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首页 [美]劳伦·卡塞尔:伊丽莎白时代伦敦的医药与魔法:西蒙·佛曼:占星家、炼金术士与医师(牛津 20…

[美]劳伦·卡塞尔:伊丽莎白时代伦敦的医药与魔法:西蒙·佛曼:占星家、炼金术士与医师(牛津 2005

[美]劳伦·卡塞尔:伊丽莎白时代伦敦的医药与魔法:西蒙·佛曼:…

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2008-09-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]劳伦·卡塞尔:伊丽莎白时代伦敦的医药与魔法:西蒙·佛曼:占星家、炼金术士与医师(牛津 2005pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

OXFORDHISTORICALMONOGRAPHSPortraitofSimonFormanbyJohnBulfinch(fl–),engravedbyRichardGodfreyBypermissionoftheNationalPortraitGallery,LondonMedicineandMagicinElizabethanLondonSimonForman:Astrologer,Alchemist,andPhysicianCLARENDONPRESS·OXFORDGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanSouthKoreaPolandPortugalSingaporeSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©LaurenKassellThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedFirstpublishedinpaperbackAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableISBN–––––––ISBN–––(Pbk)––––(Pbk)TypesetbyGraphicraftLtd,HongKongPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyBiddlesLtdKing’sLynn,NorfolkforJoadACKNOWLEDGEMENTSSimonFormanhadahabitofwriting,RichardNapierpreservedhispapers,EliasAshmolehoardedthemforposterity,andWilliamBlackmasterfullycataloguedthemMyfirstdebtistoForman,mysecondtothosewhosavedandsortedhispapersIhaveincurredcountlessotherdebtsMargaretPellinghasmetmanydraftswithgenerouscomments,fosteringmyunderstandingofearlymodernmedicineandholdingmetoherscrupulousstandardsTonyGrafton,SimonSchaffer,andCharlesWebsterhaveperiodicallyreadrecensionsofthisbookandsharedtheirvisionsofForman’sworld,confidentthatmyarchivalprospectingwouldpayoffJimSecordreadacompletedraftandmadesuggestions,suchasthechronology,intheinterestsofthereaderEarlierStuartClarkandPaulSlacksuggestedhowtomakethestudybroaderandmorecoherent,andPaulhasreadsubsequentdraftsandshepherdedthebookthroughthepress,trustingmetodowhatneededtobedoneVersionsofindividualchaptershavebenefitedfromthecommentsofDavidColclough,MarinaFrascaSpada,NickJardine,HelenKing,BillNewman,SophiePage,andanonymousreadersOftenmyminingandforagingturnedtoscrounging,andIamenormouslygratefultothefollowingforsharingtheirmanuscriptreferencesandorarcaneexpertise:PennyBayer,HelenBrocklebank,PeterForshaw,PeterGrund,DeborahHarkness,SusanHitch,MartinIngram,MarkJenner,PeterJones,DavidKatz,GilesMandelbrote,ScottMandelbrote,SaraPennell,MaxSatchell,andBillShermanIhavepresentedworkonFormantoaudiencesinOxford,Cambridge,Geneva,London,Manchester,andPrincetonandIamgratefulfortheirquestionsIapologizetoanyoneIhaveforgottenManypeoplehavecontributedtothisbook,andresponsibilityforitsshortcomingsandfaultsarewhollymyownThisprojectalsohashadenormousinstitutionalsupport,directandtacitIbeganworkonitinthe‘old’WellcomeUnit,Oxford,acommunitythatinspiredrigourandindependenceTwoyearsofresearchandatriptoJerusalemwerefundedbytheWellcomeTrustTheDepartmentofHistory,UniversityofAberdeen,brieflyhousedmePembrokeCollege,Cambridge,supportedmefortwoyearsastheRAButlerResearchFellow,andhasprovidedagranttowardstheillustrationsWithfondnessIrememberthewelcomeIreceivedinPembrokeandCambridgefromthelateMarkKaplanoffTheDepartmentofHistoryandPhilosophyofScience,UniversityofCambridge,hometosomeofthepeoplelistedaboveandmanyfriends,hascollectivelywilledmetocompletionTheInstituteforAdvancedStudy,Princeton,hasgivenmemoretimethanIknewIneededTheSocietyfortheSocialHistoryofMedicineawardedamuchabbreviatedandnowrevisedversionofPartIIIitsEssayPrize,‘HowtoReadSimonForman’sCasebooks:Medicine,AstrologyandGenderinElizabethanLondon’,SocialHistoryofMedicine,(),–,andIowethemgratitudeforthisawardandOxfordUniversityPressforpermissiontorevisitthatmaterialinthisbookBillNewmanandTonyGraftonnursedthegermsofPartIVintoprint,‘“TheFoodofAngels”:SimonForman’sAlchemicalMedicine’,inAnthonyGraftonandWilliamNewman(eds),SecretsofNature:AstrologyandAlchemyinEarlyModernEurope(Cambridge,Mass,),–,andMITPresshasallowedmetoincludethismaterialhereIamalsoindebtedtotheBodleianLibrary,Oxford,theBritishLibrary,theFolgerShakespeareLibrary,WashingtonDC,theProvostandFellowsofKing’sCollege,Cambridge,theNationalPortraitGallery,andtheMasterandFellowsofPembrokeCollege,Cambridge,forpermissiontoreproduceimagesfromtheircollectionsIamgratefultotheRoyalSocietyforagranttowardsthecostsoftheillustrationsLibrariansandlibrarystaffthroughoutBritainandtheUnitedStateshavebeenmorethanaccommodatingMydependenceontheBodleianLibrary,Oxford,isselfevident,andIamespeciallyindebtedtothestaffinDukeHumphrey’sLibrary,AlanCarter,RussellEdwards,JeanPierreMialon,andWilliamHodgesAshmole’svolumesarebigandheavyandonlynowamIlearningnottowanttolookagainattheonesIhavejustreturnedtothestacksFinally,inalloftheseplacesIhavehadmanyfriendswhoborewithmytalkofFormanandtalkedaboutotherthingsThisbookwasbegunwhenIstayedinEnglandtobewithJoad,andwithhimandforhimitwaswrittenLKJuneAcknowledgementsviiThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSListofIllustrationsxListofTablesxiiAbbreviationsandConventionsxiiiListofAstrologicalSymbolsxvChronologyxviIntroductionITHEMAKINGOFANASTROLOGERPHYSICIANEarlyLifeandLearningAstronomy,Magic,andtheMathematicalPractitionersofLondonHowtoWritelikeaMagusIIPLAGUEANDTHECOLLEGEOFPHYSICIANSOFLONDONTheCollegeofPhysiciansandIrregularMedicineinLondon,c–PlagueandParacelsianismIIITHECASEBOOKSHowtoReadtheCasebooksGender,Authority,andAstrologyIVALCHEMY,MAGIC,ANDMEDICINE‘OfCako’,ortheMedicalUsesofAntimonyTheFoodofAngelsMagicandMedicineConclusionBibliographyIndexofManuscriptsGeneralIndexLISTOFILLUSTRATIONSFrontispiece:PortraitofSimonFormanbyJohnBulfinch(fl–),engravedbyRichardGodfreyii‘ThebockeofthelifeofandgenerationofSimon’,Ashm,foSimonForman’snativity,Ashm,fo–SimonForman’s‘Diary’for,Ashm,fosv–SimonForman’scopyofGeorgeRipley’s‘Thecompoundofalchemy’,Ashm,foSimonForman,Thegroundesofthelongitude(),titlepage‘AtableofthemotionoftheheaventhatIfoundinanoldparchmentbocke’,Ashm,fovSimonForman,‘Thegroundsofarte’,c–,Ashm,foSimonForman,‘Theastrologicallejudgmentesofphisickandotherquestions’,–,withlaterrevisions,Ashm,foSimonForman,‘Liberjuditiorummorborum’,,Ashm,foRichardNapier,‘Atreatisetouchingthedefencofastrologie’,c–,Ashm,foSimonForman’slistofconflictswiththephysiciansontheendpagesofacasebook,Ashm,foSimonForman’snoteofthepurchaseofabookinOxfordonFeb,King’sMS,fovSimonForman’stypologyofplagueJohnMelton,Astrologaster(),titlepage‘Thenaturesofthehowsesforjudgmentofdiseasesandthecausetherof’,Ashm,foAtable‘Toknoweinwhatplaceofthebodyeveryplannetdothcausedistempraturordiseaseandwhatparttheyrule’,Ashm,pEntriesinSimonForman’scasebooksforOctober,Ashm,foThefirstpageofSimonForman’srecipeforhis‘Waterimperialle’,Sloane,foApagefromthefaircopyofForman’scasebook,Ashm,foSimonForman,‘Matrixandpainetherof’,,Ashm,foSimonForman’scopyof‘Ofcako’,ananonymizedandalteredversionofAlexandervonSuchten’s‘Secondtreatiseonantimony’,Ashm,fo‘Cako’in‘Principlesofphilosofie’,Ashm,p‘Antimony’in‘Ofappoticariedruges’,Ashm,pApageofthe‘LifeofAdamandEve’,transcribedandannotatedbySimonForman,Ashm,ii,foApagefromoneofSimonForman’scopiesofthe‘Arsnotoria’,Jones,foCalculationsforanddrawingsofthesigilmadeforMarthaShackleton,April,Ashm,fovListofIllustrationsxiLISTOFTABLESSexandtypeofallconsultations,March–FebruaryFrequencyofconsultations,March–FebruaryNumbersoftreatmentsandprescriptions,March–MayinclusiveTypesoftreatmentsandprescriptions,March–MayinclusiveABBREVIATIONSANDCONVENTIONSAnnalsLondon,RoyalCollegeofPhysicians,AnnalsBk,–,trJEmberryandSHeathcote(–)AshmOxford,BodleianLibrary,AshmoleMS‘Astrologicallejudgmentes’SimonForman,‘Theastrologicallejudgmentesofphisickandotherquestions’,Ashm,,BLLondon,BritishLibraryBodleianOxford,BodleianLibrary‘Defenc’RichardNapier,‘Atreatisetouchingthedefencofastrologie’,Ashm,fos–,continued,fos–DNBDictionaryofNationalBiography,edLStephenandSLee,vols(–),withsupplementsFolgerWashington,DC,FolgerShakespeareLibrary‘Groundsofarte’SimonForman,‘Thegroundsofartegatheredoutofdiverseauthors’,Ashm‘Heavens’SimonForman,‘Themotionofthesuperiourheavens’,Ashm,fos–King’sCambridge,King’sCollege‘Life’‘LifeofAdamandEve’,inHFDSparks(ed),TheApocryphalOldTestament(Oxford,),–Ashm,iiLongitudeSimonForman,Thegroundesofthelongitude()‘Matrix’SimonForman,‘Matrixandpainetherof’,Ashm,fos–edBarbaraTraister,‘“Matrixandthepainthereof”:ASixteenthCenturyGynaecologicalEssay’,MedicalHistory,(),–OEDOxfordEnglishDictionary<http:dictionaryoedcom>SloaneLondon,BritishLibrary,SloaneMSSTCAWPollardandGRRedgrave,AShortTitleCatalogueofBooksPrintedinEngland,Scotland,andIreland,ndedn()TrinityCambridge,TrinityCollegeTheplaceofpublicationisLondonunlessotherwisenotedAllquotationsareintheoriginalspellingwithijanduvmodernizedandcontractionsexpandedDuplicatewordsandotherminorcopyingerrorshavebeensilentlycorrectedMostfirstnameshavebeenstandardizedFormanwroteinadistinctive,oftenarchaicfashionWherenecessaryforclarity,punctuationhasbeenaddedExistingpunctuationhasbeenmodernized,usuallyconvertingfullstopsintocommasandslashesintofullstopsTheerraticuseofcapitallettershasbeenretainedwhenconveyingemphasisRedinkanddifferentscriptsarerecordedinfootnoteswhererelevantTheword‘wordle’for‘world’isahallmarkofhiswritings,andthelettershavenotbeenuntransposedForman’smalapropismsremainUsuallythemostrecentsetoffoliationorpaginationinamanuscriptiscitedItemnumbersareomittedwherecitationsaretoasinglesetofnumerationrunningthroughoutavolumeAllfolioandsignaturereferencesaretotherectounlessotherwisenotedBracketsindicatenumbersthathavebeeninferredDatesaregiveninOldStyle,excepttheyearistakentobeginonJanuaryReferencestotheAnnalsincludethepageanddateoftherecordReferencestothecasebooksincludevolumenumbersandthenameanddateheadingaconsultation,omittingfolioreferencesunlessthedatedrecordsareoutofsequencexivAbbreviationsandConventionsLISTOFASTROLOGICALSYMBOLS�Sun,gold,Sunday�Moon,silver,Monday�Mars,iron,Tuesday�Mercury,mercury,Wednesday�Jupiter,tin,Thursday�Venus,copper,Friday�Saturn,lead,Saturday�AriesTaurusGemini�Cancer�LeoVirgo�Libra�Scorpio�SagittariusCapricorn�Aquarius�PiscesCHRONOLOGYThislistisdesignedtoorientthereader,nottosummarizethehundredsofdatedeventsinForman’slifeAllitemsinthelistarementionedinthetextandincludedintheIndexQuotationmarksdesignateForman’swords,italicshiswritingsTheBibliographycontainsfullinformationaboutsources,anddetailsofdatesanddatingareincludedthereandinthetextDecBorn,Quidhampton,Wiltshire–AttendedschoolatStGilesPriorytheninSalisburyJanFatherdied–cApprenticedtoMatthewCommin,hosierandgrocer,SalisburyMayWenttoMagdalenCollege,OxfordcBegantostudyastrology,medicine,andmagicSeptReturnedtoQuidhampton,taughtschoolinWiltonPlagueinOxford,resultinginlossofbooksJune–JulyImprisonedinSalisburylostbooksasecondtimeTravelledintheLowCountriescBegankeepingadiaryReacquaintedwithAnneWalworth(néeYoung),hisfirstlove–TutortoJohnPenruddock’schildren–LivedoppositeStThomasChurch,SalisburycBegancopyingalchemicaltreatisesanddistillingstrongwatersMarCaughtwithsuspiciousbooksinchurchinSalisburyandimprisonedthirdlossofbooksParticipatedinamagiccirclefirst‘begantopracticefoiygomercytocalleangellsandsprites’JanLeftSalisbury,thereafterlivedinmanyroomsinLondonandotherplacesc‘Thegroundesofphysiqueandchirurgerie’,Sloane,fos–v‘Deartegeomantica’,AshmcAtreatiseongeomancy,revisedc,Ashm‘Wroteabockeofnigromanti’April‘IputthelongitudeinquestionthatdaiIrodtoLondonlaiatMullenaxestoteachhimthelongitude’AugMovedtoLondonJulyLongitudewasprintedNov‘MrHoodesbockcameoutagainstme’FebTookachamberatStoneHouse,PhilpotLaneSummerSufferedfromplague‘ThisyereIdidmaninotablecuersandbegantobeknowenandcomtocredit’‘Adisourseoftheplague’,Ashm,fos–‘MyknowledgeinphisquandinastronomydidencreaseandIbegantocomtocredit’FirstmetAvisAllen,Forman’smistressuntilherdeathinMarAppearedbeforetheCollegeofPhysiciansforthefirsttime,fined£AutumnBegantopursuethephilosophers’stonec–‘Groundsofarte’,AshmNovSecondappearancebeforetheCollegeofPhysicians,fined£andimprisonedc–‘Astrologicallejudgmentes’,Ashm,revised(Ashm),and(Ashm)‘Matrix’,Ashm,fos–SeptThirdinterviewwiththeCollegeofPhysicians,imprisonedMar–FebCasebooksvol,Ashm‘Principlesofphilosofi’,AshmFeb–FebCasebooksvol,AshmDecCensorsattempted,andfailed,toarrestFormanDecRentedhouseinLambethuntilJunethenbacktoLambethFeb–FebCasebooksvol,AshmFeb–DecCasebooksvol,Ashm‘ThisyereIwasquietefromthedoctorsfromimprisonmentbutIcondemnedtheminlawe,putthemtosilenceforawholeyerafterahalf’Copied‘ThelifeofAdamandEve’,Ashm,iiChronologyxviiJulyMarriedJeanBakerSeptWrotetoNapierabout‘thebockethatItoldyouImentetoputinpresse’Jan–DecCasebooksvol,Ashm‘Liberjuditiorummorborum’,AshmNovCollegeofPhysicianssummonedForman,hesentaletterDec‘ThebockeofthelifeandgenerationofSimon’,Ashm,fos–Dec–NovCasebooksvol,AshmJuneCollegeofPhysicianswrotetoWhitgiftaboutForman–Copied‘Arsnotoria’threetimesMayNapiersentFormanhis‘Defencofastrologie’May–SeptCopiesofcasebooksinanotherhand,Ashm,fos–MarchWrotetoNapieraskingforhelpagainsttheCollegeofPhysicians‘Diary’,Ashm,fos–LicensedtopractisephysicandastronomybyUniversityofCambridgec–‘Forman’streatiseontheplague’,Ashm‘Formanhisrepetitionofthetroblehehadwiththedoctors’,apsalm,Ashm,fos–v,cont,fos–vSeptBirthofdaughter,Dority(dJan)Sept‘OfthenameofForman’,Ashmfos–vc–‘ThefirsteoftheFormans’,Ashm,fos–vOctBirthofson,Clement‘TheissueofSimonForman’,Ashm,fos–c‘Heavens’,Ashm,fos–Untitledplaguetreatise,Ashmc–‘Ofappoticariedruges’,Ashm,cUntitledalchemicalcommonplacebook,AshmSeptFormandied,buriedatStMary’sChurch,Lambeth,SeptxviiiChronology¹BenJonson,TheDevilisanAss,edCHHerford,PSimpson,andESimpson,BenJonson,vols(Oxford,–),iv,iiseealsoviii²AnthonyWeldon,ThecourtandcharacterofKingJames(),ArthurWilson,ThefiveyearesofKingJames(),–AlastairBellany,ThePoliticsofCourtScandalinEarlyModernEngland:NewsCultureandtheOverburyAffair,–(Cambridge,)DavidLindley,TheTrialsofFrancesHoward:FactandFictionattheCourtofKingJames()WilliamMcElwee,TheMurderofSirThomasOverbury()ALRowse,SimonForman:SexandSocietyinShakespeare’sAge(),–BarbaraTraister,TheNotoriousAstrologicalPhysicianofLondon:WorksandDaysofSimonForman(Chicago,),chBeatriceWhite,CastofRavens:TheStrangeCaseofSirThomasOverbury()³ForacopyofaletterfromFrancesHowardtoFormanwhichwasshownduringthetrialsseeCompletecollectionofstatetrials,edTBHowell,(),–Manuscriptcopiesofthisandrelatedletterscirculatedwidely,egBodleian,DowdsonMS,foseealsoBellany,PoliticsofCourtScandal,,DuringthepublictrialofAnneTurner,JeanForman,Forman’s

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