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首页 富兰克林自传 英文版

富兰克林自传 英文版.pdf

富兰克林自传 英文版

敦老爸
2008-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《富兰克林自传 英文版pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

THEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINWITHINTRODUCTIONANDNOTESEDITEDBYCHARLESWELIOTLLDPFCOLLIERSONCOMPANY,NEWYORK()THEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLININTRODUCTORYNOTEBENJAMINFRANKLINwasborninMilkStreet,Boston,onJanuary,Hisfather,JosiahFranklin,wasatallowchandlerwhomarriedtwice,andofhisseventeenchildrenBenjaminwastheyoungestsonHisschoolingendedatten,andattwelvehewasboundapprenticetohisbrotherJames,aprinter,whopublishedthe"NewEnglandCourant"Tothisjournalhebecameacontributor,andlaterwasforatimeitsnominaleditorButthebrothersquarreled,andBenjaminranaway,goingfirsttoNewYork,andthencetoPhiladelphia,wherehearrivedinOctober,Hesoonobtainedworkasaprinter,butafterafewmonthshewasinducedbyGovernorKeithtogotoLondon,where,findingKeith'spromisesempty,heagainworkedasacompositortillhewasbroughtbacktoPhiladelphiabyamerchantnamedDenman,whogavehimapositioninhisbusinessOnDenman'sdeathhereturnedtohisformertrade,andshortlysetupaprintinghouseofhisownfromwhichhepublished"ThePennsylvaniaGazette,"towhichhecontributedmanyessays,andwhichhemadeamediumforagitatingavarietyoflocalreformsInhebegantoissuehisfamous"PoorRichard'sAlmanac"fortheenrichmentofwhichheborrowedorcomposedthosepithyutterancesofworldlywisdomwhicharethebasisofalargepartofhispopularreputationIn,theyearinwhichheceaseswritingfortheAlmanac,heprintedinit"FatherAbraham'sSermon,"nowregardedasthemostfamouspieceofliteratureproducedinColonialAmericaMeantimeFranklinwasconcerninghimselfmoreandmorewithpublicaffairsHesetforthaschemeforanAcademy,whichwastakenuplaterandfinallydevelopedintotheUniversityofPennsylvaniaandhefoundedan"AmericanPhilosophicalSociety"forthepurposeofenablingscientificmentocommunicatetheirdiscoveriestooneanotherHehimselfhadalreadybegunhiselectricalresearches,which,withotherscientificinquiries,hecalledonintheintervalsofmoneymakingandpoliticstotheendofhislifeInhesoldhisbusinessinordertogetleisureforstudy,havingnowacquiredcomparativewealthandinafewyearshehadmadediscoveriesthatgavehimareputationwiththelearnedthroughoutEuropeTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINInpoliticsheprovedveryablebothasanadministratorandasacontroversialistbuthisrecordasanofficeholderisstainedbytheusehemadeofhispositiontoadvancehisrelativesHismostnotableserviceinhomepoliticswashisreformofthepostalsystembuthisfameasastatesmanrestschieflyonhisservicesinconnectionwiththerelationsoftheColonieswithGreatBritain,andlaterwithFranceInhewassenttoEnglandtoprotestagainsttheinfluenceofthePennsinthegovernmentofthecolony,andforfiveyearsheremainedthere,strivingtoenlightenthepeopleandtheministryofEnglandastoColonialconditionsOnhisreturntoAmericaheplayedanhonorablepartinthePaxtonaffair,throughwhichhelosthisseatintheAssemblybutinhewasagaindespatchedtoEnglandasagentforthecolony,thistimetopetitiontheKingtoresumethegovernmentfromthehandsoftheproprietorsInLondonheactivelyopposedtheproposedStampAct,butlostthecreditforthisandmuchofhispopularitythroughhissecuringforafriendtheofficeofstampagentinAmericaEvenhiseffectiveworkinhelpingtoobtaintherepealoftheactlefthimstillasuspectbuthecontinuedhiseffortstopresentthecasefortheColoniesasthetroublesthickenedtowardthecrisisoftheRevolutionInhecrossedtoFrance,wherehewasreceivedwithhonorbutbeforehisreturnhomeinhelosthispositionaspostmasterthroughhisshareindivulgingtoMassachusettsthefamousletterofHutchinsonandOliverOnhisarrivalinPhiladelphiahewaschosenamemberoftheContinentalCongressandinhewasdespatchedtoFranceascommissionerfortheUnitedStatesHereheremainedtill,thefavoriteofFrenchsocietyandwithsuchsuccessdidheconducttheaffairsofhiscountrythatwhenhefinallyreturnedhereceivedaplaceonlysecondtothatofWashingtonasthechampionofAmericanindependenceHediedonApril,ThefirstfivechaptersoftheAutobiographywerecomposedinEnglandin,continuedin,andagainin,atwhichdatehebroughtitdowntoAfteramostextraordinaryseriesofadventures,theoriginalformofthemanuscriptwasfinallyprintedbyMrJohnBigelow,andisherereproducedinrecognitionofitsvalueasapictureofoneofthemostnotablepersonalitiesofColonialtimes,andofitsTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINacknowledgedrankasoneofthegreatautobiographiesoftheworldTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINBENJAMINFRANKLINHISAUTOBIOGRAPHYTWYFORD,attheBishopofStAsaph's,<><>ThecountryseatofBishopShipley,thegoodbishop,asDrFranklinusedtostylehimBDEARSON:IhaveeverhadpleasureinobtaininganylittleanecdotesofmyancestorsYoumayremembertheinquiriesImadeamongtheremainsofmyrelationswhenyouwerewithmeinEngland,andthejourneyIundertookforthatpurposeImaginingitmaybeequallyagreeableto<>youtoknowthecircumstancesofmylife,manyofwhichyouareyetunacquaintedwith,andexpectingtheenjoymentofaweek'suninterruptedleisureinmypresentcountryretirement,IsitdowntowritethemforyouTowhichIhavebesidessomeotherinducementsHavingemergedfromthepovertyandobscurityinwhichIwasbornandbred,toastateofaffluenceandsomedegreeofreputationintheworld,andhavinggonesofarthroughlifewithaconsiderableshareoffelicity,theconducingmeansImadeuseof,whichwiththeblessingofGodsowellsucceeded,myposteritymayliketoknow,astheymayfindsomeofthemsuitabletotheirownsituations,andthereforefittobeimitated<>Afterthewords"agreeableto"thewords"someof"wereinterlinedandafterwardeffacedBThatfelicity,whenIreflectedonit,hasinducedmesometimestosay,thatwereitofferedtomychoice,Ishouldhavenoobjectiontoarepetitionofthesamelifefromitsbeginning,onlyaskingtheadvantagesauthorshaveinasecondeditiontocorrectsomefaultsofthefirstSoImight,besidescorrectingthefaults,changesomesinisteraccidentsandeventsofitforothersmorefavorableButthoughthisweredenied,IshouldstillaccepttheofferSincesucharepetitionisnottobeexpected,thenextthingmostlikelivingone'slifeoveragainseemstobearecollectionofthatlife,andtomakethatrecollectionasdurableaspossiblebyputtingitdowninwritingHereby,too,Ishallindulgetheinclinationsonaturalinoldmen,tobeTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINtalkingofthemselvesandtheirownpastactionsandIshallindulgeitwithoutbeingtiresometoothers,who,throughrespecttoage,mightconceivethemselvesobligedtogivemeahearing,sincethismaybereadornotasanyonepleasesAnd,lastly(Imayaswellconfessit,sincemydenialofitwillbebelievedbynobody),perhapsIshallagooddealgratifymyownvanityIndeed,Iscarceeverheardorsawtheintroductorywords,"WithoutvanityImaysay,"c,butsomevainthingimmediatelyfollowedMostpeopledislikevanityinothers,whateversharetheyhaveofitthemselvesbutIgiveitfairquarterwhereverImeetwithit,beingpersuadedthatitisoftenproductiveofgoodtothepossessor,andtoothersthatarewithinhissphereofactionandtherefore,inmanycases,itwouldnotbealtogetherabsurdifamanweretothankGodforhisvanityamongtheothercomfortsoflifeAndnowIspeakofthankingGod,IdesirewithallhumilitytoacknowledgethatIowethementionedhappinessofmypastlifetoHiskindprovidence,whichleadmetothemeansIusedandgavethemsuccessMybeliefofthisinducesmetohope,thoughImustnotpresume,thatthesamegoodnesswillstillbeexercisedtowardme,incontinuingthathappiness,orenablingmetobearafatalreverse,whichImayexperienceasothershavedone:thecomplexionofmyfuturefortunebeingknowntoHimonlyinwhosepoweritistoblesstousevenourafflictionsThenotesoneofmyuncles(whohadthesamekindofcuriosityincollectingfamilyanecdotes)onceputintomyhands,furnishedmewithseveralparticularsrelatingtoourancestorsFromthesenotesIlearnedthatthefamilyhadlivedinthesamevillage,Ecton,inNorthamptonshire,forthreehundredyears,andhowmuchlongerheknewnot(perhapsfromthetimewhenthenameofFranklin,thatbeforewasthenameofanorderofpeople,wasassumedbythemasasurnamewhenotherstooksurnamesalloverthekingdom),onafreeholdofaboutthirtyacres,aidedbythesmith'sbusiness,whichhadcontinuedinthefamilytillhistime,theeldestsonbeingalwaysbredtothatbusinessacustomwhichheandmyfatherfollowedastotheireldestsonsWhenIsearchedtheregistersatEcton,Ifoundanaccountoftheirbirths,marriagesandburialsfromtheyearTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINonly,therebeingnoregisterskeptinthatparishatanytimeprecedingBythatregisterIperceivedthatIwastheyoungestsonoftheyoungestsonforfivegenerationsbackMygrandfatherThomas,whowasbornin,livedatEctontillhegrewtoooldtofollowbusinesslonger,whenhewenttolivewithhissonJohn,adyeratBanbury,inOxfordshire,withwhommyfatherservedanapprenticeshipTheremygrandfatherdiedandliesburiedWesawhisgravestoneinHiseldestsonThomaslivedinthehouseatEcton,andleftitwiththelandtohisonlychild,adaughter,who,withherhusband,oneFisher,ofWellingborough,soldittoMrIsted,nowlordofthemanorthereMygrandfatherhadfoursonsthatgrewup,viz:Thomas,John,BenjaminandJosiahIwillgiveyouwhataccountIcanofthem,atthisdistancefrommypapers,andifthesearenotlostinmyabsence,youwillamongthemfindmanymoreparticularsThomaswasbredasmithunderhisfatherbut,beingingenious,andencouragedinlearning(asallmybrotherswere)byanEsquirePalmer,thentheprincipalgentlemaninthatparish,hequalifiedhimselfforthebusinessofscrivenerbecameaconsiderablemaninthecountywasachiefmoverofallpublicspiritedundertakingsforthecountyortownofNorthampton,andhisownvillage,ofwhichmanyinstanceswererelatedofhimandmuchtakennoticeofandpatronizedbythethenLordHalifaxHediedinO,January,oldstyle,justfouryearstoadaybeforeIwasbornTheaccountwereceivedofhislifeandcharacterfromsomeoldpeopleatEcton,Iremember,struckyouassomethingextraordinary,fromitssimilaritytowhatyouknewofmine"Hadhediedonthesameday,"yousaid,"onemighthavesupposedatransmigration"Johnwasbredadyer,IbelieveofwoolensBenjaminwasbredasilkdyer,servinganapprenticeshipatLondonHewasaningeniousmanIrememberhimwell,forwhenIwasaboyhecameovertomyfatherinBoston,andlivedinthehousewithussomeyearsHelivedtoagreatageHisgrandson,SamuelFranklin,nowlivesinBostonHeleftbehindhimtwoquartovolumes,MS,ofhisownpoetry,consistingoflittleoccasionalpiecesaddressedtohisfriendsandrelations,ofwhichthefollowing,senttome,isaspecimen<>Hehadformedashorthandofhisown,whichTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINhetaughtme,but,neverpractisingit,IhavenowforgotitIwasnamedafterthisuncle,therebeingaparticularaffectionbetweenhimandmyfatherHewasverypious,agreatattenderofsermonsofthebestpreachers,whichhetookdowninhisshorthand,andhadwithhimmanyvolumesofthemHewasalsomuchofapoliticiantoomuch,perhaps,forhisstationTherefelllatelyintomyhands,inLondon,acollectionhehadmadeofalltheprincipalpamphlets,relatingtopublicaffairs,fromtomanyofthevolumesarewantingasappearsbythenumbering,buttherestillremaineightvolumesinfolio,andtwentyfourinquartoandinoctavoAdealerinoldbooksmetwiththem,andknowingmebymysometimesbuyingofhim,hebroughtthemtomeItseemsmyunclemusthaveleftthemhere,whenhewenttoAmerica,whichwasaboutfiftyyearssinceTherearemanyofhisnotesinthemargins<>Herefollowinthemarginthewords,inbrackets,"hereinsertit,"butthepoetryisnotgivenMrSparksinformsus(LifeofFranklin,p)thatthesevolumeshadbeenpreserved,andwereinpossessionofMrsEmmons,ofBoston,greatgranddaughteroftheirauthorThisobscurefamilyofourswasearlyintheReformation,andcontinuedProtestantsthroughthereignofQueenMary,whentheyweresometimesindangeroftroubleonaccountoftheirzealagainstpoperyTheyhadgotanEnglishBible,andtoconcealandsecureit,itwasfastenedopenwithtapesunderandwithinthecoverofajointstoolWhenmygreatgreatgrandfatherreadittohisfamily,heturnedupthejointstooluponhisknees,turningovertheleavesthenunderthetapesOneofthechildrenstoodatthedoortogivenoticeifhesawtheapparitorcoming,whowasanofficerofthespiritualcourtInthatcasethestoolwasturneddownagainuponitsfeet,whentheBibleremainedconcealedunderitasbeforeThisanecdoteIhadfrommyuncleBenjaminThefamilycontinuedalloftheChurchofEnglandtillabouttheendofCharlestheSecond'sreign,whensomeoftheministersthathadbeenoutedfornonconformityholdingconventiclesinNorthamptonshire,BenjaminandJosiahadheredtothem,andsocontinuedalltheirlives:therestofthefamilyremainedwiththeEpiscopalChurchJosiah,myfather,marriedyoung,andcarriedhiswifewiththreeTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINchildrenintoNewEngland,aboutTheconventicleshavingbeenforbiddenbylaw,andfrequentlydisturbed,inducedsomeconsiderablemenofhisacquaintancetoremovetothatcountry,andhewasprevailedwithtoaccompanythemthither,wheretheyexpectedtoenjoytheirmodeofreligionwithfreedomBythesamewifehehadfourchildrenmorebornthere,andbyasecondwifetenmore,inallseventeenofwhichIrememberthirteensittingatonetimeathistable,whoallgrewuptobemenandwomen,andmarriedIwastheyoungestson,andtheyoungestchildbuttwo,andwasborninBoston,NewEnglandMymother,thesecondwife,wasAbiahFolger,daughterofPeterFolger,oneofthefirstsettlersofNewEngland,ofwhomhonorablementionismadebyCottonMatherinhischurchhistoryofthatcountry,entitledMagnaliaChristiAmericana,as'agodly,learnedEnglishman,"ifIrememberthewordsrightlyIhaveheardthathewrotesundrysmalloccasionalpieces,butonlyoneofthemwasprinted,whichIsawnowmanyyearssinceItwaswrittenin,inthehomespunverseofthattimeandpeople,andaddressedtothosethenconcernedinthegovernmentthereItwasinfavoroflibertyofconscience,andinbehalfoftheBaptists,Quakers,andothersectariesthathadbeenunderpersecution,ascribingtheIndianwars,andotherdistressesthathadbefallenthecountry,tothatpersecution,assomanyjudgmentsofGodtopunishsoheinousanoffense,andexhortingarepealofthoseuncharitablelawsThewholeappearedtomeaswrittenwithagooddealofdecentplainnessandmanlyfreedomThesixconcludinglinesIremember,thoughIhaveforgottenthetwofirstofthestanzabutthepurportofthemwas,thathiscensuresproceededfromgoodwill,and,therefore,hewouldbeknowntobetheauthor"Becausetobealibeller(sayshe)IhateitwithmyheartFromSherburnetown,wherenowIdwellMynameIdoputhereWithoutoffenseyourrealfriend,ItisPeterFolgier"MyelderbrotherswereallputapprenticestodifferenttradesIwasputtothegrammarschoolateightyearsofage,myfatherintendingtodevoteme,asthetitheofhissons,totheserviceoftheChurchMyearlyreadinessinlearningtoread(whichmusthavebeenveryearly,asIdonotrememberwhenIcouldnotread),andtheopinionofallhisfriends,thatITHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINshouldcertainlymakeagoodscholar,encouragedhiminthispurposeofhisMyuncleBenjamin,too,approvedofit,andproposedtogivemeallhisshorthandvolumesofsermons,Isupposeasastocktosetupwith,ifIwouldlearnhischaracterIcontinued,however,atthegrammarschoolnotquiteoneyear,thoughinthattimeIhadrisengraduallyfromthemiddleoftheclassofthatyeartobetheheadofit,andfartherwasremovedintothenextclassaboveit,inordertogowiththatintothethirdattheendoftheyearButmyfather,inthemeantime,fromaviewoftheexpenseofacollegeeducation,whichhavingsolargeafamilyhecouldnotwellafford,andthemeanlivingmanysoeducatedwereafterwardsabletoobtainreasonsthatbegavetohisfriendsinmyhearingalteredhisfirstintention,tookmefromthegrammarschool,andsentmetoaschoolforwritingandarithmetic,keptbyathenfamousman,MrGeorgeBrownell,verysuccessfulinhisprofessiongenerally,andthatbymild,encouragingmethodsUnderhimIacquiredfairwritingprettysoon,butIfailedinthearithmetic,andmadenoprogressinitAttenyearsoldIwastakenhometoassistmyfatherinhisbusiness,whichwasthatofatallowchandlerandsopeboilerabusinesshewasnotbredto,buthadassumedonhisarrivalinNewEngland,andonfindinghisdyingtradewouldnotmaintainhisfamily,beinginlittlerequestAccordingly,Iwasemployedincuttingwickforthecandles,fillingthedippingmoldandthemoldsforcastcandles,attendingtheshop,goingoferrands,etcIdislikedthetrade,andhadastronginclinationforthesea,butmyfatherdeclaredagainstithowever,livingnearthewater,Iwasmuchinandaboutit,learntearlytoswimwell,andtomanageboatsandwheninaboatorcanoewithotherboys,Iwascommonlyallowedtogovern,especiallyinanycaseofdifficultyanduponotheroccasionsIwasgenerallyaleaderamongtheboys,andsometimesledthemintoscrapes,ofwhichIwillmentiononeinstance,asitshowsanearlyprojectingpublicspirit,tho'notthenjustlyconductedTherewasasaltmarshthatboundedpartofthemillpond,ontheedgeofwhich,athighwater,weusedtostandtofishforminnowsBymuchtrampling,wehadmadeitamerequagmireMyproposalwastobuildawharfftherefitforustostandupon,andIshowedmycomradesalargeTHEAUTOBIOGRAPHYOFBENJAMINFRANKLINheapofstones,whichwereintendedforanewhousenearthemarsh,andwhichwouldverywellsuitourpurposeAccordingly,intheevening,whentheworkmenweregone,Iassembledanumberofmyplayfellows,andworkingwiththemdiligentlylikesomanyemmets,sometimestwoorthreetoastone,webroughtthemallawayandbuiltourlittlewharffThenextmorningtheworkmenweresurprisedatmissingthestones,whichwerefoundinourwharffInquirywasmadeaftertheremoverswewerediscoveredandcomplainedofseveralofuswerecorrectedbyourfathersandthoughIpleadedtheusefulnessofthew

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