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首页 [美]布鲁范德:美国民俗学:一部百科全书(加兰 1996)

[美]布鲁范德:美国民俗学:一部百科全书(加兰 1996)

[美]布鲁范德:美国民俗学:一部百科全书(加兰 1996)

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2008-09-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]布鲁范德:美国民俗学:一部百科全书(加兰 1996)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AmericanFolkloreGarlandReferenceLibraryoftheHumanities(Vol)AdvisoryBoardRobertAGeorgesProfessorEmeritusofEnglishandFolkloreUniversityofCaliforniaLosAngelesJamesPLearyFacultyAssociateintheFolkloreProgramUniversityofWisconsinWKMcNeilFolkloristatTheOzarkFolkCenterMountainView,ArkansasJohnMichaelVlachProfessorofAmericanStudiesandAnthropologyDirectoroftheFolklifeProgramTheGeorgeWashingtonUniversityMartaWeigleProfessorofAnthropologyUniversityRegentsProfessorUniversityofNewMexicoRosemaryLévyZumwaltAssociateProfessorofAnthropologyChairoftheDepartmentofAnthropologyandSociologyDavidsonCollegeAmericanFolkloreAnEncyclopediaEditedbyJanHaroldBrunvandGarlandPublishing,IncNewYorkLondon,ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotohttp:wwwebookstoretandfcouk”Copyright©byJanHaroldBrunvandAllrightsreservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAmericanfolklore:anencyclopediaeditedbyJanHaroldBrunvandpcm(Garlandreferencelibraryofthehumanitiesvol)Originallypublished:IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk:alkpaper)FolkloreNorthAmericaEncyclopediasNorthAmericaSociallifeandcustomsEncyclopediasIBrunvand,JanHaroldIISeriesGRA′′–dc–CIPCoverphoto:HenryOssawaTanner’s“TheBanjoLesson”CourtesyHamptonUniversityMuseum,Hampton,VirginiaCoverdesignbyLawrenceWolfsonDesign,NYPictureresearchbyJacobLoveCoverresearchbyMarjorieTrenkISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(PrintEdition)ContentsPrefaceviiStandardFolkloreIndexesandClassificationsxContributorsxiiTheEncyclopediaIndexPrefaceThisvolumeisacomprehensivegeneralreferenceworkintendedforscholars,students,writers,andthegeneralpublicon“Americanfolklore,”whichisdefinedhereasNorthAmericanfolklore,includingCanadianbutexcluding,exceptforafewgeneraltopics,thefolkloreofNativeAmericans,whichwillbecoveredinitsownencyclopediaHowever,undermanytopicsimmigrantfolklore,AfricanAmericanfolklore,occupationalfolklore,genresoffolklorereferencetoareasoutsidetheUnitedStatesandCanadawasinevitableIn,AlexanderHKrappecalledAmericanfolklore“abadmisnomer,”assertingthatthereexisted“onlyEuropean(orAfrican,orFarEastern)folkloreontheAmericancontinent”Moreusefully,in,RichardMDorsondistinguishedbetween“FolkloreinAmerica”and“AmericanFolklore,”repeatingthecallthathehadsoundeddecadesbeforeformoreattentionbyfolkloriststo“thebackgroundofAmericanhistory,withitsuniquecircumstancesandenvironment”andtoboththeadaptationsofolderfolkloreandthecreationofnewfolkloreagainstthishistoricalbackgroundThepresentencyclopediaaffirmsthat“Americanfolklore”indeeddoesexist,anditincludesinitsscopeboththeolderadaptedthemesandtheneweroriginalonesdevelopedwithinthelargerculturalmatrixofAmericanhistoryThequalifier“American”shouldbeunderstoodinthetitlesofalloftheextensiveentriesgatheredhereforfolkloregenres,folkgroups,scholarlyapproaches,generaltopics,folkperformers,andfolkloristsForthelattercategoryfolklorescholarsonlythosepeoplewhoselifeworkhasbeencompletedhavebeenincludedLivingfolkloristsarenotrepresentedForfolkperformers,thislivingpersonrulewasnotapplied,althoughacloseassociationofeachperformersworkwithgenuinefolktraditionwasrequiredTherangeofgeneraltopicscoveredrunsfromtraditionalareaslikefolklorescholarship,filmandfolklore,historyandfolklore,massmediaandfolklore,parodyinfolklore,andpublicfolkloretosuchleadingedgetopicsasbodylore,codinginAmericanfolkculture,culturalstudies,computerfolklore,empowerment,organizationalfolklore,andpostmodernismReadersinterestedinasurveyofscholarlyapproachestoAmericanfolkloremightbeginbyreadingtheentriesAMERICANFOLKLORESCHOLARSHIP:THEEARLYYEARS,CANADIANFOLKLORE,ETHICSINFOLKLORERESEARCH,FlELDWORK,FOLKLIFEMOVEMENT,andMATERIALCULTUREbeforeturningtothespecific“approaches”topics:ANTHROPOLOGICAL,COMPARATIVE,CONTEXTUAL,FEMINIST,FUNCTIONALISM,MARXIST,ORALFORMULAIC,PSYCHOLOGYOFFOLKLORE,SEMIOTIC,SOCIOLOGICAL,andSTRUCTURALSimilarly,onemightreadthegeneralentryREGIONALFOLKLOREbeforeconsultingthespecificregionalarticles:NEWENGLAND,MIDDLEATLANTIC,ADIRONDACKS,APPALACHIA,PIEDMONT,MIDWEST,GREATPLAINS,SOUTH,OZARKS,SOUTHWEST,ROCKYMOUNTAINS,NORTHWESTCOASTANDALASKA,ANDGREATBASINOrthegeneralentriesETHNICFOLKLOREandIMMIGRANTFOLKLORE,STUDYOF,couldbereadfirstasanintroductiontotheentriesonethnicandimmigrantgroups:AFRICAN,BALTIC,BASQUE,CAJUNS,CHINESE,DUTCH,FILIPINO,FINNISH,FRENCH,GERMAN,GREEK,GYPSIES,HUNGARIAN,IRISH,ITALIAN,JAPANESE,POLISH,ROMANIAN,SCANDINAVIAN,SCOTTISH,SLAVIC,UKRAINIAN,andWENDSOfcourse,everyentryanditsreferencelistisanindependententityworthconsultingonitsownmerits,withnopriorreviewofageneraltopicrequiredA“seealso”lineformostentriesindicatescrossreferencestorelatedtopicsThemajorAmericanfolkloregenresandoccupationalfolkgroupshavebeenincluded,insofarasreferencematerialexiststodocumentthem,butwedidnotattempttocoverallminorgenres,occupations,andhobbiesthatmayhavetheirowndistinctivefolkloreThus,therearelongessaysonsuchgenresasCUSTOM,FOLKSONG,FOLKTALE,GAMES,MYTH,PROVERBS,RIDDLESANDPUZZLES,andSUPERSTITION,butshorterentriesonsuchgenresasANECDOTE,ANTILEGEND,CADENCECHANT,DOZENS,JACKTALES,MNEMONICDEVICES,PRAYER,RECITATION,andSHIVAREESimilarlyforoccupations,wehavelongerentriesforCOWBOYS,FARMERS,LOGGERS,RAILROADERS,STEELWORKERS,andthelike,butshorteronesforgroupslikeBIKERS,BIRDERS,LAWYERS,MEDICALPROFESSIONALS,PRINTERS,andWATERMENReaderswillfindalloftheexpectedartsandcraftsofAmericanfolktraditionrepresentedhere:BASKETMAKING,BLACKSMITHING,COSTUME,NEEDLEWORK,POTTERY,QUILTMAKING,WEAVING,WOODCARVING,andsoon,aswellassomeperhapslessfamiliar,likeBOATBUILDING,PAPERCUTTING,TATTOOING,andthecreationsproducedby“outsiderartists”Inlikemanner,thereare,predictably,entriesonmajormusicalforms,suchasBALLAD,BLUEGRASS,BLUES,CHANTEYS,GOSPELMUSIC,LULLABY,LYRICSONG,PLAYPARTY,SHAPENOTESINGING,SPIRITUALS,andWORKSONGbutalsolessexpectedentriesonsuchformsasCONJUNTOMUSIC,COUNTRYMUSIC,ELVIS,FILKMusic,JAZZ,KLEZMER,RAP,andZYDECOEachuserofthisvolume,wehope,willfindspecialsurprisesandpleasuresinitForhisownpart,theeditorconfessestohavingaspecialaffinityfortheentriesAUTOHARP,CATFISH,CONARTIST,COWTIPPING,CURSING,FISHING(SPORT),NUCLEARLORE,OUIJA,SHEEPCAMP,andUFOLORE,noneofwhichwereontheoriginallyplannedentrylistbutallofwhichyieldedfascinatingessaysinthehandsoftheexpertswhowrotethemAmericanfolkloreisalargeanddiversifiedfieldwithalongandproudtraditionofscholarshipdevotedtoitscollectionandinterpretationThisencyclopediaisthefirstseriousattempttoprovideadetailedreferencesourceonthefield,basedontheworkofacademicfolklorespecialistsThenetwascastwidely,butintheconflnesofaonevolumebookmuchhadtobesummarizedorevenomittedSo,besidesusingthereferencelistsfollowingmanyindividualentries,thereaderisurgedtoconsultsuchgeneralsourcesasthefollowingGeneralReferenceMaterialBrunvand,JanHaroldReadingsinAmericanFolkloreNewYork:WWNortonTheStudyofAmericanFolklore:AnIntroductiondedNewYork:WWNortonDorson,RichardMAmericanFolklore(Paperbackedwithrevisedbibliographicalnotes,)Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPressBuyingtheWind:RegionalFolkloreintheUnitedStatesChicago:UniversityofChicagoPressFolkloreandFolklife:AnIntroductionChicago:UniversityofChicagoPressAmericainLegend:FolklorefromtheColonialPeriodtothePresentNewYork:PantheonBooks,edHandbookofAmericanFolkloreBloomington:IndianaUniversityPressDundes,Alan,edTheStudyofFolkloreEnglewoodCliffs:PrenticeHallFlanagan,CathleenC,andJohnTAmericanFolklore:ABibliographyMetuchen:ScarecrowPressHaywood,CharlesABibliographyofNorthAmericanFolkloreandFolksongdrevedNewYork:DoverBooksLeach,Maria,andJeromeFried,edsStandardDictionaryofFolklore,Mythology,andLegend(Reved,)Oring,Elliott,edFolkGroupsandFolkloreGenres:AnIntroductionLogan:UtahStateUniversityPressFolkGroupsandFolkloreGenres:AReaderLogan:UtahStateUniversityPressToelken,BarreTheDynamicsofFolkloreBoston:HoughtonMifflinWilgus,DKAngloAmericanFolksongScholarshipSinceNewBrunswick:RutgersUniversityPressJanHaroldBrunvandStandardFolkloreIndexesandClassificationsThefollowingarecitedwithinentriesintheshortformsshowninbracketsAarne,Antti,andStithThompsonTheTypesoftheFolktale:AClassificationandBibliographydrevedFolkloreFellowsCommunications,NoCitedasAT,Type,orTaleTypefollowedbytheappropriatenumberBaughman,ErnestWTypeandMotifIndexoftheFolktalesofEnglandandNorthAmericaIndianaUniversityFolkloreSeries,NoTheHague:MoutonCitedasBaughmanTypeorBaughmanMotiffollowedbytheappropriateletterornumberChild,FrancisJames–TheEnglishandScottishPopularBalladsvolsNewYork:DoverCitedasChildfollowedbytheappropriatenumber,fromthroughCoffin,TristramPotterAmericanBalladryfromBritishBroadsides:AGuideforStudentsandCollectorsoftheTraditionalSongAmericanFolkloreSociety,BibliographicalandSpecialSeriesVolPhiladelphiaLaws,GMalcolm,JrAmericanBalladryfromBritishBroadsides:AGuideforStudentsandCollectorsofTraditionalSongAmericanFolkloreSociety,BibliographicalandSpecialSeriesVolPhiladelphiaCitedasLawsfollowedbytheletterJthroughQfollowedbytheappropriatenumberNativeAmericanBalladry:ADescriptiveGuideandaBibliographicalSyllabusRevedAmericanFolkloreSociety,BibliographicalandSpecialSeriesVolPhiladelphiaCitedasLawsfollowedbytheletterAthroughIfollowedbytheappropriatenumberThompson,Stith–TheMotifIndexofFolkLiteratureRevedvolsBloomington:IndianaUniversityPressCitedasMotiffollowedbytheappropriateletterandnumbersContributorsBarbaraAllenIndependentScholarCheyenne,WYRGeraldAlveyProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishUniversityofKentuckyPhilisAlvicIndependentScholarLexington,KYRuthEAndersenIndependentScholarAustin,TXJohnJAppelAdjunctCuratorMichiganStateUniversityMuseumJohnAshtonProfessor,DepartmentofFolkloreSirWilfredGrenfellCollegeCanadaLouieAtteberyProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishAlbertsonCollegeofIdahoRonaldLBakerChairpersonandProfessorofEnglishIndianaStateUniversityKarenBaldwinDirector,ECUFolkloreArchiveEastCarolinaUniversityAmandaCarsonBanksLibraryDevelopmentVanderbiltUniversityThomasEBardenDirector,AmericanStudiesProgramUniversityofToledoRobertBaronFolkArtsProgramDirectorNewYorkStateCouncilontheArtsPeterBartisFolklifeSpecialist,AmericanFolklifeCenterLibraryofCongressJohnBealleIndependentScholarCincinnati,OHStephenDowBeckhamPamplinProfessorofHistoryLewisClarkCollegeKristiABellArchivist,BrighamYoungUniversityFolkloreArchiveDanBenAmosProfessorofFolkloreandFolklifeUniversityofPennsylvaniaRichardJBlausteinProfessorEastTennesseeStateUniversityBetsyBowdenProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishRutgersUniversityCamdenErikaBradyAssociateProfessor,ProgramsinFolkStudiesWesternKentuckyUniversityMargaretKBradyAssociateProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishUniversityofUtahCRayBrassieurOralHistorianFolklorist,StateHistoricalSocietyofMissouriUniversityofMissouriColumbiaCharlesLBriggsProfessorofAnthropologyVassarCollegeSimonJBronnerProfessor,AmericanStudiesProgramPennsylvaniaStateUniversityHarrisburgDavidABroseManager,FolkloreProgramJohnCCampbellFolkSchoolBrasstown,NCPeggyABulgerFolkArtsDirectorSouthernArtsFederationAtlanta,GAThomasEBullardIndependentScholarBloomington,INCarolBurkeAssociateDeanforAcademicAffairsandAssociateProfessor,SchoolofArtsandSciencesJohnsHopkinsUniversityRichardAllenBurnsAssistantProfessorofEnglishandFolkloreArkansasStateUniversityJohnABurrisonProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishGeorgiaStateUniversityAnneBursonTolpinAdjunctInstructorEssexCountyCollegeWestEssexCampusCharlesCampMarylandStateArtsCouncilHalCannonFoundingDirector,WesternFolklifeCenterElko,NVSueSpencerCannonIndependentScholarIrvine,CASimonJCarmelAssistantProfessor,Anthropologist,NationalTechnicalInstitutefortheDeafRochesterInstituteofTechnologyCaroleHCarpenterProfessor,OntarioFolklifeCentreHumanitiesYorkUniversityCanadaJohnCashFolkloreInstituteIndianaUniversityFrancesCattermoleTallyIndependentScholarLosAngeles,CAVivienTYChenProjectDirector,SmithsonianInstitutionTravelingExhibitionService(SITES)SmithsonianInstitutionSallyCandBarryEChildsHeltonIndependentScholarsIndianapolis,INWilliamMClementsProfessorofEnglishandFolkloreArkansasStateUniversityJanetMCliffIndependentScholarSanAntonio,TXRobertCochranDirector,CenterforArkansasandRegionalStudiesUniversityofArkansasTristramPotterCoffinIndependentScholarWakefield,RIJohnMCoggeshallDepartmentofSociologyClemsonUniversityDavidStevenCohenSeniorResearchAssociateNewJerseyHistoricalCommissionNormCohenIndependentScholarPortland,ORKristinGCongdonProfessorofArtUniversityofCentralFloridaCeceliaConwayIndependentScholarChapelHill,NCKayCothranCraigieIndependentScholarPaoli,PADanielJCrowleyProfessor,DepartmentofAnthropologyUniversityofCaliforniaDavisKeithCunninghamProfessorofEnglishNorthernArizonaUniversityLarryDanielsonProfessorandChair,InterculturalandFolkStudiesDepartmentWesternKentuckyUniversityFrankdeCaroProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishLouisianaStateUniversityLindaDéghDistinguishedProfessorofFolkloreIndianaUniversityDouglasDeNataleManager,CulturalHeritageandTechnologyNewEnglandFoundationfortheArtsBoston,MACKurtDewhurstDirector,MichiganStateUniversityMuseumSandraKDolbyProfessor,FolkloreInstituteIndianaUniversityJohnDorstProfessor,AmericanStudiesProgramUniversityofWyomingWilliamADouglassCoordinator,BasqueStudiesProgramUniversityofNevadaRenoNorineDresserRetiredFaculty,nowIndependentScholarCaliforniaStateUniversityLosAngelesDorisJDyenSteelIndustryHeritageFoundationHomestead,PABrendaMEaglesResearchLibrarian,CenterfortheStudyofSouthernCultureUniversityofMississippiEricAldenEliasonIndependentScholarAustin,TXBillEllisAssociateProfessorofEnglishandAmericanStudiesPennsylvaniaStateUniversityHazletonDavidGEngleProfessor,DepartmentofForeignLanguagesandLiteratureCaliforniaStateUniversityFresnoDavidEvansProfessorofMusicUniversityofMemphisBarbaraFertigSavannahHistoryMuseumSavannah,GAAltaFifeIndependentScholarLogan,UTGaryAlanFineProfessorofSociologyUniversityofGeorgiaElizabethCFineAssociateProfessor,CenterforInterdisciplinaryStudiesandDepartmentofCommunicationStudiesVirginiaTechJohnMilesFoleyWHBylerProfessorofClassicsandEnglishUniversityofMissouriEdithFowkeIndependentScholarCanadaRobertAGeorgesProfessorEmeritus,FolkloreandMythologyProgramUniversityofCaliforniaLosAngelesAngusKressGillespieAssociateProfessor,AmericanStudiesDepartmentRutgersUniversityJanetCGilmoreIndependentScholarMountHoreb,WIStephenDGlazierProfessorofAnthropologyUniversityofNebraskaChristineGoldbergIndependentScholarLosAngeles,CAPeterDGoldsmithDeanofFirstYearStudentsandAdjunctAssociateProfessorofAnthropologyDartmouthCollegeJosephPGoodwinAssistantDirector,CareerServicesBallStateUniversityAndreaGrahamDirector,FolkArtsProgramNevadaStateCouncilontheArtsJoeSGrahamChair,DepartmentofPsychologyandSociology(Anthropology)TexasAMUniversityKingsvilleStephenGreenSoundandImageLibrarianSouthernFolklifeandHistoricalCollectionsWilsonLibraryUniversityofNorthCarolinaChapelHillPaulineGreenhillAssociateProfessor,AnthropologyandWomen’sStudiesUniversityofWinnipegCanadaSylviaGriderDepartmentofAnthropologyTexasAMUniversityHannaGriffAssistantProfessorSanyoGakuenUniversityJapanJamesSGriffithCoordinator,SouthwestFolkloreCenterSpecialCollectionsLibraryUniversityofArizonaJohnAGutowskiProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishSaintXavierUniversitySandraGHancockProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishUniversityofTennesseeJudithLynneHannaSeniorResearchScholarUniversityofMarylandGregoryHansenAssociateInstructorIndianaUniversityIlanaHarlowTheFolkloreInstituteIndianaUniversityJosephHarrisProfessor,DepartmentofEnglishandAmericanLiteratureHarvardUniversityPhyllisAHarrisonExecutiveDirector,LifeontheSoundTacoma,WAGuyHaskellProfessor,JudaicandNearEasternStudiesOberlinCollegeJudithHautIndependentScholarTopanga,CAElissaRHenkenAssociateProfessorUniversityofGeorgiaJerroldHirschProfessor,DivisionofSocialScienceNortheastMissouriStateUniversityMaggieHoltzbergDirector,FolklifeProgramGeorgiaCouncilfortheArtsLaurelHortonIndependentScholarSeneca,SCJimHoyProfessor,DivisionofEnglishEmporiaStateUniversityPatrickHuberDepartmentofHistoryUniversityofNorthCarolinaMaryHuffordFolklifeSpecialist,AmericanFolklifeCenterWashington,DCLindaAHughesVisitingAssistantProfessorUniversityofDelawareLinT

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[美]布鲁范德:美国民俗学:一部百科全书(加兰 1996)

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