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首页 [美]白爱华:穿过石拱门:一个美国传教士在中国,1892–1932(约翰·威利 2001)

[美]白爱华:穿过石拱门:一个美国传教士在中国,1892–1932(约翰·威利 2001)

[美]白爱华:穿过石拱门:一个美国传教士在中国,1892–19…

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2008-10-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]白爱华:穿过石拱门:一个美国传教士在中国,1892–1932(约翰·威利 2001)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

eBOOKWILEYWILEYJOSSEYBASSPFEIFFERJKLASSERCAPSTONEWILEYLISSWILEYVCHWILEYINTERSCIENCEBusinessCulinaryArchitectureComputerGeneralInterestChildrenLifeSciencesBiographyAccountingFinanceMathematicsHistorySelfImprovementHealthEngineeringGraphicDesignAppliedSciencesPsychologyInteriorDesignBiologyChemistryBeyondtheStoneArches<AnAmericanMissionaryDoctorinChina,–EdwardBlissJrJohnWileySons,IncNewYork•Chichester•Weinheim•Brisbane•Singapore•TorontoCopyright©byEdwardBlissJrAllrightsreservedPublishedbyJohnWileySons,IncNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanning,orotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSectionoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher,orauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepercopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,(),fax()RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySons,Inc,ThirdAvenue,NewYork,NY,(),fax(),email:PERMREQWILEYCOMThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldwiththeunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalpersonshouldbesoughtISBNThistitleisalsoavailableinprintasISBNFormoreinformationaboutWileyproducts,visitourWebsiteatwwwWileycomfcopyebkqxd:PMPageiiDedicatedtoLoisArnetteBliss,whowantedsomuchforthestorytobetoldContents<AcknowledgmentsviiAuthor’sNoteviiiIFeelIHaveFallenamongFriendsBelowNanpingAretheWorstRapidsofAllStrangeHowClearlyWeRememberLongPastEventsTheMostFoolThingIEverDidIFoundaLifetimeofTeachingDeadLanguagesWouldBeExceedinglyDullIThinkIAlwaysHaveBeenOnetoGetOfftheBeatenTrackAtNightWeCrawlintoOurCagesJustImagineThat!ItIsGoodtoFeelNeededAStrangeThingHappenedontheWaytotheDispensaryThereMustBeSomePeculiarityintheAtmosphereAGreatWaytoTakeaTonicThereIsNoOnetoConsult,OnlytheGreatPhysicianWeAreSafeHereIHaveRealizedThatAnyMailMightBringMeNewsofSomeSorrowOneBuildingHereMustHaveaLotofPatienceHowGoodtoThinkofBeingHome!IHaveComeHome!ThereIsStillHope!IBelieveNowinFallinginLoveThereWasPlentyofVentilationIHadtoMoveWarilytoAvoidGossipAnnouncetheMarriageofTheirDaughtervAtHomeafterNovembertheFirst,Shaowu,ChinaYes,IPlayedaCornetNowWeAreThreeIRegretThatWeDidNotPutUpHousesBetterSuitedfortheChineseInThisWayICanMultiplyMyselfintoSeveralTheyAreHighlyRefined,EducatedinConvents,ISupposeComeSeetheClouds!IAmGrowingStrongerAlltheTimeforMyWorkThereAreaGoodManyThingsIndicativeofaChangeBlackMondayMarcoPoloClimbedHereIAmPreoccupiedwithCowsWeAren’tSupposedtoSolicitbutSometimesinaCertainSenseDiscouragedIMustAdmitI’mTiredSomethingMayTurnUptoKeepMeHereforSomeTimeNowIAmBackHomeAgainWeMustHelpThemExtricateThemselvesNowISleepSoundlyatNightTheNeedIsBeyondBeliefRatherYoungtoSendonSuchaLongJourneyOnChristmasDay,asIWasFinishingMyPuddingIntheMorningIFoundHavocEverywhereSomethingintheFutureWasNotEnoughSoThatHeWouldKnowThereWasSomethingHereWorthwhileIHopeYouHaveNotFormedanExaggeratedIdeaoftheImportanceofMyContributionJianningHasFallenTheRedArmyIsattheGatesEpilogueIndexviAcknowledgments<IAMINDEBTtomanypeopleAmongthemareLurtonBlassingameMervinBlockLeonaBurrWalterCronkiteJosephandMargotDemboBobEdwardsJohnKFairbankGraceFunkHTHuangWalterHJuddPhilomenaJureyEdwinKelloggRobertMcClure,AnneBlissMascolinoEdwardRMurrowGaryNurenbergWilliamLPlanteJrGeorgeShepherdEmersonLawStoneJuliaStorrsStrodeJosephineWalkerandmysisters,RuthBlissBuddingtonandElisabethBlissDinsmore,whosharedtheirmemoriesIamgratefulfortheassistanceoftheAmericanBoardofCommissionersforForeignMissions,theYaleUniversityLibrary,andtheHoughtonLibraryatHarvardUniversityIamprofoundlygratefultoDeborahGrosvenor,myagent,andtoHanaUmlaufLane,theeditoratJohnWileySonswhogavemeinvaluableguidanceIappreciatethecaretakenbyFaithDuvallintypingthemanuscriptWhatIoweLoisArnetteBliss,mywifeandlovingprimaryeditor,isbeyondmeasureviiAuthor’sNote<THISISTHESTORYofmyfatherinChinaThelifeisrecreatedfromlettersandlongconversations,andsomefromfirsthandbecauseIsharedtheadventureMostoftheactiontakesplaceinFujianProvince,inawalledcitycalledShaowusituatedonabeautiful,dangerousriver,theMin,whichhasitssourceinthemountainswestofShaowuandslitherssoutheastwardacrossthebreadthofFujiantotheseaUntilafterWorldWarII,norailroadconnectedFujianwithanyotherprovinceHemmedinbymountainsonthreesidesandfacingthenaturalmoatoftheTaiwanStraitontheother,theregionwasableformorethanathousandyearstoremainproudlyindependentofthedynastiestothenorthChinawasmyfather’slifeApredecessortothoseinthePeaceCorps,hehealed,farmed,deliveredbabies,andbredcattleforthegloryofGodandthedignityofmanHeservedfromthelatterdaysoftheQingDynastytotheearlydaysofMaoZedongviiiPekingChinaaboutEastChinaSea©byDLMcElhannonJAPANKOREAFORMOSAShanghaiSuzhouHongKongGuangzhouFoochowCHINAGutianNanpingKienningShaowuNanchangJiujlangWuhanNankingSeeInsetMapAboveFoochowNanpingShaowuGuangzeMinRiverInsetMapFUJIANKienningMONGOLIAIFeelIHaveFallenamongFriends<THECITYWASnotyetinsightItlaybehindthehillcalledMonkeyHead,aroundthegreatbendintheriver,buttheforeigndoctorintheincongruousbowlerhatincongruousinthehinterlandsofFujianProvinceaskedtheboatmentoputhimashoreHewassurehecouldwalkfasterthantheriverjunkwasbeingrowedBytheChinesecalendar,EdwardBliss,MD,hadarrivedinthatprovinceonthesixteenthdayofthetenthmoonintheeighteenthyearofthereignofEmperorGuangxuThedatebyWesternreckoningwasNovember,ThecoastalsteamerhadleftShanghaiatdaybreakonthefourthandhadreachedFuzhouonthenightofthefifth,pickingitswayuptheintricatechanneltoPagodaAnchorageinthelightofayellowmoonThatsamenight,writinghome,hedescribedthebroadharbormouthandtheencirclingmountainsandthewarmwelcomegivenhimbytheFuzhoumissionariesHehadwonderedifhewouldfeellostamongthem,fortheywereallstrangers,buthewasabletosay,“IfeelIhavefallenamongfriends”HehadbeenassignedtothemissionstationatShaowu,ontheupperreachesoftheMin,whichrequiredarivertripthat,inthattime,tookthreeweeksHehadplannedtoproceedtheredirectly,buttheAmericanconsuladvisedhimtowaitTheMin,withitsrapidsandmaraudingpirates,wasnorivertotravelaloneJosephElkanahWalker,DD,andhiswife,Adelaide,wouldbemakingthetripinaboutamonthandwereoldChinahandsWalkerhadfoundedtheProtestantmissionatShaowuandmayhaveknownmoreaboutChinathananyother“roundeye”intheprovince,forhemadeaseriousstudyofitsculture,wrotebeautifullyinChinese,andwasabletotranslatehymnsItwassaidthathewasasathomewiththeparablesofConfuciusashewaswiththoseofChristWalker’spersonalhistorycapturedtheimaginationofthechildrenofthemissionHisfather,agraduateofBangorTheologicalSeminaryinMaine,hadservedasmissionarytoIndiantribesinOregonTerritoryThejourneyacrosstheAmericancontinentfromMainetookdays,mostofthemonhorsebackThesonenrolledatthesameseminaryayearbeforecompletionofthetranscontinentalrailroad,andsotoreachBangorfromOregonTerritoryhehadtraveledbyshiptoPanamabytraininaboxcaracrosstheisthmusbyshiptoNewYork,andthenbytraintherestofthewayItwasonapaddlewheeledsteamerofthePacificMailLinethathecametoChinafromSanFranciscoinNowwithhiswifehewasreturningfromfurloughinAmerica,andtheconsulhadnodoubttheywouldwelcometheyoungdoctor’spresenceonthelong,uprivertripAsitturnedout,theWalkersdidnotreachFuzhoufortwomonthsAlthoughEdwardchafedatthedelay,heputthetimetogooduseatthemissionhospital,treatingfearsome,oftenunfamiliardiseaseshelaterwouldhavetotreatbyhimself(HisfirstpatientwasadeafmutewhosetTheBridgeofTenThousandAgesinFuzhou,aboutforthhissymptomsinunintelligibleChinesecharacters)DescendantshaveanoldphotographofEdwardtakeninthisperiodHeappearsinagrouppicture“Oh,”hesaidonetime,recallingtheoccasion,“thatwasmyfirstChristmasinChinaTheFoochowFuzhoupeoplehadacelebration,andtherewasplumpuddingandatree”ThephotographshowshimwearingamustachethegoateecamelaterbuthehasthesamealerteyesandwellshapedbaldheadthatproveshelosthishairearlyItwasnotuntilJanuary,,thattheystartedupriverWalkersuperintendedtheloadingofthetwoboatslikeaseasoneddocker,shoutingordersinshrillFukieneseandsmitinghisforeheadwiththepalmofhishandinexasperationwheneveraboxwasplacedinthewrongboatoracrateofbreakableswastoorudelysetdownSacksoforangesandpotatoes,flourbagswrappedinoilpaper,canneddriedbeef,cocoa,condensedmilk,andmedicineswerestowedunderloosedeckboardsOtherprovisions,packedinbamboobaskets,weresetasideforuseduringthetripLivecargoconsistedoffivecagedchickensDrJosephWalkerfoundedtheProtestantmissionatShaowuandmayhaveknownmoreaboutChinathananyotherWesternerintheprovinceThebustleseemedoutofallproportiontothebusinessoftransportingthreeforeignersandtheirworldlygoodsCoolieswithbroadbamboohatsandflouncingqueuestrottedtotheboatsinimpressivesuccessionwiththemissioners’possessionswhile,throughitall,asolitarycrewmansatinthesternoftheWalkerboat,mendingasailHeseemedtheonlyserene,rightmindedpersoninthewholeaffairTheirflotillaconsistedofthreeriverjunksoftheclasscalledduckboatsInfact,allMinRiverboatswereinthe“fowl”classTherewereduckboatsandroosterboats,madeofcamphorwood,andsuperduckboatsandsparrowboatsAroosterboatwastwiceasbigasanordinaryduckboatandonlyalittlesmallerthanasuperduckThesocalledsaltboatwasaversionofthesuperduckusedtotransportsalt,whichwasagovernmentmonopolyThesparrowboat,whichremindedEdwardofawhaleboat,wasthesmallestcraftontheriver,measuringnomorethantwentyfeetWiththeirnarrowbeamsandVbottoms,thelittlesparrowsdartedbetweenrocksthatwouldtearotherboatsapartTheduckboatscharteredbyWalkerwerepunycomparedtothegreatriverjunksofNorthChina,whichsometimesmeasuredmorethanahundredfeetTheWalkersandtheirbelongings,includinganewsetofdiningroomfurniture,tookuptwooftheboats,EdwardsharedhisboatwithabrightfacedShaowuboyoffifteenwhohadbeenattendingthemiddleschoolatFuzhouWithacrewofnineoneachboat,noonehadroomtospareItwasmilesfromFuzhoutoShaowu,andonthefirstdaytheytraveledonlyfourteenmilesWhilethepatchedsailfluttereddismallybetweenanoccasionalbreeze,EdwardstudiedwiththeschoolboyTsien,whohadcheerfullyagreedtoteachhimafewphrasesintheShaowudialectTheselessonstookplaceintheopenbowoftheboatAlargethatchedcanopy,orpeng,coveredthecraftamidshipsEdwardandtheboysleptintheforwardcabinwithafewyardsofmosquitonettingdrapedovertheentranceThelargeaftcabinbelongedtothecrewDuringthatfirstdaythecrewmenwerestrangelyinvisible,althoughtheirvoices,lowandaspirate,couldbeheardthroughthebulkheadInthestern,thefrowninghelmsmanstoodonaraisedplatform,hisarmonthegreatsweepoar,lookingstraightahead,rarelymoving,agravenimageofpurposeTowardnoontheWalkerboatpulledalongside,andEdwardwentaboardforaChinesemealofmushrooms,friedredpeppers,andriceWalkersaidthatmushroomsraisedatShaowuwerefamousfortheirtendernessandflavorReminiscing,hetoldhowheandtwoothermissionaries,SimeonWoodinandDWOsgood,“discovered”ShaowuonthefifteenthdayofNovember,thefirstAmericansevertoenterthewalledcityOsgood,too,wasadoctorandtreatedsuchcasesaspresentedthemselves,whileWoodinandWalkertraipsedthroughthecountryside,distributingtractsThethreemissionariesreconnoiteredforaweek,thenwithdrewtoFuzhouButin,JosephWalkerreturnedwithAdelaideandstayedDuringthenextsixteenyearstheywerejoinedbyothermissionaryfamilies,butthemercilessclimate,andmalaria,forcedallbuttwofamiliestoleaveAnexcitementfilledWalkerashetalkedPioneeringcametohimnaturallyHesaid,“Ihadtopioneer,”andtoldhowhisparentshadgonetoOregonTerritoryWalkersaidthatnormallytheywouldproceedundersailasfarasShuikou,nowamatterofsixtymilesIfthewinddiedabsolutely,Aduckboat,oneofseveralinthe“fowl”classontheMinRiverthemenwouldtaketotheoarsShuikoumarkedthefootofthefirstrapids,wheretrackingwouldbeginTotrack,sixmenfromeachboatwouldgoashoreanddontheirharnessOnlythreestayedonboardthehelmsmantosteerandthetwootherstokeeptheboatofftherockswiththeirirontippedpoles“Insomeplaces,”Walkersaid,“youwillseeeighteenortwentymenonasingletrackinglineTheywillpulloneboatthroughtherapidsandthengobackforanotherIhaveseenittakeanhourtopullonesaltboatfiftyfeet”HepickeduponeofthelinesandshowedEdwardhowitwasplaitedwithstrandsofbambooandhoweachline,nomatteritsdiameter,wascomposedofsixteenofthesestrandsIfthelinewasheavier,eachindividualstrandwasheavier,butthenumberofstrandswasalwaysthesamemagicnumber,sixteenThelineswerehundredsoffeetlong,sothattheywouldreachseveraltimesacrosstheriverifletouttheirfulllengthAndiftheydippedintothecurrent,itmadenodifferenceTheywouldnotgainweightandencumberthetrackersbecausebamboodoesnotabsorbwaterWalkercalledtheriverruthless“Infourthousandyears,”hesaid,“theChinesehavebuiltperhapsahundredbridgesbetweenFuzhouandShaowu,andtodaynotoneofthemstands”Ashetalked,themissionaryflotillapassedavillage,whereontheriverbankwomenwerewashingclothesThewomenwerekneelingAgainandagaintheydippedtheclothesinthewater,cudgeledthem,andwrungthemNeartheoppositeshoreamandarin’scaravelmovedmajesticallydownstream,propelledbyfourteenoarsmenwhoseshaftsroseanddippedrhythmically,liketheoarsofaRomangalleyThechantoftheoarsmencametoEdwardacrossthewater,andhecouldmakeoutalargedragonflagwavingatthesternBelowNanpingAretheWorstRapidsofAll<THEFIRSTNIGHTaboveFuzhouthethreeduckboatsmooredoppositeanothervillageBythelightofakerosenelanternEdwardandtheboyTsienlaidmattressesontheflooroftheircabinandrolledthemselvesinblanketsSleepcametotheaccompanimentofthesoftlappingofwateragainstthesideoftheboatTheyawoketothecreakingofoarlocksNotaparticleofairstirredTheboatmenrowedsteadilyalldayThenextmorning,althoughthewindfreshened,WalkerrefusedtotravelbecauseitwastheSabbathHeheldasmallserviceandpreachedonthewagesofsinTheboatmenspentthedaygamblingOncemore,onthefourthday,theywerebecalmedAgainthecrewtooktotheoars,butaftertwohoursabreezecameupthevalleybehindthem,wrinklingthewateraboutthemandfillingtheirpatchedsails,sothattheyreachedShuikouatthefootofthefirstrapidsbyearlyafternoonHerethemastswereloweredandtakenashoretobestoreduntiltheboatsreturnedNowthedeckswereclearforthebattlethatlayaheadAllthatafternoon,theyclimbed“TheLadder”Inthequieterstretches,betweenrapids,themenrammedtheirboatsaheadwithpolesofbamboothatbentlikearchers’bowsWithinfinitepatiencethepolerspacedthegunwales,plantingtheirpolesfirmlyintheshallowriverbottomandwalkingtowardthestern,shovingthemselvesforward,boatlengthbyboatlength,untilthenextrapids,wheretheyharnessedthemselvesandrenewedthelongpullonshoreSometimesthemissionarieswentashoreandwalkedamileormore,thenwaitedfortheboatstocatchup“It’sagoodidea,”Walkersaid,“tostretchyourlegs,”butitwasalsosaferonshoreMoreover,therewassomethinguncomfortableaboutbeingwarpedupriverbymeninharness,strainingsothattheirhands,dangling,touchedthegroundItwassymbolicoftheburdencarriedpatientlybythemassesofChinesepeopleThemissionariescoulddisassociatethemselvesfromit,toadegree,bywalkingAtadistancethetrackerslosttheiridentity,butallChinese,inthebeginning,lookedaliketoEdwardTheirnoseswerethesameSoweretheireyes,theirhairitwasalwaysblackandtheirqueuesFromhisarrivalhewassurethatsoonerorlaterthisinabilitytodistinguishamongindividualswouldtriphimup,sonowhemadeastudyofChinesefacesHebeganwiththeninemenonhisboatThecook,heobserved,hadbushyeyebrowsNoothercrewmanapproachedthecookinthisrespectNorwasthereanymistakingtheindomitablehelmsman,whosewalrusmustacheandheavy,protrudingjawfavoredGroverCleveland,whohadrecentlybeenelectedtoasecondtermaspresidentoftheUnitedStatesAnothermemberofthecrewwasdefinitelywalleyedThefaceofanotherhadbeenravagedbysmallpox,andstillanotherlookedsomuchlikeanIrishmanthatallthreemissionariesreferredtohimasPatThushewentthroughtheentirecrew,rejoicinginhisfindingsButPatwashisfavoriteHecherishedhimnotonlyforhisphysiognomybutalsoforthepridehetookinhisworkforthecarefulwayheexaminedthetrackinglineattheendofeachdayandforhow,simplybylookingIrish,hemadehimfeelathomeonariverjunkhalfaworldawayfromhomeItwasabeautiful,exotic

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[美]白爱华:穿过石拱门:一个美国传教士在中国,1892–1932(约翰·威利 2001)

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