝制中国晚期江南的环境与经济(剑桥 2004)

[美]马立博:老虎、稻米、丝绸与淤泥:帝制中国晚期江南的环境与…

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2008-10-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]马立博:老虎、稻米、丝绸与淤泥:帝制中国晚期江南的环境与经济(剑桥 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankChallengingtheconventionalwisdomconveyedbyWesternenvironmentalhistoriansaboutChina,thisbookexaminestherelationshipsbetweeneconomicandenvironmentalchangesinthesouthernChineseprovincesofGuangdongandGuangxi(aregionhistoricallyknownasLingnan,“SouthoftheMountains”)inimperialChina,focusingontheperiodfromto,butalsoprovidingsubstantialbackgroundfromonRobertMarksdiscussestheimpactofpopulationgrowthonlandusepatterns,theagroecologyoftheregion,anddeforestationthecommercializationofagricultureanditsimplicationsforecologicalchangetheimpactofclimaticchangeonagricultureandthewaysinwhichthehumanpopulationrespondedtoenvironmentalchallengesThisbookisasignificantcontributiontobothChineseandenvironmentalhistoryItisgroundbreakinginitsmethodsandinitsfindingsTigers,Rice,Silk,andSilt◊◊◊◊EditorsDonaldWorster◊◊UniversityofKansasAlfredWCrosby◊◊UniversityofTexasatAustinOtherbooksintheseriesDonaldWorster,Nature’sEconomy:AHistoryofEcologicalIdeasKennethFKiple,TheCaribbeanSlave:ABiologicalHistoryAlfredWCrosby,EcologicalImperialism:TheBiologicalExpansionofEurope,–ArthurFMcEvoy,TheFisherman’sProblem:EcologyandLawintheCaliforniaFisheries,–RobertHarms,GamesAgainstNature:AnEcoCulturalHistoryoftheNunuofEquatorialAfricaWarrenDean,BrazilandtheStruggleforRubber:AStudyinEnvironmentalHistorySamuelPHays,Beauty,Health,andPermanence:EnvironmentalPoliticsintheUnitedStates,–DonaldWorster,TheEndsoftheEarth:PerspectivesonModernEnvironmentalHistoryMichaelWilliams,AmericansandTheirForests:AHistoricalGeographyTimothySilver,ANewFaceontheCountryside:Indians,Colonists,andSlavesintheSouthAtlanticForests,–TheodoreSteinberg,NatureIncorporated:IndustrializationandtheWatersofNewEnglandJRMcNeill,TheMountainsoftheMediterraneanWorld:AnEnvironmentalHistoryElinorGKMelvilleAPlagueofSheep:EnvironmentalConsequencesoftheConquestofMexicoRichardHGrove,GreenImperialism:ColonialExpansion,TropicalIslandEdensandtheOriginsofEnvironmentalism,–MarkElvinandTsui’jungLiu,SedimentsofTime:EnvironmentandSocietyinChineseHistoryTIGERS,RICE,SILK,ANDSILTRobertBMarksWhittierCollegeThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAWilliamstownRoad,PortMelbourne,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlarcón,Madrid,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricahttp:wwwcambridgeorgFirstpublishedinprintedformatISBNhardbackISBNeBookRobertBMarks(AdobeReader)©CONTENTSvListofMaps,Figures,andTablespageviiDynasties,QingDynastyEmperors’ReignDates,andWeightsandMeasuresxiAcknowledgmentsxiiiIntroduction◊◊◊“FirsandPinesaHundredSpansRound”:TheNaturalEnvironmentofLingnan◊◊◊“AllDeeplyForestedandWildPlacesAreNotMalarious”:HumanSettlementandEcologicalChangeinLingnan,–◊◊◊“AgricultureIstheFoundation”:EconomicRecoveryandDevelopmentofLingnanduringtheMingDynasty,–◊◊◊“AllthePeopleHaveFled”:WarandtheEnvironmentintheMidSeventeenthCenturyCrisis,–◊◊◊“RichHouseholdsCompetetoBuildShips”:OverseasTradeandEconomicRecovery◊◊◊“ItNeverUsedtoSnow”:ClimaticChangeandAgriculturalProductivity◊◊◊“ThereIsOnlyaCertainAmountofGrainProduced”:GranariesandtheRoleoftheStateintheFoodSupplySystem◊◊◊“TradeinRiceIsBrisk”:MarketIntegrationandtheEnvironment◊◊◊“PopulationIncreasesDaily,buttheLandDoesNot”:LandClearanceintheEighteenthCentury◊◊“PeopleSaidthatExtinctionWasNotPossible”:TheEcologicalConsequencesofLandClearanceConclusionBibliographyIndexviContentsMAPS,◊FIGURES,◊AND◊TABLESMapsLingnanprefectures,capagexviiLingnancounties,caxixaSouthChina,cabSouthChina,caGuangdonglandcover,caa–dPopulationdensities,ca,,,andThePearlRiverDelta,ca,,,andLeveesontheWestRiver,Tang–MingdynastiesPopulationdensity,caCultivatedland,caa–bDensityofwaterworks,caanda–bMarkets,caandTheNanyanga–bMarkets,caandGraindeficitprefectures,caGraintradeflows,caMeanpriceofrice,–StructureoftheLingnanricemarketa–bDensityofwaterworks,caandFiguresTheMeilingPass,MeanmonthlytemperatureandrainfallatGuangzhouPinusmassonianaWaterpine(shuisong)TemperaturechangesinChina,–Population(recorded)ofLingnan,–SouthChinaSeaLingnanpopulation,–viiNumberofcountiesreportingfrostorsnow,–DearthinGuangdongprovinceintheseventeenthcenturyChinesemaritimecustomsrevenue,–,byprovinceForeigntradeatGuangzhou,–ValueofIndianrawcottonimports,–China’sforeigntradebalances,fiveyearaverages,–SilverflowsatGuangzhou,–ExportsofPearlRiverdeltasilkfromGuangzhou,–PercentiledistributionofmarketdensityinLingnancounties,–Marketincreaseinselectedcounties,–ThreepatternsofmarketsystemsinLingnan(LuoYixing’smodel)Temperaturefluctuations,–Northernhemispheretemperatures,–Guangzhouwetnessindex,–AnnualcroppingcycleRicepricesincoldandwarmyearsatGuilinAnnualtemperatures,–Frost,harvestratings,andmonthlyricepricesinthePearlRiverdelta,–Northernhemispheretemperatures,–Numberofcountiesreportingpestilence,–Guangdongprovinceharvestratings,–AdverseclimaticconditionsinGuangdong,–PricespreadbetweenGuangzhouandWuzhou,–Harvestratingsandriceprices,–EstimatedpopulationofLingnan,–Countiesafflictedwithfloods,–Countiesafflictedwithdroughts,–TablesThePearlRiverdrainagebasinPopulationdensities,byprefecture,–EarlyMingpopulationreturnsforHainanIslandWaterworksinGuangdong,caMarketsinGuangdong,andPopulationandlandtotals,–Landlaidwaste,ca,byprefectureMarketdensity,caClimaticchangesinLingnan,–DeficientharvestsinGuangdongprovinceviiiMaps,Figures,andTablesFrequencyofadverseclimaticconditions,–FoodneedsforGuangdongprovince,caSupplyoffoodinGuangdongprovinceVariationofmonthlyricepricesRegressionofprefecturalmeanpriceonGuangzhoumeanEstimatedmerchantprofitsatGuangzhouCorrelationofharvestratingwithricepriceKing’slawPricechangesfollowingabundantordeficientharvestsPopulationandcultivatedlandestimates,–Prefecturalpopulationchanges,–Landreportedreclaimed,byprovince,–Maps,Figures,andTablesixDYNASTIES,◊QINGDYNASTYEMPERORS’REIGNDATES,WEIGHTS◊AND◊MEASURESxiThedynastiesofimperialChina,BCECEQin–Han–Sui–Tang–Song–Yuan–Ming–Qing–Qingdynastyemperors’reigndatesShunzhi–Kangxi–Yongzheng–Qianlong–Jiaqing–Tongzhi–Xianfeng–Tongzhi–Guangxu–Xuantong–WeightsandmeasuresArea|mu�qing|mu�acreqing�acresVolumeshi�picul�bushelshi�doudou�shengLengthzhang�feetWeightjin�poundsliang�jindan�jinshi�poundsxiiDynasties,WeightsandMeasuresCurrencysilverliang�qianqian�fensilverliang�tael,copperwen�silverliangACKNOWLEDGMENTSxiiiTheintellectual,emotional,andinstitutionaldebtsthatIhaveaccumulatedwhilewritingthisbookareenormousFortheprobityoftheirquestioning,IwanttothankJamesLee,JohnSiedensticker,andtwoanonymousreadersThroughtheirquestionsandcomments,MarkElvinandPierreEtienneWillconvincedmethatIwasontherighttrackRichardArcher,PatrickCaffrey,AlfredCrosby,ChristopherHill,JDonaldHughes,JoycePKaufman,JohnRMcNeill,RhoadsMurphey,JRichardPenn,andKennethPomeranzdidmethehonorofreadingandcommentingupontheentiremanuscript,forwhichIamexceedinglygratefultheyhelpedinwaystoonumeroustomentionOtherscritiquedpartsofthemanuscriptinvariousstagesofpreparation,andIthankeachofthem:RobertAntony,WilliamAtwell,ThomasBuoye,CaoShuji,ChenChunsheng,HelenDunstan,JosephEsherick,RobertGardella,PhilipHuang,JamesLee,LillianLi,KatherineLynch,JohnDPost,MaryRankin,ThomasRawski,GWilliamSkinner,KathyWalker,YehchienWang,andRBinWongParticipantsatvariousconferenceswhereIpresentedpreliminaryfindings–theFourthInternationalConferenceonQingSocialandEconomicHistoryatShenzhenin,theFebruarySouthernCaliforniaChinaColloquium,andtheConferenceontheHistoryoftheEnvironmentinChina–alsoprovidedhelpfulcomments,andIthankthemallSpecialthanksgotoGordonJacobyandRosanneD’ArrigoforsharingwithmetheirreconstructionofnorthernhemispheretemperaturetrendsandthenreadingadraftchapterthatincorporatedtheirfindingsQiuYuanyou,headlibrarianatBeijingTeacher’sCollege(nowCapitalNormalUniversity),introducedmetothearchivesattheNumberOneHistoricalArchivesinBeijingfellowresearchersattheNumberOne–JackWills,TomBuoye,LillianLi,RobertAntony,andDavidKelly–sharedideasandexperiencesHelenDunstangraciouslyallowedmetouseandquotefromawonderfulmanuscriptsheisworkingon,andTomBuoyesharedwithmeharvestdatahecollectedinBeijingYehchienWangmadeavailablehisricepricedata,whichIusedtocorroboratethedataIcollectedandBettyWiensgraciouslygavemeacopyofherlatehusband’s(HeroldJWiens’s)bookWhittierCollegestudentsKeithBlackandSusanIngersollentereddata,andtheformerhelpedwithpreliminarystatisticalanalysesBuildingthedigitizedmapsandgeocodingthedatathatundergirdsmuchofthisbookwouldhavebeenimpossiblewithoutthehelpofnumerouspeopleRobertHartwellselflesslysharedwithmebothwhathehadlearnedaboutgeographicinformationsystems(GIS),aswellashiscodingsystemforChina’scountiesLarryCrissmanhasbeenextraordinarilyhelpful,offeringnotonlyadviceandbasemaps,butalsothegoodofficesoftheAustralianCentreforAsianSpatialInformationandAnalysisNetwork(ASIAN)atGriffithUniversityintranslatingmyARCINFOfilestoMapInfo(neitherasmallnor,forme,insignificantfeat)QinTangofCITAS(ChinainTimeandSpace)attheUniversityofWashingtonprovidedtechnicalassistance,asdidNoelPaulandNadjaLeibersatASIANEricPatrickhelpedmetolearnanduseARCINFOatWhittierCollege’sWMKeckImageProcessingLaboratoryProfessorChenChunsheng,chairoftheHistoryDepartmentatZhongshanUniversityinGuangzhou,hasbeenofenormoushelpandsupportforthisworkIndeed,hehashadagreaterinfluenceonmyunderstandingandconceptualizationofthisworkthananyotherpersonHisinterestsandmineoverlap,andcollaboratingwithhimoverthepastdecadehasbeendelightfulIhavelearnedmuchaboutriceprices,granaries,Guangzhou,thePearlRiverdelta,Zhujigang,andthenatureofinternationalcollaborationandfriendshipfromhimIwouldliketothankProfessorYeXian’enforfirstintroducingusinwhenIpassedthroughGuangzhou,andthenbringingustogetherattheFourthInternationalConferenceonQingSocialandEconomicHistoryin,wherewesharedourinterestin,andenthusiasmandrespectfor,eachother’sworkAgrantfromtheCommitteeonScholarlyCommunicationwiththePeople’sRepublicofChina(CSCPRC)enabledChenChunshengtospendsixmonthsintheUnitedStatesinearly,andProfessorPhilipCCHuangarrangedforChentoaffiliatewiththeCenterforChineseStudiesatUCLAwethankbothfortheirsupportChenhostedmeatZhongshanUniversityinearlyfortwoweeksoffieldworkinLingnan,andIthankhimandhiswife,LiuHong,fortheirhospitalityChenalsointroducedmetoLiuZhiwei,hiscolleagueintheHistoryDepartment,whoisexceptionallyknowledgeableaboutthehistoryofthePearlRiverdeltaIthankLiuforsharingbothhisideas,especiallyaboutthePearlRiverdeltaandthemigrationsfromnorthernGuangdongintothedelta,andhiswrittenworkwithmeWithoutlibrariesandarchives,andtheirstaffs,noneofthisbookwouldhavebeenpossibleIwouldliketothanktheNumberOneHistoricalArchivesinBeijing,especiallyJuDeyuanandhisstaff,includingLiuWeiandWangDaoruitheNationalPalaceMuseuminTaibeitheLibraryofCongress,especiallyChuMiWiens,RobertDunn,andDavidHsüintheAsianDivision,andPamVaneeandthestaffoftheGeographyandMapDivisionAnnTopjonxivAcknowledgmentsoftheBonnieBellWardmanLibraryatWhittierCollegeRamonMyersandthestaffattheHooverInstitutionLibraryatStanfordUniversitytheUniversityofWisconsinLibrarytheGestLibraryatPrincetonUniversityandtheYaleUniversityLibraryAtCambridgeUniversityPress,FrankSmithmadetheprocessofgettingthemanuscripttoprintadelight,CamillaTKPalmersawitthroughproduction,andRobertRacinehelpedsharpenmyproseandargumentandsavedmefrommakingseveralerrorsGenerousfinancialsupportgavemethetimetodotheresearchandtowriteAGravesAward(administeredfortheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocietiesbyPomonaCollege)insupportedtwomonthsofresearchattheNumberOneHistoricalArchivesinBeijing,followedtwoyearslaterbyanothermonth’sresearchthereAStanfordUniversitygrantallowedmetousetheHooverInstitutionLibraryANEHTraveltoCollectionsgrantsupportedworkattheNationalPalaceMuseuminTaibei,anda–NEHFellowshipforCollegeandUniversityTeachers(FB)supportedthewritingofthisbookSupportfromtheChiangChingkuoFoundationenabledmetotraveltoHongKongtoattendtheConferenceontheHistoryoftheEnvironmentinChinainTheindulgenceoftwoWhittierCollegepresidentsgrantedmethetimetopursuemyscholarlyinterestsbyreleasingmefrommymorebureaucraticduties,andasabbaticalleaveofabsencefromWhittierCollegeprovidedanothersemesteroftimeWhittierCollegealsograntedmefundstopurchasecomputerhardwareandsoftwareGrantMcNaughtonmadehismountainhomeneartotheJohnMuirWildernessavailabletome,andcompletingthefinalrevisionsofthisbooktherewaspleasurableindeedFinally,permissiontousematerialpreviouslypublishedisgratefullyacknowledged:fromEJBrillformaterialfrommyandChenChunsheng’sarticle,“PriceInflationandItsSocial,Economic,andClimaticContextinGuangdongProvince,–,”T’oungpao,no()andfromtheSocietyofQingStudiesformaterialfrom“RicePrices,FoodSupply,andMarketStructureinEighteenthCenturySouthChina,”LateImperialChina,no(Dec)Toallofthesefriends,colleagues,students,institutions,libraries,colleges,universities,andgrantingagencies,Isay,“Thankyou”WhatevererrorsorquestionableinterpretationsthatremainareminealoneAcknowledgmentsxvxviiLingnanprefectures,caMapkey◊Lingnancounties,caCountyKeyAndingAnpingBaishanBeiliuBinzhouBobaiBoluoBoseCangwuCenxiChanghuaChangleChangningChaoyangChenghaiChengmaiChongshanChongzuoConghuaDanzhouDapuDeqingDianbaiDing’anDingluoDong’anDongguanDonglanDujieDukangDuyangEnpingFengchuanCountyKeyFengshunFengyangFengyiFogangFuchuanGan’enGaomingGaoyaoGongchengGuangningGuanyangGuiGuideGuipingGuishanGuishunGulingGuohuaHaifengHaikangHaiyangHeHechiHengzhouHepingHepuHeshanHeyuanHuaHuazhouHuaijiHuaiyuanHuilaiCountyKeyHuitongJiangzhouJiayingJie’anJielunJieyangKaijianKaipingLaibinLechangLehuiLianpingLianshanLianzhouLin’gaoLingchuanLingshanLingshuiLinguiLingyunLipuLiuchengLong’anLongchuanLongmenLongshengLongyingLongzhouLuchuanLufengLuobaiLuochengLuodingCountyKeyLuorongLuoyangMaomingMapingMingjiangNadiNamaNan’aoIsNandanNanhaiNanxiongNingmingPanyuPinglePingnanPingyuanPuningQianjiangQinzhouQingyuanQiongshanQuanzhouQuanmingQujiangRaopingRenhuaRongRongRuyuanSanshuiShanglinShanglinShanglongCountyKeyShangsiShangxiadongShichengShixingShundeSi’enSihuiSilingSuixiTaipingTengTianbaoTianheTianzhouWanzhouWanchengWenchangWengyuanWuchuanWuluWuxuanXialeiXiangzhou

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