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首页 [美]奥德利·威尔斯:孙中山的政治理想:发展与冲突(帕尔格雷夫 2001)

[美]奥德利·威尔斯:孙中山的政治理想:发展与冲突(帕尔格雷夫 2001)

[美]奥德利·威尔斯:孙中山的政治理想:发展与冲突(帕尔格雷夫…

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简介:本文档为《[美]奥德利·威尔斯:孙中山的政治理想:发展与冲突(帕尔格雷夫 2001)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThePoliticalThoughtofSunYatsenDevelopmentandImpactAudreyWellsThePoliticalThoughtofSunYatsenwellscrc:pmPageAlsobyAudreyWellsandpublishedbyPalgraveBRITAINANDSOVIETCOMMUNISM(withFSNorthedge)wellscrc:pmPageThePoliticalThoughtofSunYatsenDevelopmentandImpactAudreyWellsProfessorofPoliticsRegent’sCollegeLondonwellscrc:pmPage©AudreyWellsAllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoparagraphofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedherrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedbyPALGRAVEHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,NYCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEisthenewglobalacademicimprintofStMartin’sPressLLCScholarlyandReferenceDivisionandPalgravePublishersLtd(formerlyMacmillanPressLtd)ISBN–––ThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataWells,AudreyThepoliticalthoughtofSunYatsen:developmentandimpactAudreyWellspcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–––Sun,Yatsen,–ViewsonpoliticalscienceITitleDSW’dcPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,Chippenham,Wiltshirewellscrc:pmPageTotheMemoryofmyParentsThispageintentionallyleftblankviiContentsPrefacexAcknowledgementsxiiIntroductionxiiiTheEarlyEvolutionofSunYatsen’sPoliticalThoughtSun’spetitiontoLiHungchanginThefoundingoftheHsingChungHuiininHawaiiTheHongKongManifestooftheHsingChungHuiTheDevelopmentofSunYatsen’sPoliticalIdeasinEngland,–Sun’s‘twoyear’stayin‘Europe’meeting‘leadingpoliticians’Sun’ssocialcircleSun’sreadingSunYatsen’spublicationsTheThreePrinciplesofthePeopleHenryGeorgeandSunYatsenSun’sWesternInfluencesintheJapaneseCrucibleTheinfluenceofJohanKasparBluntschliSun’spoliticalideasinSun’sThoughtbetweenand:PopulismandElitismDirectdemocracyandlocalselfgovernmentTheInternationalDevelopmentofChinaThePsychologicalReconstructionofChinaSun’sThoughtbetweenand:NationalReconstructionIntroductionTheFundamentalsofNationalReconstructionviiiContentsSun’sThreePrinciplesofthePeople:ThePrincipleofNationalismIntroductionLectureLectureLectureLectureLectureLectureAcomparisonbetweenSun’sPrincipleofNationalismasexpressedinandinAcritiqueofSun’sTheoryofNationalismSun’sThreePrinciplesofthePeople:ThePrincipleofDemocracyLectureLectureLectureLectureLectureLectureAcomparisonofSun’sPrincipleofDemocracyasexpressedinandinAcritiqueofSun’sTheoryofDemocracySun’sThreePrinciplesofthePeople:ThePrincipleofLivelihoodLectureLectureLectureLectureThedevelopmentofSun’sPrincipleofLivelihood,–AcritiqueofSun’sPrincipleofLivelihoodTheinfluenceofMauriceWilliamTheInfluenceofChristianityonSunYatsenSun’sTaipingChristianitySun’ssincerityTheInfluenceofConfucianismonSunYatsenSun’sclassicallearningTheConfucianrevolutionaryContentsixTheDevelopmentofSunYatsen’sPoliticalThoughtbyChiangKaishekChiang’santiCommunismChiang’srepressionTheDevelopmentofSunYatsen’sIdeasbyWangChingwei,HuHanminandTaiChit’aoWangChingweiTaiChit’aoHuHanminSunYatsen’sThreePrinciplesandtheChineseCommunistPartyTheUnitedFrontTheCommuniststateDemocracyTheImplementationofSunYatsen’sThreePrinciplesinTaiwanTheimplementationofSun’sPrincipleofLivelihoodinlandreformTheimplementationofSun’sPrincipleofLivelihoodintheindustrialsectorofTaiwan’seconomyTheimplementationofSun’spoliticalideasinTaiwanSunYatsenandOtherThirdWorldCountries:Indonesia,VietnamandthePhilippinesIndonesiaVietnamSunYatsenandthePhilippinesSunYatsen’sInfluenceonMuammarGaddafiDemocracySocialismNationalismConclusionNotesBibliographyIndexxPrefaceMypurposeinwritingthisbookistoexaminethedevelopmentofSunYatsen’spoliticalthoughtanditsimpactFirstItraceSun’srevolutionaryideasfromthenineteenthtothetwentiethcenturyIbeginbylookingattheearlydevelopmentofSun’sthoughtwhenhewasinChinauntilInthesecondchapterIstudySun’sexperiencesinEnglandduring–inmuchdetailsincehelaterclaimedhisThreePrincipleswereformulatedduringthatperiodIarguethathisclaimissubstantiatedMythirdchapterdealswithSun’sstayinJapanandsummariseshisThreePrinciplesasheexpressedtheminIthenexaminethedevelopmentofSun’sthoughtbetweenandIclaimthatSuncametobelieveintheimportanceofdirectdemocracyearlierthanthetimesuggestedbycurrentscholarshipSun’sTheInternationalDevelopmentofChina,whichanticipatedTengHsiaop’ing’sopeningChinatoforeigncapital,isalsodiscussedinthischapterInextconsiderSun’sothermajorworksbetweenand:TheFundamentalsofNationalReconstructionandTheThreePrinciplesofthePeopleIarguethatSun’sideasarenotonlystillrelevanttoChinabutthatsomeofthemarepertinenttoWesternliberaldemocraticthoughtHisideasonsocialismcanbeusedintheThirdWorldInthetwosubsequentchaptersIdiscussSun’sunconventionalChristianityandhisunorthodoxConfucianismIthenconsiderthelaterimpactofSun’sthoughtonChineserevolutionaryleadersaswellasonThirdWorldcountriesTheseincludenotonlyChinaandTaiwanbutalsoIndonesia,Vietnam,thePhilippinesandGaddafi’sLibyaThislaststudyismyoriginalcontributiontoanappreciationoftheimpactofSun’sthoughtItmightbeappropriateheretomentionhowIdiscoveredalinkbetweenSunYatsenandMuammarGaddafiWhileteachingacourseonArabpoliticsIreadGaddafi’sTheGreenBookIwasstruckbythesimilaritybetweenhisideasandSun’sThreePrinciplesIthought,however,thattherecouldbenoevidentialconnectionandforgotaboutthematterThenIread,surprisinglyintheEveningStandard,onJanuary,aquotationfromGaddafiinwhichhementionedSunYatsenIwasthereforeencouragedtosearchGaddafi’swritingsandinterviewsforhisreferringtoSunYatsenIfoundtworeferences:inMirellaBianco’sGaddafi:VoicefromtheDesertandinMusaMKousa’sMAthesisMuamarPrefacexiQadafi:TheLibyanLeaderIthenreturnedtostudythesimilaritiesbetweenGaddafi’sandSun’spoliticalthoughtItisdifficulttosumupthisbook,butbasicallyIamsuggestingthatSun’spoliticalthoughtwasandstillissignificantnotonlytoChinabutalsototherestoftheworldTheWesternpowerswereshortsightedintreatinghimandhisideasdismissivelyOnatechnicalnote:IhaveendeavouredtousetheWade–GilessystemofromanisationthroughoutIhopethisbookwillbeamodestcontributiontothedebateonthesignificanceofSunYatsen’spoliticalideasAUDREYWELLSxiiAcknowledgementsIamdeeplyindebtedtomysupervisorattheLSE,DrJohnMorall,forhispatience,encouragementandstimulusinsupervisingmyPhDthesisIamalsogratefultoJackGrayandDavidSteedsfortheircommentsonitsscriptMyuseofthemisofcoursemyresponsibilityIowemuchtothelateGrahamBevan(whounusuallyforaretiredbiochemistenjoyedtypingscripts)notonlyforhisefficientwordprocessingbutalsoforhisperceptivecommentsTohissonJason,whogallantlytookoverthetypingofthebook,IequallyowemanythanksAUDREYWELLSxiiiIntroductionSunYatsen’spoliticalthoughtisrelevanttoChinatodayThedebateoverwhetherChinesesocietyissuitedtosomeformofdemocracyhasyettoberesolvedIn,whenSunwaswriting,studentsdemonstratedinPekingforWesternlibertiesSuncommentedontheirslogan:‘Givemelibertyorgivemedeath’Chinesestudents,intranslatingWesterntheories,haveintroducedthesewordsintoChinaButthemassofthepeopleinChinadonotunderstandwhatlibertymeansEightyyearslaterstudentsinT’ienanmenSquareechoedthecriesoftheirpredecessorsHowever,theChineseCommunistPartydoesnotbelievethatWesterndemocracyisappropriatetoChinaastronggovernmentisneededtokeepChinaunitedandstableThisbeliefwasalsoheldbySunYatsen,buthedevisedauniquesynthesisofWesternandChinesepoliticalideaswhich,heargued,wouldgiveChinaastronggovernmentandthepeopledemocraticcontrolItwouldbesuperiortoanyWesternformofdemocracySunYatsen’srevolutiontoppledtheManchudynastyin,andheisstillregardedastheFatherofModernChinaonthemainlandandinTaiwanHisimpactwasnotmerelyinhisrevolutionaryactionsthepoliticalleadersoftheChineseCommunistPartyandofTaiwanhaveclaimedtohavedevelopedhisTheThreePrinciplesofthePeoplewhichhefullyexpoundedinHispoliticalthoughthasbeendramaticallyandvariouslyassessedHisThreePrinciplesandotherworks(theoriginalmanuscriptsofwhichweredestroyedbyenemygunfirein)havebeenridiculedfortheirinchoatestateHisidealismhasbeenseentoindicatealackofrealismInTheWestinRussiaandChina,forexample,DonaldWTreadgoldspeaksdismissivelyofSun’s‘hodgepodgeofslogansderivedfromtheWest’Incontrast,RichardWilhelmreferredtohisthoughtthus:ThegreatnessofSunYatsenrests,therefore,uponthefactthathehasfoundalivingsynthesisbetweenthefundamentalprinciplesofConfucianismandthedemandsofmoderntimes,asynthesiswhich,beyondthebordersofChina,canagainbecomesignificantxivIntroductionWFrankeinACenturyofChineseRevolutiondoesviewSun’sworkwithadmirationHowever,forthishehasbeenseverelycriticised:FrankeviewsSunas‘idealisticandunselfish’andtheleaderoftheChineseRevolutionintheearlydecadesofthecenturyNorareSun’s‘ThreePeople’sPrinciples’worththeemphasisgiventhemPresidentSukarnoofIndonesia,ontheotherhand,viewedSun’spoliticalthoughtwithgreatrespect:InhisworkSanMinChuI,or‘TheThreePeople’sPrinciples’,IfoundalessonTherefore,ifthewholeChinesepeopleconsiderDrSunYatsentheirpreceptor,besurethatBungKarnoalso,anIndonesian,withtheuttermostrespectwillfeelgratefultoDrSunYatsenuntilheliesinhisgraveIn,SimonLeysinTheChairman’sNewClothessawfittoremark:Itissymptomatic,whereSunYatsenisconcerned,thatsinceSharman’scompetentbutrudimentaryanddated()study,noseriousworkhasbeenpublishedorundertakenintheWestAtthetimeofLey’swriting,HZSchiffrin’sstudyofSunYatsenandtheOriginsoftheChineseRevolution,whichisperhapsthemostbalancedassessment,wentonlyasfarasSincethen,in,SchiffrinextendedhisstudyofSunYatsenuntil,andCMartinWilbur’sworkonSunYatsen:FrustratedPatriot()hasbeenavaluablecontributiontoilluminatingSun’scareerJYWong()hasexerted‘strangevigour’,heroicstandardsofresearchandstoutbootsinattemptingtoshowSun’sheroicimagewasamythoriginatinginLondonduring–MorerecentlySidneyHChangandLeonardHDGordonhavewrittenanadmirableaccountofSunYatsenandhisrevolutionarythoughtinAllUnderHeaven()However,asMarieClaireBergèreinherscholarlyandhighlyreadablebiographySunYatsen()haspointedout,‘intheWest,Sun’sThreePrinciplesofthePeoplehasneverbeenratedasoneofthegreatworksofcontemporaryChinesethought’Indeed,itcouldstillbearguedthatSunYatsen’stheorieshavebeentreatedwithcontemptbymostWesternacademicsThisispartlyduetothefactthatsome,althoughcertainlynotall,ofhisideaswereunsoundandtheywerenotpresentedinanacademicallyimpressivewayasheIntroductionxvwastooillintorewritethedestroyedoriginalmanuscriptsSun’scourageousoriginalitywasreceivedunsympatheticallyAboveall,Sun’sideaswereneverimplementedHisrevolutionappearedtohavefailedHisideasmight,therefore,seemnottomeritseriousstudyNevertheless,someofthegreatestrevolutionaryleaders,includingMaoTsetung,ChouEnlai,aswellasSukarno,respectedhimItisarguedinthisbookthatGaddafiwasinfluencedbyhisideasIndeeditislikelythatSun’sideashavesignificanceevennowandnotjustforChinaThispageintentionallyleftblankTheEarlyEvolutionofSunYatsen’sPoliticalThoughtSunYatsenwasbornonNovemberinthevillageofTs’uiheng(Choyhung)intheHsiangshancountyofKwangtungprovinceHisfatherwasafarmerwho,becauseofthepoorsoilinhisvillageandexorbitanttaxes,hadtosupplementhisearningsbylabouringinnearbyMacaoSunhadatraditionalChineseupbringingandisdepictedinphotographsofhisyouthwearingaskullcap,queueandalonggownHehadanearlyeducationintheclassicsHelearnedabouttheTaipingRebellionanditsleaderHungHsiuch’üanbecamehisheroWhenhewasSunwenttojoinhiseldestbrother,SunMei,whohadbecomeasuccessfulbusinessmaninHawaiiThereSunreceivedaWesterneducationandlearnedEnglishThesefouraspectsofSun’searlylife:hisexperiencesoftheproblemsofpeasantfarming,hisChineseandWesterneducationandadmirationfortheTaipingRebellionweretohaveaprofoundinfluenceonhispoliticalthoughtOnefurtherpointwhichseemsnevertohavebeenmentionedbeforeisthatinaspeechinSunrecalled:InmyboyhoodIwasfullofcuriosity,andoncespentseveralmonthsinteachingfiveorsixthousandpeopleinmybirthplacetounderstandthattheearthisroundWhileSunmighthaveexaggeratedthesizeofhisaudience,thisstatementindicatesthatearlyinlifeSunprobablyhadamagisteriallikeobligationtoeducatehiscompatriotsinnewtruthswhichhadascientificbasisandabeliefthatthemasseswouldwanttobeenlightenedUntilhisdeathSunshowedthisfaithandobligationtopreachThePoliticalThoughtofSunYatsenInHawaiiSunenrolledintheAnglicanIolanischoolandintransferredtoOahuCollege,anAmericanCongregationalistschoolHowever,atthistimehisbrotherreportedSun’sinvolvementwithWesternChristianitytohisfatherwhoorderedSunhomeThere,withafriend,LuHaotung,hedamagedthreeidolsinthevillagetemple,includingtheonehismotherhaddedicatedforhimTheconsequentangerofthevillagecausedhimtodepart,attheageof,forHongKongSun’sheroHungHsiuch’üanhadalsomutilatedhisvillage’sidolsItispossiblethatbyhisextremeactionSunwasrevealingthemainspringofhisrevolutionarypersonality:aChristianfaithbasedonrebellionItisreasonabletoassumethatSunwasacquaintedwiththeideasoftheTaipingRebellionsincehischildhoodwasspentinitsaftermathandSunshowedsuchadmirationfortheTaipingleader,HungHsiuch’üanTheTaipinginfluenceonSun’sChristianitywillbeconsideredinthechapteronthatsubjectHowever,itisarguablethatSun’santiManchufeelingsexpressedlaterinwerepartlyinfluencedbytheideasoftheTaipingRebellionMoreover,thelatter’sleadersproclaimedtheiridealwasakingdominwhich‘nowherewillinequalityexistandnoonenotbewellfedandclothed’Sunneverexpressedadesireforcompleteequality,neitherdidheseemeveropenlytoacknowledgetheinfluenceoftheTaipingRebellion,onhisthoughtHewouldhavebeenfoolishhadhedonesoinManchuChinawhichhadcrushedtheTaipingRebellion,orinEnglandwhichhadaidedtheManchutodosoTherewouldappeartoexistnodocumentaryevidenceofthedirectideationalinfluenceoftheTaipingRebelliononhimNevertheless,becauseSunadmireditsleaderssomuchitisrationaltoassumeSun’sthinkingwasaffectedbyitInordertounderstandthedevelopmentofSun’sthoughtitisimportanttorememberthatunlikemostpoliticaltheoristsSunwasalsoapoliticianwhohadtobecarefultokeepthesupportofcertainsocialclassesorforeignpowersforhiscauseEvenwhenfoundingtheHsingChungHuiin,SunneededtotailorhisideastosuittheoverseasChinesebusinessmenwhosupporteditThereforehadSunentertainedanyideasoftheextremeTaipingsocialistvarietyitwouldhavebeenimpoliticofhimtoexpressthemLaterintheWest,SunwantedtogainthesupportofforeigngovernmentstoaidhiscauseSunmayhaveneededtocutandtrimhisideastosuithispoliticalneeds,butunlikemostpoliticaltheoristshealsoaimedatachievingpowertoimplementthemonalargeproportionoftheworld’spopulationwhichstillrespecthimForthatreasonhisideasandtheirdevelopmentareofparticularinterestTheEarlyEvolutionofSun’sThoughtThereforeSun’searlylifeinHongKongtowherehehadtofleetoescapethewrathofhisvillageoverhisiconoclasm,willnowbeconsideredInHongKonginSunenteredaChurchofEnglandschoolbutwhilereceivingaWesterneducationhewastutoredintheclassicsbyCh’üFengch’ih,aChristianministerconnectedwiththeLondonMissionarySocietyHegaveSun(whowasgiventhenameTihsiangatbirthbutwasknownas‘SunWen’)thename‘Yatsen’InalettertothesinologistHerbertGiles(whowascompilingaChinesebiographicaldictionaryin),Sunsaidthathelikedthe‘ThreeDynastiesandtheclassicsofthetwoHans’BythattimehewasgreatlyattractedtoDarwinismIn,SuntransferredtoQueen’sCollegeinHongKongThen,followinganassociationwithanAmericanmissionary,CharlesHager,SunwasbaptisedYetSunalsoagreedtothemarriagehisparentshadarrangedforhimHiswiferemainedintheirhouseholdwhilehepursuedhiscareerwhichin,attheageof,hehaddecidedwouldbemedicineHeenteredtheCantonMedicalSchoolwhichwasunderthedirectionofanAmerican

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