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首页 [美]史祢迩:中国的过去,中国的未来:活力、食物、环境(兰特里奇 2004)

[美]史祢迩:中国的过去,中国的未来:活力、食物、环境(兰特里奇 2004)

[美]史祢迩:中国的过去,中国的未来:活力、食物、环境(兰特里…

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2008-10-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]史祢迩:中国的过去,中国的未来:活力、食物、环境(兰特里奇 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

dddChinahasapopulationofbillionpeople,whichputsstrainonhernaturalresourcesThisvolume,byoneoftheleadingscholarsontheearth’sbiosphere,istheresultofalifetimeofstudyonChina,andprovidesthefullestaccountyetoftheenvironmentalchallengesthatChinafacesTheauthorexaminesChina’senergyresources,theiruses,impactsandprospects,fromthesoilcrisistothepresentday,beforeanalyzingthekeyquestionofhowChinacanbestproduceenoughfoodtofeeditsenormouspopulationInansweringthisquestiontheentirefoodchain–theenvironmentalsetting,postharvestlosses,foodprocessing,accesstofoodandactualnutritionalrequirements–isexamined,aswellasthemosteffectivemethodsofagriculturalmanagementThefinalchaptersfocusuponthedramaticcosttothecountry’senvironmentcausedbyChina’srapidindustrializationThewidespreadenvironmentalproblemsdiscussedinclude:•waterandairpollution•watershortage•soilerosion•deforestation•desertification•lossofbiodiversityInconclusion,SmilarguesthatthedeclineoftheChineseecosystemandenvironmentalpollutionhascostChinaaboutpercentofherannualGDPThisbookprovidesthebestavailablesynthesisontheenvironmentalconsequencesofChina’seconomicreformprogram,andwillproveessentialreadingtoscholarswithaninterestinChinaandtheenvironmentVaclavSmilisDistinguishedProfessorintheFacultyofEnvironment,UniversityofManitoba,CanadaHeiswidelyrecognizedasoneoftheworld’sleadingauthoritiesonthebiosphereandChina’senvironmentHeistheauthorofmanybooks,includingTheEarth’sBiosphere,EnrichingtheEarth,FeedingtheWorldandChina’sEnvironmentChina’sPast,China’sFutureAsia’stransformationsEditedbyMarkSeldenBinghamtonUniversityandCornellUniversity,USAThebooksinthisseriesexplorethepolitical,social,economicandculturalconsequencesofAsia’stransformationsinthetwentiethandtwentyfirstcenturiesTheseriesemphasizesthetumultuousinterplayoflocal,national,regionalandglobalforcesasAsiabidstobecomethehuboftheworldeconomyWhilefocusingonthecontemporary,italsolooksbacktoanalysetheantecedentsofAsia’scontestedriseThisseriescomprisesseveralstrands:Asia’stransformationsaimstoaddresstheneedsofstudentsandteachers,andthetitleswillbepublishedinhardbackandpaperbackTitlesincludeTheBattleforAsiaFromDecolonizationtoGlobalizationMarkTBergerEthnicityinAsiaEditedbyColinMackerrasChineseSociety,ndeditionChange,ConflictandResistanceEditedbyElizabethJPerryandMarkSeldenTheResurgenceofEastAsia,andYearPerspectivesEditedbyGiovanniArrighi,TakeshiHamashitaandMarkSeldenTheMakingofModernKoreaAdrianBuzoKoreanSocietyCivilSociety,DemocracyandtheStateEditedbyCharlesKArmstrongRemakingtheChineseStateStrategies,SocietyandSecurityEditedbyChienminChaoandBruceJDicksonMao’sChildrenintheNewChinaVoicesfromtheRedGuardGenerationYarongJiangandDavidAshleyChineseSocietyChange,ConflictandResistanceEditedbyElizabethJPerryandMarkSeldenOpium,EmpireandtheGlobalPoliticalEconomyCarlATrockiJapan’sComfortWomenSexualSlaveryandProstitutionduringWorldWarIIandtheUSOccupationYukiTanakaHongKong’sHistoryStateandSocietyunderColonialRuleEditedbyTakWingNgoDebatingHumanRightsCriticalEssaysfromtheUnitedStatesandAsiaEditedbyPeterVanNessAsia’sgreatcities:Eachvolumeaimstocapturetheheartbeatofthecontemporarycityfrommultipleperspectivesemblematicoftheauthor’sowndeepfamiliaritywiththedistinctivefacesofthecity,itshistory,society,culture,politicsandeconomics,anditsevolvingpositioninnational,regionalandglobalframeworksWhilemostvolumesemphasizeurbandevelopmentssincetheSecondWorldWar,somepaycloseattentiontothelegacyofthelongueduréeinshapingthecontemporaryThematicandcomparativevolumesaddresssuchthemesasurbanization,economicandfinanciallinkages,architectureandspace,wealthandpower,genderedrelationships,planningandanarchy,andethnographiesinnationalandregionalperspectiveTitlesincludeAsiacomisaserieswhichfocusesonthewaysinwhichnewinformationandcommunicationtechnologiesareinfluencingpolitics,societyandcultureinAsiaTitlesincludeRoutledgeCurzonstudiesinAsia’stransformationsisaforumforinnovativenewresearchintendedforahighlevelspecialistreadership,andthetitleswillbeavailableinhardbackonlyTitlesincludeAsiacomAsiaEncounterstheInternetEditedbyKCHo,RandolphKluverandKennethCCYangJapaneseCyberculturesEditedbyMarkMcLellandandNanetteGottliebChineseMedia,GlobalContextsEditedbyChinChuanLeeImperialisminSouthEastAsia“AFleeting,PassingPhase”HongKongGlobalCityStephenChiuandTaiLokLuiShanghaiGlobalCityJeffWasserstromSingaporeCarlTrockiBeijingintheModernWorldDavidStrandandMadelineYueDongBangkokPlace,PracticeandRepresentationMarcAskewCriticalAsianscholarshipisaseriesintendedtoshowcasethemostimportantindividualcontributionstoscholarshipinAsianStudiesEachofthevolumespresentsaleadingAsianscholaraddressingthemesthatarecentraltohisorhermostsignificantandlastingcontributiontoAsianstudiesTheseriesiscommittedtotherichvarietyofresearchandwritingonAsia,andisnotrestrictedtoanyparticulardiscipline,theoreticalapproachorgeographicalexpertiseInternationalizingthePacificTheUnitedStates,JapanandtheInstituteofPacificRelationsinWarandPeace,–TomokoAkamiKoreansinJapanCriticalVoicesfromtheMarginEditedbySoniaRyangTheAmericanOccupationofJapanandOkinawa*LiteratureandMemoryMichaelMolasky*nowavailableinpaperbackChina’sPast,China’sFutureEnergy,Food,EnvironmentVaclavSmilChinaUnboundEvolvingPerspectivesontheChinesePastPaulACohenWomenandtheFamilyinChineseHistoryPatriciaBuckleyEbreySoutheastAsiaATestamentGeorgeMcTKahinVaclavSmilChina’sPast,China’sFutureEnergy,food,environmentFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeCurzonWestthStreet,NewYork,NYSimultaneouslypublishedintheUKbyRoutledgeCurzonNewFetterLane,LondonECPEERoutledgeCurzonisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©VaclavSmilAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSmil,VaclavChina’spast,China’sfuture:energy,food,environmentVaclavSmilpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexChina–EnvironmentalconditionsPowerresources–ChinaFoodsupply–ChinaITitleGECC''–dcISBN–––(hbk)ISBN–––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ForisandisnotcometogetherHardandeasyarecomplementaryLongandshortarerelativeHighandlowarecomparativePitchandsoundmakeharmonyBeforeandafterareasequenceLaozi,DaodejingListofillustrationsxiPrefacexiiiAcknowledgmentsxivListofabbreviationsxviIntroduction:China’sbiophysicalfoundationsMyChineseexperiencesChallengesofunderstandingInterdisciplinaryperspectivesEnergyHalfacenturyofadvancesThecontinuingimportanceoftraditionalenergiesAfailedstrategyFromanewSaudiArabiatoconcernsaboutoilsecurityAremarkableshiftinenergyintensitiesFoodTheworld’sgreatestfamineFromsubsistencetosatietyDietarytransitionsNitrogeninChina’sagricultureCanChinafeeditselfEnvironmentAttitudesandconstraintsThefirstofthefiveelementsChina’senvironmentandsecurityThecostofChina’senvironmentalchangeMegaprojectsandChina’senvironmentContentsLookingaheadbylookingbackFailedforecastsContendingtrendsAppendixBibliographyIndexxContentsTablesChina’saveragefoodpercapitaavailability,s–sEconomiccostsattributabletoairandwaterpollutionEconomiccostsattributabletolandusechangesandsoildegradationAUnitsofmeasurementAQuantitativeabbreviationsFiguresGrowthofChina’sfossilfuelextractionandhydroelectricitygeneration,–China’ssedimentarybasinsEnergyflowsinChina’sagroecosysteminChina’sruralenergyconsumptionAnefficientstovedesignedinShandong’sWenshangcountyinLongtermtrendsofenergyintensitiesintheUSA,Canada,UKandJapan,–EnergyintensityofChina’seconomy,–Averagepercapitaavailabilityoffoodenergyanddietaryprotein,–AreasannuallyaffectedbydroughtandfloodinChina,–TotalandpercapitagrainproductioninChina,–OfficiallyreportedandreconstructedmortalityinChina,–TrendsinaveragesupplyoffoodenergyinChina,IndiaandJapan,–RisingsharesofsyntheticfertilizersinChina’ssupplyofagriculturalnitrogenChina’sdietarytransition,–China’sfluctuatinggrainharvestsandaveragepercapitagrainsupply,–ProvincialdifferencesbetweentheavailabilityofagriculturallandIllustrationsPastandfuturegrowthofChina’spopulation,–PatternofChina’saverageannualprecipitationDistributionoftheannualshareofsummerrainsExpansionofChina’sirrigatedland,–ThetwoSouthNorthwatertransferroutesunderconstructionLANDSATimageofthedoublybifurcatedDanjiangkoureservoirinnorthernHubeiandsouthernHenanLANDSATimagesofSanmenxiareservoirxiiIllustrationsAllbuttwoofmybookshavehadthesamerandomlymethodicalgenesisMonthsoryearsaftercomingupwiththeinitialidea(asfarasIcanrecalltheshortestperiodwaslessthanhalfayear,thelongestonenearlyadecade)Ieventuallyputtogetherabriefproposalforapublisher,andthengotdowntointensivewriting,withthebook’stitlebeingusuallythelastthingThefirstexceptionwasTheBadEarth,thefirstbookonChina’senvironment:afterreadingmypaperonthattopicinAsianSurvey,DougMerwinofMESharpesuggestedthatIwritethebook,andhealsochoseitstitleThisbookisthesecond,andevenmorenotable,exceptionIwouldhaveeventuallydoneabroadsurveyofChina’senvironmentevenwithoutDoug’sprompting–butIamnotsoselfindulgenttocomeupwiththeideaofaretrospectivevolumeofmyChinawritingsInfact,ifCraigFowlieandMarkSeldenhadaskedmemerelyforthatIwouldhavehesitated,andlikelysaidnoButtheirideaoftheCriticalAsianScholarshipseriesasthecombinationofrethinkingandcommentingonpreviouslypublishedworktogetherwithnew,orunpublished,materialwasimmediatelyappealing–andIbeganworkingonthebookinJuly,withinweeksoffinishingEnergyattheCrossroadsMarkalsosuggested,upfront,whatIthinkisaveryappositetitleMythanksgoalsotoDougFast,whoreproducedalloldillustrationsandwhocreatedanumberofnewones,andtojournalandbookpublisherswhogavepermissionstoreprintselectionsfromabouttwentyfivedifferentpublicationsThesereprintstakealmostthreefifthsofthebookTheremainderismadeupofunpublished(andupdated)pieces,andofnewessaysonChina’sruralfueluse,energyintensityofthecountry’seconomy,the–famine,dietarytransition,nitrogeninChina’sagriculture,andonworrisomeanddesirablemegaprojectsThankstoZoeBotterillforguidingthetypescriptthroughthepublicationprocessFinally,afewtechnicaldetailsForthesakeofconsistency,allChinesenamesaretranscribedinpinyinThemetricsystemisusedforallmeasurements,andbecausesomanyunits,scientificprefixesandacronymsareusedinthebookIhaveprovideddetailedexplanationsoftheseTheHarvardsystemofreferencingisnotusedonlyinafewinstanceswherethereprintsofcomplete,orslightlyabridged,articlesretaintheiroriginalreferencingoranumberedcombinationofreferencesandnotesPrefaceTheauthorandpublisherswouldliketothankthefollowingforgrantingpermissiontoreproducematerialinthiswork:TheAmericanGeographicalSocietyforreprintingpartsof“ControllingtheYellowRiver”,TheGeographicalReview:–,TheAsianWallStreetJournalforreprinting“China’smegaprojectsforthenewmillennium”,April,p“China’sunstablepastandfuture”,September,pand“‘Water,watereverywhere…’”,August,pTheBritishMedicalJournalforreprinting“China’sgreatfamine:yearslater”,:–,TheChinaQuarterlyforreprinting“China’senergyandresourceuses:continuityandchange”,:–,CurrentHistoryforreprintingselectionsfrom“FoodinChina”,():–,–,“Eatingbetter:farmingreformsandfoodinChina”,():–,–,“FeedingChina”,():–,FoodPolicyforreprintingselectionsfrom“China’sfood”,():–,HelenDwightReidEducationalFoundationforreprintingVaclavSmil,“Chinashouldersthecostofenvironmentalchange”,Environment():–,–,ReprintedwithpermissionoftheHelenDwightReidEducationalFoundationPublishedbyHeldrefPublications,thSt,NW,WashingtonDC–wwwheldreforghtmlenvhtmlCopyright©InstituteofInternationalRelationsinTaipeiforreprintingselectionsfrom“CommunistChina’soilexports:acriticalevaluation”,IssuesandStudies():–,“CommunistChina’soilexportsrevisited”,IssuesandStudies():–,and“FoodavailabilityinCommunistChina:–”,IssuesandStudies():–,JohnsHopkinsUniversityPressforreprinting“China’senvironmentandsecurity:simplemythsandcomplexrealities”,SAISReview:–,KluwerAcademicPlenumPublishersforreprintingVaclavSmil,“EnergyflowsinruralChina”,HumanEcology():–,MITPressforreprintingthefinalchapterfromFeedingtheWorld:AChallengefortheTwentyfirstCentury,CambridgeMA:MITPress,,pp–PraegerPublishersforreprintingselectionsfromChina’sEnergy:Achievements,Problems,Prospects,NewYork:PraegerPublishers,,pp–,–,–,AcknowledgmentsMESharpeforreprintingselectionsfromVaclavSmil,TheBadEarth:EnvironmentalDegradationinChina,Armonk:MESharpe,,pp,,,–,copyright©byMESharpe,IncVaclavSmil,EnergyinChina’sModernization:AdvancesandLimitations,Armonk:MESharpe,,pp–,–,,–,–,copyright©byMESharpe,IncVaclavSmil,China’sEnvironmentalCrisis:AnInquiryintotheLimitsofNationalDevelopment,Armonk:MESharpe,,pp–,–ReprintedwithpermissionTheNewYorkReviewofBooksforreprintingselectionsfrom“IsthereenoughChinesefood”,():–,ReprintedwithpermissionfromTheNewYorkReviewofBooksCopyright©NYREV,IncOxfordUniversityPressforreprintingashortselectionfromVaclavSmil,Energy,Food,Environment:Realities,Myths,Options,Oxford:ClarendonPress,,pp–PopulationandDevelopmentReviewforreprintingselectionsfrom“FoodproductionandqualityofdietinChina”,:–,,pp,,,–RoutledgeforreprintingthecompletetextofSmil,V,“ThreeGorgesProject”,inInternationalEncyclopediaofEnvironmentalPolitics,edsJBarryandEGFrankland,London:Routledge,,pp–EveryefforthasbeenmadetocontactcopyrightholdersfortheirpermissiontoreprintmaterialinthisbookThepublisherswouldbegratefultohearfromanycopyrightholderwhoisnothereacknowledged,andwillundertaketorectifyanyerrorsoromissionsinfutureeditionsofthisbookAcknowledgmentsxvBBCBritishBroadcastingCorporationBPBritishPetroleumCIACentralIntelligenceAgencyCNPCChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationEIenergyintensityEIAEnergyInformationAdministrationEUEuropeanUnionFAOFoodandAgricultureOrganizationFYPfiveyearplanGDPgrossdomesticproductICOLDInternationalCommitteeonLargeDamsIDRCInternationalDevelopmentResearchCenterIEAInternationalEnergyAgencyLNGliquefiednaturalgasNBSNationalBureauofStatistics(Beijing)NCNANewChinaNewsAgencyOECDOrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentOPECOrganizationofPetroleumExportingCountriesPPPpurchasingpowerparityPRCPeople’sRepublicofChinaROCRepublicofChinaRWEDPRegionalWoodEnergyDevelopmentProgramSBStatisticsBureau(Tokyo)SSBStateStatisticalBureau(Beijing)TPEStotalprimaryenergysupplyUNDPUnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramUNOUnitedNationsOrganizationUSDAUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureWHOWorldHealthOrganizationWTOWorldTradeOrganizationAbbreviationsWesternwritingsonChinahavealwaysbeendominatedbysocialperspectivesasanthropologists,economists,ethnographers,historians,journalists,linguistsandstudentsofmilitaryandpoliticalaffairsprovidedawealthofinterpretationsrangingfromoverzealousephemeraproducedbyinstantexpertstobalancedandwellarguedexposésauthoredbylongtimeobserverswithdeepandnuancedunderstandingofthecountryAsanaturalscientistwithakeeninterestinhistoryandpoliticsIenjoyedreadingmanysurveys,appraisalsandforecaststhatwerereevaluatingChina’sachievementsandprospectsduringtheearlysButeverysocietyiscreatedbyacomplexinterplayofnaturalandhumanfactors–andIfeltthatsomefundamentalperspectivesconcerningChina’sbiophysicalfoundationswerecoveredonlymarginallyorthattheywereentirelyabsentInIdecidedtostartfillingsomeofthesegapsEnergywasthefirstobviouschoice,asitsconversionsarerequiredforeverynaturalandhumanactivityandasanynation’sfortunes,betheyeconomicorpolitical,arecloselytiedtothemodes,ratesandefficienciesofitsuseThisfocuswasespeciallyappositeatthetimewhenOPEC’squintuplingofcrudeoilpricesin–finallyledtheWesternworldtopaymoreattentiontoenergyresourcesandusesConvertingmyresolutionintorealitywasnotamatterofweeks,ormonthsMyinterestinenergystudiespredatedbyadecadethesuddenburstofinterestinfuelsandelectricitybroughtaboutbyOPEC’sactions,andsobyIknewagreatdealaboutEurope’s,Russia’sandAmerica’senergyButinformationonChina’senergyaccessibleintheWest,oreveninsideChina,wasatthat

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[美]史祢迩:中国的过去,中国的未来:活力、食物、环境(兰特里奇 2004)

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