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首页 [美]洪长泰著:战争与大众文化:近代中国的抵抗(加州大学 1995)

[美]洪长泰著:战争与大众文化:近代中国的抵抗(加州大学 1995)

[美]洪长泰著:战争与大众文化:近代中国的抵抗(加州大学 19…

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PreferredCitation:Hung,ChangtaiWarandPopularCulture:ResistanceinModernChina,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftmWarandPopularCultureResistanceinModernChina,–ChangtaiHungUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeley·LosAngeles·Oxford©TheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaForWaihanPreferredCitation:Hung,ChangtaiWarandPopularCulture:ResistanceinModernChina,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftmForWaihan―xi―AbbreviationsDGBDagongbao(ImpartialdailyoriginaltitleL'Impartial)Tianjin,Hankou,Chongqing,HongKong,–GMGuangming(Light)Shanghai,June–OctoberJFRBJiefangribao(Liberationdaily)Yan'an,–JWMHJiuwangmanhua(Nationalsalvationcartoons)Shanghai,September–NovemberJWRBJiuwangribao(Nationalsalvationdaily)Shanghai,Guangzhou,Guilin,–KDDKangdaodi(Resistingtilltheend)Hankou,Chongqing,January–NovemberKRZZYKangRizhanzhengshiqiYan'anjigekangRiminzhugenjudiwenxueyundongzhiliao(MaterialsontheliterarymovementinYan'anandotherantiJapanesedemocraticbaseareasduringtheWarofResistance)volsEditedbyLiuZengjieetalTaiyuan:Shanxirenminchubanshe,KZWYKangzhanwenyi(Resistanceliteratureandart)Hankou,Chongqing,May–MayKZWYYJKangzhanwenyiyanjiu(Studiesonresistanceliteratureandart)Chengdu,–LYLunyu(Theanalects)Shanghai,September–AugustQGXJQuanguomanhuazuojiakangzhanjiezuoxuanji(tablecontinuedonnextpage)―xii―(tablecontinuedfrompreviouspage)(SelectedworksofChinesecartoonistsontheWarofResistance)EditedbyHuangMiaoziNp:Zhanwangshuwu,SDMHShidaimanhua(Moderncartoons)Shanghai,January–JuneXJCQXijuchunqui(Dramaannals)Guilin,November–OctoberXJSDXijushidai(Dramatimes)Shanghai,May–AugustXWJZXinwenjizhe(Thereporter)Hankou,April–MarchXWXSLXinwenxueshiliao(Historicalmaterialsonthenewliterature)Beijing,XWYJZLXinwenyanjiuziliao(Researchmaterialsonjournalism)Beijing,YZFYuzhoufeng(Universalwind)Shanghai,Guangzhou,Guilin,September–ZGHJYDZhongguohuajuYundongwushinianshiliaoji(HistoricalmaterialsontheChinesedramamovementofthelastfiftyyears)EditedbyTianHanetalvolsBeijing:Zhongguoxijuchubanshe,―xiii―AcknowledgmentsInwritingthisbookIhavebenefitedfromthesupport,advice,andencouragementofmanyindividualsMyprofoundgratitudegoesfirsttothreehistoriansJosephWEsherickreadtheoriginalmanuscriptwithgreatcareandofferednumerousinvaluablesuggestionsforimprovementRDavidArkushencouragedmetorefineandrefocusmyargumentsAndArifDirlikchallengedmetoreexaminethetheoreticalunderpinningsofthisstudyTheiradvicehassavedmefrommanyerrorsandhelpedtomakethisabetterbookTwofriendsdeservespecialthanksMarkAGreeneoftheMinnesotaHistoricalSocietyhadthepatiencetoreviewcountlesspagesandtooffercounselandassistancewhentheyweremostneededThetexthasbenefitedgreatlyfromhisconstantprobingandhisremarkablesenseofstylePaulClarkoftheUniversityofAuckland,NewZealand,alsogavegenerouslyofhistimeandreadtheoriginaldraftwithcriticalshrewdnessOtherconstructivecriticismsandgoodcheercamefromLymanPVanSlyke,CharlesWHayford,andJeffreyCKinkleyTheyreadthemanuscriptinwholeorinpart,andtheirtrenchantcommentsprovidedthebasisforsomerewritingMycolleaguesintheHistoryDepartmentatCarletonCollege,especiallyRobertEBonner,DiethelmProwe,andCarlDWeiner,generouslysharedwithmetheirextensiveknowledgeoftheresistancemovementsinEuropeduringtheSecondWorldWarIoweaspecialdebtofgratitudetothelateHaldoreHanson,whoprovidedvaluableinformationaboutwartimeYan'anandotherCommunistborderregionsIamalsoindebtedtoZhuJiefan,PaoliangChu,ShuenshuenHung,PerryYu,YuanYimu,RobertEEnten―xiv―mann,MarikoKaga,andQiguangZhaoforbringingrelevantmaterialstomyattentionAgoodmanyinstitutionshelpedkeepthisendeavorafloatInparticular,IwouldliketothanktheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesforasummerstipendinandaresearchfellowshipinAgrantfromtheCommitteeonScholarlyCommunicationwiththePeople'sRepublicofChinaenabledmetoconductcrucialinterviewsandcollectmuchneededmaterialsinChinainthefallofCarletonCollegeassistedmyresearchbygrantingme,throughtheFacultyDevelopmentEndowmentProgram,severalawardsinthepastfewyearstofinancetwotripstoTaiwanandfacilitatethegatheringofmaterialsrelevanttothisprojectThisstudywouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutgenerousassistancefrommanylibrariesandtheirstaffsInparticular,IamgratefultotheHooverInstitution'sEastAsianCollectionatStanford(whereIbegantheresearchforthisbookin),theHarvardYenchingLibrary,theEastAsianLibraryattheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeley,theEastAsianLibraryatColumbiaUniversity,theNationalLibraryinBeijing,BeijingNormalUniversityLibrary,BeijingUniversityLibrary,ShanghaiLibrary,FudanUniversityLibrary,andtheInstituteofModernHistoryLibraryatAcademiaSinicainTaibeiThestaffoftheUniversityofCaliforniaPressmadeworkonthisbookapleasurewiththeirgentleguidanceandmeticulousattentiontodetailIamespeciallygratefultoSheilaLevineforherencouragementandenthusiasmforthisprojectLauraDriussi,AmyKlatzkin,andMonicaMcCormickprovidededitorialadviceAnneCanrightcopyeditedthemanuscriptwithakeeneyetobothstyleandpresentationAnoteonformatandsourcesisinorderhereThepinyinromanizationsystemhasbeenusedthroughout(withtheexceptionofSunYatsen,whoseCantoneseapproximationislongfamiliarintheWest)Asforsources,thisbookmakesuseofanassortmentofpublishedandunpublishedmaterials:wartimenewspapersandmagazines,officialandunofficialpamphlets,plays,cartoons,diaries,memoirs,biographies,letters,andpersonalinterviewsManyparticipantsinChina'sWarofResistance(whosenamesappearintheappendix)gavememuchhelp,information,andadviceOneofthemostrewardingexperiencesinwritingcontemporaryhistoryistheopportunitytoengageinfacetofacedialoguewiththesubjectsofone'sstudyAsisevidentthroughoutthebook,talkingtothemshednewlightonquestionsthattextsalonecannotanswerNeedlesstosay,allinterpretationsand―xv―conclusionsinthisbookareentirelymyown,andIaloneamresponsibleforanyshortcomingsthatremainFinally,gratitudeofamorepersonalkindmustberecordedaswellMydaughter,Mingmei,andmyson,Mingyang,havethewonderfulpatiencetotolerateanoftentimespreoccupiedfather,andIwishtothankthemforbringingtheirjoyandenergyintomylifeAnd,asalways,Iamimmeasurablygratefultomywife,WaihanMak,forsharingtogetherthegoodtimesandthehard,andforthecountlesswaysshehasgivenloveandsupporttothisprojectItistoherthatthisbookisdedicated―xvi―ChinaDuringtheWarofResistance,–BasedonTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,vol:RepublicanChina,–,pt,edJohnKFairbankandAlbertFeuerwerker(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),pHongShen,KangzhanshinianlaiZhongguodexijuyundongyujiaoyu(Shanghai:Zhonghuashuju,),pp–andBaqianlilyyunheyueYanjujiuduihuiyilu,edYanjujiuduiduishibianjiweiyuanhui(Shanghai:np,nd),pp–――IntroductionTheJapaneseattackattheMarcoPoloBridge(Lugouqiao)abouttenmileswestofBeijingonJuly,whichsetofffullscalewarbetweenChinaandJapan(theSinoJapaneseWarof–knowninChinaas"TheWarofResistanceAgainstJapan"KangRizhanzheng),probablydidnotsurprisemanyChineseAfterall,theJapanesehadbeenintensifyingtheiraggressioninnorthernChinasincetheTwentyoneDemandsof,andinhadseizedManchuriaItwasonlyamatteroftime,manybelieved,beforethisintermittent,undeclaredwarbetweenthetwocountrieswoulderuptintoopencombatYettheideathatChinaandJapanwereactuallyatwarwasunsettlingandfrighteningTotheChinese,warmeantthatChina'ssovereigntywasbeingopenlyandunjustlytrampleditmeantthatthenationhadtoconfrontanenemywhoseambitionsknewnoboundsandwhosesuperiorwarmachinecouldbringruinandsufferingtotheChinesepeopleWhenthebattleshiftedtoShanghaiinAugust,itbecameclearthattheconflictwouldnotbeeasilyorquicklyresolvedAmixtureofshockandangergrippedtheentirenationTheeruptionoffullscalewarwithJapandealtadevastatingblowtotheNationalist(GuomindangGMD)government'seffortstorecentralizeitsauthorityandrevivetheeconomyItalsoendedJiangJieshi's(ChiangKaishek,–)chanceofcrushingtheCommunistforces,whowereisolatedinthebarrenandsparselypopulatedShaanxiprovincewithYan'anastheircapitalThewaruprootedtheNationalistsfromtheirtraditionalpowerbaseintheurbanandindustrialcentersofeastChina,especiallyalongthelowerYangziRiver,andforcedthemtomovetotheinteriorAtthesametime,itaffordedan――idealopportunityfortheCommuniststoexpandtheirinfluenceinnorthChinaandsobecomeatruecontenderfornationalpowerbytheendofthewarFormanyChineseresisters,theclashwithJapanturnedouttobeaunifyingforceandanennoblingexperienceTheMarcoPoloBridgeIncidentreleasedapassionateoutpouringofpatrioticenthusiasm,temporarilyunitingdissentingvoicesanddisparateinterestgroupsThedeafeningcallfor"nationalsalvation"washeardeverywhereTheideaofresistanceagainstJapaneseaggression,amuchtalkedaboutnotionbeforethewar,nowcrystallizedintosomethingtangibleandemotionalLiketheGreatWall,theMarcoPoloBridgebecameacompellingsymbolofChina'sunityandrapidlytookitsplaceinresistanceloreImmediatelyaftertheincident,forexample,astreamofspokendramasappearedbearingthenameofthefamousbridge,includingthepopularthreeactplayDefendtheMarcoPoloBridge(BaoweiLugouqiao),ajointproductofsixteendramatistsspeakingoutinsolidarityagainsttheinvadersIronically,forsomefrustratedintellectualsthewarcouldnothavecomeatabettertimeWhilegrantingthatarmedconflictwasbrutalandinhuman,theyarguedthatitneverthelessraisedhopesofsolvingChina'smyriadproblemsTheylookedatwarasanantidotetomalaiseandchaos,andasanopportunitytobreaktheshacklesoftraditionandoffernewvistasforChinaTothem,thepasttwodecadeshadbeenatimeofdespairanduncertaintyTheeuphoriakindledintheearlyRepublicanyearshadlongsinceevaporatedAfteryearsofcontinuedJapanesethreatanddreamsofpoliticalreformrepeatedlydashed,amixtureofcynicismandpessimismoverwhelmedtheyouthofthepostMayFourthgenerationDespitesomeprogressmadetowardeconomicgrowthandpoliticalintegrationbytheNationalistgovernmentontheeveofthewar,thecountrywasstilllargelyfragmentedRegionalmilitaristsremainedaseriousthreattothegovernment,andthearmedconflictbetweentheNationalistsandtheCommunistscontinuedunabatedPoliticalinstabilitybredfearandfueledgreatdiscontentinsociety"Perhapsanationlongplaguedbydeeplydividedregionalinterestswillfinallycometogether"werethehopefulwordsoftheeditorsoftheliteraryjournalLight(Guangming)inJulyWiththeJapaneseattackontheMarcoPoloBridge,allkindsofdifferences,bothpoliticalandintellectual,seemedtodisappearovernightChinasuddenlyfounditselfunitedWar,likeitornot,commandedeveryone'sattentionandemotionsItpulledthenationtogether,forcing――peopletoendurethetraumaticexperiencecollectivelyCouldthewarbethebeginningofnationalregenerationIfnothingelse,somethoughtthatwarcouldfurnishamuchneededsenseofdirectionandpurposetoacountrysolongdividedanddiscouraged"IswarsodreadfulNotatall!OurfourhundredmillionpeopleareeagerlylookingforwardtoitsarrivalWewelcomeitbecausethisisthetimethatwecanliberateourselvesfromoppression,"proclaimedthepoetZangKejia()ButwhatwastobedoneThepoetMuMutian(–)soundedabattlecry:"Wemustusewartoanswerwar"Itwasclearfromthebeginningthatthedeterminationandresourcesrequiredtoresistandultimatelydefeattheinvaderlaynolongersimplyinthesoldier'scourageatthefront,butinthewillofthepeopletorallybehindthegovernmentAfragmentedcountrycouldmaketheenemy'staskofoccupationandexploitationofChinaarelativelysimplematterToChineseresisters,thepeople'sconsciousnessaboutthewarandthehomefrontmoralebecameasimportantastheoutcomeofcampaignsonthebattlefieldindeterminingthefuture"TosaveChinawemustdevelopthemassmovement,"statedonewriter,summingupthisattitudesuccinctlyTorallypeopletogetherandconveytheexigenciesofthehardtimessuccessfully,Chineseresistersknewtheyhadtoplancarefully,establishanationwidenetworkofcommunication,andcreatenewchannelsforthedisseminationofinformationInbrief,theiraimwastoactivateanunprecedented,ambitiouspropagandacampaignaimedatmobilizingeverycitizenandutilizingeveryresourceinthecountryButgivenChina'svastsize,theenormousregionaldifferences,andthelackofmodernmeansoftransportation,decidingevenwheretobegindidnotproveeasyResistanceintellectualsturnedincreasinglytowardafewurbanpopularcultureformsspokendramas,cartoons,andnewspapersforhelp,transformingthemintopopularizingmediaThisbookaddressestheimportantbutoftenignoredissueoftheriseandspreadofurbanpopularcultureduringtheWarofResistance,particularlyhowthisculturewaspoliticizedandpopularizedbyChineseresisterstowageaconcertedbattleagainsttheinvadingJapaneseThewarwasacriticalperiodinthespreadofpopularculturefromurbanenclaves,especiallycitieslikeShanghai,tothevastruralhinterland,amovethatturnedthenation'sattentionincreasinglytowardthecountrysideTheresisters'useofhighlypoliticizedspokendramasymbols,patrioticcartoonimages,andcombativenewspaperlanguagesincommunicationwiththepopulacechangedthefundamental――natureanddiscourseofwartimepopularcultureDuringthewar,whiletheNationalistsusedpopularculturelargelyasapatriotictool,theCommunistsrefashioneditintoanew"people'sculture"Capitalizingontheshiftofawarenesstothecountryside,theCommunistsimbuedpopularculturewitharural,socialistcontentandportrayedtheborderregionsundertheircontrolasthefutureofChinaIntheenditwastheCommunists,nottheNationalists,whosucceededinutilizingthedevelopmentsinthepopularcultureoftheGMDareasfortheirownpoliticalends,afactthatcontributedtotheirvictoryinthecivilwar(–)ThetwistsandturnsinthecourseofthepopularculturecampaigninwartimeChina,especiallyitsdevelopmentintheCommunistheldborderregions,mustbeexaminedwithinthelargerhistoricalcontextofthewarwithJapanThecampaigncanbedividedintotwostagesAnearlyperiodofhighmoraleandintenseactivityfromtosawpatrioticChineseintellectualsandartistsroamingthevillagesandtownsoftheinteriorprovincestospreadthegospelofresistance,eachgroupusingadifferenttooltoreachtheruralmassesInthecaseofdramatists,forexample,streetplaysbecamethestapleintheirpropagandaarsenalButasthefightingsettledintoastalemateinandtheearlyenthusiasmwaned,Chinesedramatists,nowphysicallyexhaustedandmentallydrained,gravitatedbacktothecitiesThetrendnowwastowardmorehistoricalplaysandtraditionaldramas,aimedonceagainaturbanaudiencesThiswasaperiodofdigginginandwaiting,butalsoatimeofgrowingdiscontentamongintellectualswiththeGMDgovernment'sineptitude,corruption,andincreasingcensorshipTheJapaneseinvasioninJulydividedChinaessentiallyintothreezones:theJapaneseoccupiedterritories,theGuomindangcontrolledareas,andtheCommunistheldregionsThefirstandthemostbitterphaseofthewarlastedsixteenmonths,untilthefallofWuhan(thetriplecitiesofWuchang,Hankou,andHanyang)andGuangzhouinOctoberBylatetheJapanese,withsuperiorairpowerandarmoredtroops,controlledthemaincoastalcitiesandmajorrailwaylinesTheJapaneseadvance,however,wasmetwithstiffresistancefromtheChineseDuringtheninetydaydefenseofShanghai(August–November),JiangJieshithrewhisbest,Germantraineddivisionsintoservice,battlingtheJapanesetoastandstillEvenso,thesuperiormilitarymightofJapanfinallyprevailedThebattleofShanghai,moreover,provedtobeextremelycostlyfortheNationalists:asmanyas,Chinesetroopsthenucleusof――JiangJieshi'sfinestforceswerekilledorwounded,andtheroadtothecapital,Nanjing,wasleftwideopenWhenthecityfellinlateDecember,theinvadersunleashedthenotorious"RapeofNanjing"wantondestruction,rape,robbery,andrandomkilling,leavingover,deadandthecityinruinsThecarnageinNanjingonlystrengthenedtheChinesewilltoresistDespitebeingoutgunnedandilltrained,someChinesetroops,withgreatdeterminationandundercapableleadership,occasionallymanagedtomountasuccessfulfightInApril,forexample,atthetownofTaierzhuanginsouthernShandong,theforcesofNationalistGeneralLiZongren(–)trappedandinflictedheavycasualtiesonJapanesetroopswhowereattemptingtolinkwithotherdivisionsinnorthandcentralChinafortheforthcomingcampaignagainstWuhanFortheChinese,theBattleofTaierzhuanghadgreatsymbolicmeaning,inthatitshatteredthemythofJapaneseinvincibilityThisfirstmajorChinesevictoryprovidedaglimmerofhopeindifficulttimesandsoonfiguredprominentlyintheresistanceculture:itquicklyestablisheditselfasoneofthemostpopulartopicsinwartimespokendramasandpoliticalcartoonsButtheTaierzhuangtriumphwasshortlivedinMay,theJapanesetookthetownandthenearbykeyrailwayjunctionofXuzhouWuhanfellinOctoberFollowinganewscorchedearthstrategyinessence"tradingspacefortime"inthehopeoffrustratingJapaneseoffensiveoperationsinthevastinteriortheGMDgovernmentretreatedtoHankouandthentoChongqing,acityathousandmilesupriverinSichuanthatwastoremainChina'swartimeca

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[美]洪长泰著:战争与大众文化:近代中国的抵抗(加州大学 1995)

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