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首页 [美]顾德曼著:家乡、城市和国家——上海的地缘网络与认同,1853—1937(加州大学 1995…

[美]顾德曼著:家乡、城市和国家——上海的地缘网络与认同,1853—1937(加州大学 1995)

[美]顾德曼著:家乡、城市和国家——上海的地缘网络与认同,18…

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简介:本文档为《[美]顾德曼著:家乡、城市和国家——上海的地缘网络与认同,1853—1937(加州大学 1995)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PreferredCitation:Goodman,BrynaNativePlace,City,andNation:RegionalNetworksandIdentitiesinShanghai,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftmnbNativePlace,City,andNationRegionalNetworksandIdentitiesinShanghai,BrynaGoodmanUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeley·LosAngeles·Oxford©TheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaformyparentsPreferredCitation:Goodman,BrynaNativePlace,City,andNation:RegionalNetworksandIdentitiesinShanghai,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftmnbformyparentsAcknowledgmentsMygreatestintellectualdebtistomyadvisorsatStanfordUniversity,HaroldKahnandLymanVanSlyke,whoguidedmethroughadissertationonthistopicandwhosecarefulreadingsandinsightfulcriticismschallengedandinspiredmeoverthecourseofmanyrevisionsTheycreatedarareatmosphereofintellectualcollaborationatStanfordandsethighstandardsforteaching,scholarshipandintegrityIwouldalsoliketothankCarolBenedict,PrasenjitDuara,JosephEsherick,ChristianHenriot,WendyLarsonandtwoanonymousreadersforthepress,eachofwhomprovideddetailed,thoughtfulandprovocativereadingsofmyfullmanuscript,substantiallyenrichingitsqualitySusanMannhelpedguidemyinitialformulationofmytopicandprovidedinsightfulsuggestionsatvariouspointsalongthewayDuringapostdoctoralyearattheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyIbenefitedfromthepresenceofFredericWakemanandYehWenhsin,whotooktimetoreadandcommentonmyworkandwhochallengedmewiththebreadthoftheirownworkonShanghaiandrelatedtopicsCynthiaBrokaw,AndrewChar,PaulKatz,WilliamRoweandErnstSchwintzereachreadportionsofthemanuscriptandprovidedinsightfulcommentsandsuggestionsIamgratefulforthegenerosityofeachofthesereaders,withwhosehelpIhaveavoidedsomeofthepitfallsofearlierversionsMyinitialresearchinChinawasgreatlyfacilitatedbymyFudanadvisors,ProfessorsHuangMeizhenandYangLiqiangTheyalsoopenedtheirhomestomeandintroducedmetothespecialfoodsoftheirnative―xii―places,inFujianandGuangdongprovincesZhangJishunandZhuHong,oftheCenterforResearchonShanghai,togetherwithHuangMeizhen,smoothedarrangementsduringasubsequentresearchtripin,asdidthestaffoftheForeignAffairsOfficeattheShanghaiAcademyofSocialSciencesIwouldalsoliketothankthestaffsoftheShanghaiMunicipalArchives,theShanghaiMunicipalLibraryandtheShanghaiMuseumofHistoryFanIchun,YaoPingandZhaoXiaojianspentlonghourshelpingmeinterpretelusivedocumentsFuPoshek,HamashitaTakeshi,LuoSuwen,TedHutersandJeffWasserstromalertedmetosourcesofwhichIhadbeenunawareDorothyKokindlyhostedmeandhelpedtoorientmeduringaresearchtriptoTokyoColleaguesintheHistoryDepartmentoftheUniversityofOregonprovidedencouragementandmadememorevigilantinmychoiceofwordsTomGoldandthestaffoftheCenterforChineseStudiesprovidedastimulatingenvironmentforwritingduringmypostdoctoralfellowshipIwouldliketothanktheorganizersoftheInternationalSymposiumonShanghaiHistory,aswellastheCenterforResearchonShanghai,fortwosubsequentconferenceinvitationswhichprovidedaforumfordiscussingmyfindingswithcolleaguesinthePeople'sRepublicofChinaTheCommitteeonScholarlyCommunicationwiththePRC(CSCPRC)andtheUniversityofOregonprovidedfundingtoattendtheseconferencesIamalsoindebtedtoChristianHenriotandthestaffoftheInstitutd'AsieOrientaleinLyonfortheirmanykindnessesinhostingmeduringfallandprovidingaconduciveintellectualclimateformyfinalbookrevisionsMyresearchinChinawasmadepossiblethroughaCSCPRCgrant,fundedbytheUSDepartmentofEducationIwouldlikealsotoacknowledgefundingfromtheOregonHumanitiesCouncilandaReedCollegeVollumAward,bothofwhichpermittedmetospendtimeonresearchandwritingIamgratefultoSheilaLevineattheUniversityofCaliforniaPressforhersupportandinterestinthemanuscript,toLauraDriussiforherpatienteditorialassistanceandtoSarahKMyersforhermeticulouscopyeditingMyfriendsJeffandRosemarieOstlerprovidedmuchneededhelpwithmymanuscriptpreparationatthelastminuteFinally,Iwouldliketothankmyhusband,PeterEdberg,foreditorialandcomputerassistanceandmanyothercontributionswhichcannotallbedetailedhere――ChapterOneIntroductionTheMoralExcellenceofLovingtheGroupShanghaiisahybridplacewhichmixestogetherpeoplefromalloverChinaThenumbersofoutsiderssurpassthoseofnativesAccordingly,peoplefromeachlocalityestablishnativeplaceassociationshuiguantomaintaintheirconnectionswitheachotherTheNingbopeoplearethemostnumerous,andtheyhaveestablishedtheSimingGongsuoTheGuangdongpeoplearesecondinnumber,andtheyhaveestablishedtheGuangZhaoburialgroundandtheChaoHuiHuiguanInadditiontothese,thepeoplefromHunan,Hubei,Quanzhou,Zhangzhou,Zhejiang,Shaoxing,Wuxi,Huizhou,Jiangning,Jinhua,Jiangsu,JiangxiandotherplaceshaveeachestablishedhuiguanAsforpeoplefromlocalitieswhichhavenotestablishedhuiguan,theyhavemeetingsoffellowprovincialseverymonthThisisforthepurposeofunitingnativeplacesentimentAmongthepeopleofourcountry,therearenonewhodonotlovetocombineingroupsThusfellowprovincialsallestablishhuiguanAndpeopleofthesametradeallestablishgongsuoFromthisitispossibletoknowthatChinesepeoplehavethemoralexcellenceoflovingthegroupLiWeiqing,Shanghaixiangtuzhi(Shanghailocalgazetteer),YouremarkedtomethattheChinese,beingactuatedbyacommonfeeling,noneofthemwouldbewillingtocomeforwardaswitnessagainstafellowChineseYouentirelyignorethecircumstancethattheChinesepeoplehaveneverbeeninfluencedbyanycommonfeelingFurther,inthestreet,peoplefromeverypartofChinaaremixedtogether,owingtowhich,noonecaresforthesorrowsandillsofanotheremphasisaddedDaotaiWuXutoBritishConsul(GreatBritain,PublicRecordOffice,FO,)――Thisstudyexploressocialpracticesandritualsrelatedtoxxiangyi,alsocalledxiangqingandziyi,ChineseexpressionsforthesentimentthatbindspeoplefromthesamenativeplaceThissentiment,andthesocialinstitutionswhichexpressedit,profoundlyshapedthenatureanddevelopmentofmodernChineseurbansocietyThetwoquotationswhichbeginthischaptersuggesttwinaspectsofurbansocialorganizationandbehaviorthatcorrespondtonativeplacesentimentTheaccountintheShanghaigazetteerdescribesorganizationbynativeplaceasanecessary,natural,specificallyChineseandindeed"morallyexcellent"responsetothedangersposedbyurbanadmixtureandanomieDaotaiIntendmentWuXU'sdescriptionofthecityunderhisjurisdictionindicatesapossibledrawbacktothe"moralexcellence"ofnativeplacesentiment,suggestingthat,whenindividualsfromdifferentnativeplacegroupsmixedtogetheronacitystreet,theyfeltnocommonidentityasChineseThechapterswhichfollowaddressthesethemestheprominenceofnativeplacesentimentandorganizationinChinesecitiesandtheinfluenceofsuchideasandsocialformationsoncitylife,socialorderandurbanandnationalidentityThestudyisbasedonShanghaiandcoversnearlyacentury,fromtheopeningofthecitytoforeigntradeintotheestablishmentofGuomindangdominanceintheNanjingdecade()ThroughoutthisperiodimmigrantgroupsfromotherareasofChinadominatedShanghai'srapidlyexpandingurbanpopulation,whichmorethanquadrupledinthenineteenthcentury(seeMap)Shanghai'spopulationinwasbetweenonequarterandonethirdmillionByitwasmillionItdoubledagainby,tomillionThroughoutthelatenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturies,immigrantscomprisedatleastpercentofthetotalfigureSomeoftheseimmigrantscametoShanghaitoexploreeconomicopportunitiesotherscameinwavestofleewarandfamineintheirnativeplaceCombiningforcestomeettheimperativesoftheirnewurbansurroundings,theseimmigrantsformednativeplaceassociations,huiguanandtongxianghuiSuchassociationsandthesentimentswhichengenderedthemwereformativeelementsofShanghai'surbanenvironmentDaotaiWu'scommenthereissomewhatdisingenuous,forhewasattemptingtodeflectBritishconcernsthattheChineseresidentsofthesettlementcouldmobilizeeffectivelytogetherinantiBritishbehaviorInthisinstance,theDaotaiclearlyfounditusefultosuggestthatthelogicoflocalnativeplaceidentityimpedednationalidentityasChinese――MapMajorprovincesofChinasupplyingimmigrantstoShanghaithroughoutthelateQingandearlyRepublicanperiodsSocial,economicandpoliticalorganizationalonglinesofregionalidentityshapedthedevelopmentofthecitySuchprominenceandcontinuityofnativeplacesentimentandorganizationwaspossiblebecauseoftheflexibility,adaptabilityandutilityofnativeplaceideastoforcesofeconomic,socialandpoliticalchangeinthecityThenumbersofassociationsandtheirshiftingformsandpracticesdemonstratethesetraitsofpersistenceandchange,familiarityandchangingmeaning,whichmakenativeplacesentimentacrucialarenaforunderstandingthetextureofmodernchangeinthecityShanghai,thoughnotableinthisregard,wascertainlynotuniqueImmigrantChinesepopulationgroupscharacterizedandevendominatednearlyallexpandingcommercialareasinChinaduringthispe――riodImmigrationitselfdoesnotdistinguishChinesecitiesfromtheirEuropeanandAmericancounterpartsNonetheless,thedegreeofcultivationandelaborationofnativeplaceidentitiesandnativeplaceorganizations,andthepoweranddurationofthesesentimentsandinstitutions,arepeculiartoChinesecitiesTheIdeaofNativePlaceIdentityandConnectionwiththeNativePlaceTheChineselanguagecontainsavarietyofexpressionsfortheconceptofnativeplaceTermssuchasjiguan,sangzi,laojia,yuanji,andguxiang,whichaboundinChineserecordsandliterature,translatevariouslyasbirthplace,hometown,nativeplaceandancestralhomeTheconceptofnativeplacewasacriticalcomponentofpersonalidentityintraditionalChina,andgeographicoriginwasgenerallythefirstmatterofinquiryamongstrangers,thefirstcharacteristicrecordedaboutaperson(afternameandpseudonyms),andthefirstfacttobeascertainedregardingindividualscomingbeforethelawForimmigrantswhosoughtalivinginShanghai,nativeplaceidentityexpressedbothspirituallinkagetotheplacewheretheirancestorsSeeChangPeng,"DistributionofProvincialMerchantGroupsinChina"(PhDdiss,UniversityofWashington,)MarkElvinandGWilliamSkinner,eds,TheChineseCitybetweenTwoWorlds(Stanford,Calif,)GWSkinner,ed,TheCityinLateImperialChina(Stanford,Calif,)GWSkinner,"MobilityStrategiesinLateImperialChina:ARegionalSystemsAnalysis,"inRegionalAnalysis,edCarolASmith(NewYork,),vol,WilliamRowe,Hankow:CommerceandSocietyinaChineseCity,(Stanford,Calif,)Nonetheless,immigrationwasparticularlydramaticinShanghaibecauseitwasarelativelysmallcitypriortoandbecauseitexperiencedextremelyrapidgrowthafterRecentstudiesofurbanlaborandsocialmovementsintheUnitedStateshavestressedtheimportanceofimmigrationandethnicitySee,forexample,JosephBarton,PeasantsandStrangers:Italians,RumaniansandSlovaksinanAmericanCity,(Cambridge,Mass,)EricLHirsch,UrbanRevolt:EthnicPoliticsintheNineteenthCenturyChicagoLaborMovement(Berkeley,Calif,)RichardBStott,WorkersintheMetropolis:Class,EthnicityandYouthinAntebellumNewYorkCity(Ithaca,NY,)JudithSmith,FamilyConnections:AHistoryofItalianandJewishImmigrantLivesinProvidence,RhodeIsland,(Albany,NY,)JohnBodnar,Workers'World:Kinship,CommunityandProtestinanIndustrialSociety,(Baltimore,Md,)ForastudyoftheculturalmeaningoflocalidentityatboththeregionalandthenationallevelsinGermany,seeCeliaApplegate,ANationofProvincials:TheGermanIdeaofHeimat(Berkeley,Calif,)SeeGWilliamSkinner,"Introduction:UrbanSocialStructureinCh'ingChina,"inSkinner,TheCityinLateImperialChina,Skinner,"MobilityStrategics"HoPingti,Zhongguohuiguanshilun(OnthehistoryofLandsmannschafteninChina)(Taipei,)Rowe,Hankow:CommerceandSociety,Numerouspopularexpressionsdescribeattachmenttothenativeplace,suchashunguigutu(thesoulreturnstothenativeplace)rongguiguxiang(toretireinglorytoone'snativeplace)luoyeguigen(fallingleavesreturntotheroots)jiushiguxiangdehaoyueshiguxiangdeyuan(wineisbetterfromone'snativeplacethemoonisrounderinthenativeplace)ThetermyouzirefersnotjusttoawandererbuttoonewhoisseparatedfromhisnativeplaceSeparationfromone'snativeplaceisalsoaprominentthemeinclassicalChinesepoetryMengJiao'spoem,"YouziYin"(Sighofawanderer),isunderstoodtoexpressthesojourningconditionandthetiesbindingthesojournertohisnativeplace:ThethreadinthehandofthelovingmotherIswovenintothesojourningson'sgarmentsBeforeheleavesshemakesherstitchesdoubleFearinghewillbelonginreturningHoweverdeephisgratitude,howcanheeverRepayadebtthatwillbindhimalwaysAdaptedfromLiuShihShun,edandtrans,OneHundredandOneChinesePoems,withEnglishTranslationsandPreface(HongKong,),――wereburiedandlivingtiestofamilymembersandcommunityThesetiesweremostfrequentlyeconomicaswellassentimental,forlocalcommunitiesassistedandsponsoredindividualsojourners,viewingthemaseconomicinvestmentsforthecommunityBothreligiousandeconomicpracticesdependedontheassumptionthatthetraveler'sidentitywouldnotchangealongwithhisplaceofresidence,thatchangesofresidencewereonlytemporary,andthetravelerwouldreturntohisnativeplaceregularlyonritualoccasions,andfinally,uponhisdeathThesebeliefswerenotalteredbyaresidencethatlastedseveralgenerationsChildrenofimmigrantswhowereborninplacesof"temporaryresidence"similarlydidnotacquireanewnativeplaceidentitybutinsteadinheritedthenativeplaceoftheirfathersorgrandfathersInpractice,insofaraspossible,immigrantsreturnedhomeformarriage,mourning,retirementandburialMoreover,throughouttheirperiodaway,theysentmoneybacktotheirnativeplace,expressingtheirfamilyandgeographicloyaltiesinflowsofremittanceBecauseofthesepatternsofbeliefandpractice,urbanimmigrationSeeSkinner,"Introduction,"ThisnormativeviewpointwasexpressedintermsofmalesojournersMendominatedsojourningcommunitiesinlatenineteenthcenturyShanghaiSojourningmerchantsattheheadoflargefamilieskeptmost,ifnotall,oftheirfamilymembersintheirnativeplaceWhilewomensojournersdidexist,notablyasprostitutesinnineteenthcenturyShanghaiandasprostitutesandfactoryworkersinthetwentiethcentury,theimperativesforlinkagetotheirnativeplacewereweaker,owingtothefactthatwomenmarriedoutoftheirfamiliesandwerenotburiedintheirnatalvillagesand,moreover,towomen'scustomaryexclusionfrompublicactivity――inChinawasperceivedassojourninganddidnotinvolveafundamentalchangeofidentityImmigrantcommunitiesinShanghaireferredtothemselvesas"NingbosojournersinShanghai"(lüHuNingboren)or"GuangdonglodgersinShanghai"(yüHuGuangdongren)Theselabelsstressthefundamentalnatureofnativeplaceidentity,evenastheyrecognizethesojourners'locationinShanghaiThelabelsalsosuggestthehybridnatureofsojourners'identities:whilelinkedtobothShanghaiandtheirnativeplaces,oncesojourning,theywerenotpurelyoftheirnativeplace,norcouldtheysimplyadopttheirlocationalidentity(Shanghai)ForindividualsojournersthemaintenanceofelaboratetieswiththeirnativeplacewasanidealwhichcouldonlybefullyachievedbythewealthyNonetheless,allbutthemostimpoverishedsojournerstriedregularlytovisittheirhomes,evenwhentheirvillagesweredistantThisincludedmembersofsecretsocietiesandcriminalgangsReportingontheJanuaryplunderofapawnshopbyaGuangdonggangaswellasattacksonwealthyhouseholdsintheShanghaisuburbofGaoqiao(ontheeastbankoftheHuangpuRiver),theNorthChinaHeraldofJanuary,,notedthatthiswastheseasonwhenCantonesewereabouttoreturntotheirnativeprovincefortheChinesenewyear,"theScoundrelstherebylayinginastockofclothingandmoneyfortheirnewyeardissipationsandabscondingwithimpunity"ItwasmostcriticalforsojournerstoreturntotheirnativeplaceforburialChinesedeathritualrequiredthatthedeadbeburiedinancestralsoilandthattabletsforthedeceasedbeinstalledinthefamilyaltar,sothattheirspiritscouldenjoythecomfortsofhomeandthesacrificesandsolicitudeoflatergenerationsNonetheless,thecostofshippingacoffinsafelyhomecouldbeprohibitiveToavertthetragedyofburialawayfromnativesoil,nativeplaceassociationsassistedlessablefellowprovincialsinachievingthegoalofhomeburialTheassociationsalsoSkinner("Introduction,")suggeststhatfailedsojournerswereamongthoseburiedinpaupers'graves,dyingan"anonymousandignominiousurbandeath"Nonetheless,"pauperburialgrounds"(yimu)weremaintainedbyanumberofnativeplaceassociations,inadditiontotheirregularcemeteriesandcoffinrepositories,sothatimpoverishedsojournerscouldreceiveaburialconnectingtheirspirittotheirnativeplaceChaozhouandNingbohuiguanmeetingnotessuggestthatcorpseswereonlyretainedbytheTongrenFuyuantang(amajorShanghaicharitableinstitution)whennativeplacecouldnotbedetermined(orwhenanativeplaceassociationdidnotclaimthecorpse)SeeCKYang,ReligioninChineseSociety(Berkeley,Calif,),JamesWatsonandEvelynRawski,eds,DeathRitualinLateImperialandModernChina(Berkeley,Calif,)――establishedgraveyardsinShanghaiforsojourningfellowprovincialsentirelylackinginmeansManyoftheseburialswereconsideredtemporary,pendingshipmenthomeSimilarly,buildingswereerectedinShanghaiforthetemporarystorageofcoffinsuntiltheycouldbeshippedbacktothenativeplace,andfundswerecollectedwithinthenativeplacecommunitytoassistwit

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[美]顾德曼著:家乡、城市和国家——上海的地缘网络与认同,1853—1937(加州大学 1995)

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