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首页 [英]约翰·坎农&安妮·哈格里夫斯:不列颠的国王与女王(牛津 2001)

[英]约翰·坎农&安妮·哈格里夫斯:不列颠的国王与女王(牛津 2001)

[英]约翰·坎农&安妮·哈格里夫斯:不列颠的国王与女王(牛津 …

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2008-09-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]约翰·坎农&安妮·哈格里夫斯:不列颠的国王与女王(牛津 2001)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

oxfordpaperbackreferenceTheKingsQueensofBritainProfessorJohnCannonheldthechairofModernHistoryattheUniversityofNewcastleuponTyneuntilHehaseditedseveraltitles,includingTheLettersofJunius(),TheOxfordCompaniontoBritishHistory(),andTheBlackwellDictionaryofHistorians(),whichwasawardedaLibraryAssociationprizeforreferenceworksHisotherpublicationsincludeTheFox±NorthCoalition(),ParliamentaryReform(),AristocraticCentury(),TheOxfordIllustratedHistoryoftheBritishMonarchy(,),andSamuelJohnsonandthePoliticsofHanoverianEngland()DrAnneHargreaveswasformerlyaclinicalacademicattheWelshNationalSchoolofMedicine,andattheUniversitiesofLiverpoolandNewcastleShewascoeditorofMedicineinNorthumbria()andauthorofWhiteasWhalesBone(),astudyofdentalpracticeinearlymodernEnglandShewasamajorcontributortotheOxfordCompaniontoBritishHistorypageipageiiThemostauthoritativeanduptodatereferencebooksforbothstudentsandthegeneralreaderAbbreviationsABCofMusicAccountingArchaeology*ArchitectureArtandArtistsArtTerms*AstronomyBetterWordpowerBibleBiologyBuddhism*BusinessCardGamesChemistryChristianChurchClassicalLiteratureClassicalMythology*ColourMedicalComputingDance*DatesEarthSciencesEcologyEconomicsEngineering*EnglishEtymologyEnglishFolklore*EnglishGrammarEnglishLanguageEnglishLiteratureEnglishPlaceNamesEuphemismsFilm*FinanceandBankingFirstNamesFoodandNutritionForeignWordsandPhrasesFowler'sModernEnglishUsageGeographyHandbookoftheWorldHumorousQuotationsIdiomsIrishLiteratureJewishReligionKingsQueensofBritain*King'sEnglishLawLinguisticsLiteraryQuotationsLiteraryTermsLocalandFamilyHistoryLondonPlaceNames*MathematicsMedicalMedicinesModernDesign*ModernQuotationsModernSlangMusicNursingOperaPaperbackEncyclopediaPhilosophyPhysicsPlantLorePlantSciencesPoliticalBiographyPoliticalQuotationsPoliticsPopesProverbsPsychology*QuotationsSailingTermsSaintsScienceScientistsShakespeareShipsandtheSeaSociologyStatistics*SuperstitionsSynonymsandAntonymsTheatreTwentiethCenturyArtTwentiethCenturyPoetryTwentiethCenturyWorldHistoryWeatherFactsWho'sWhoinOperaWho'sWhointheClassicalWorldWho'sWhointheTwentiethCenturyWorldHistoryWorldMythologyWorldReligionsWriters'DictionaryZoology*forthcomingTheKingsQueensofBritainjohncannonannehargreavespageiiiGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity'sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAthensAucklandBangkokBogotaÂBuenosAiresCalcuttaCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiFlorenceHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiParisSaÄoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoWarsawwithassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandcertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork#OxfordUniversityPressThemoralrightsoftheauthorshavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationsEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableISBN±±±TypesetinSwiftandFrutigerbyKolamInformationServicesPvtLtd,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainbyCoxWymanLtd,Reading,BerkshirepageivContentsListofMapsviListofGenealogiesviPrefaceviiAbbreviationsixTheKingsandQueensofBritainMythsRomanoBritishRulersbc±cadKent±Sussex±Essex±EastAngliathcent±LindseyDeira±Bernicia±Northumbria±Merciac±Hwicce±Wessex±VikingYork±IsleofManPreConquestEngland±Irelandc±PictsandEarlyScotsc±AlbaandEarlyScotland±Gwyneddthcent±Powysc±Deheubarth±SmallerWelshKingdomsHouseofDunkeld±BalliolandBruce±Stewarts±Normans±AngevinsandPlantagenets±LancastriansandYorkists±Tudors±Stuarts±Hanoverians±WindsorsAcknowledgementofSourcesFurtherReadingGlossaryIndexpagevListofMapsRomanBritain±AngloSaxonEngland±EarlyIrelandKingdomsofthePictsandEarlyScotsWalesinTheAngevinEmpireRetreatfromEmpire±ListofGenealogiesSaxons,Danes,NormansHouseofAlpinHousesofDunkeld,Balliol,andBruceTudorandStewart±StuartandHanoverian±pageviPrefaceOverthelasttwentyyears,therehasbeenagitatedcontroversyoverallaspectsofnationalidentity,inBritainandinmanyothercountriesTheprogressofdevolutionhasbeenwelcomedasameansofretainingtheunityofBritain,anddenouncedasaslipperyslopewhichwouldbringdisintegrationTheremorselessadvanceof`Europe'raisedthequestionofwhoseimageandendorsementshouldbeoncoinsandpassports,andwheresovereigntyresidedbetweenEuropeanandnationalcourtsandparliamentsAtalessdigni®edlevel,thereisthequestionwhetherEnglandshouldhaveaSwedishfootballcoachNationsthemselveswere,toagreatextent,createdbytheirmonarchsCenturyaftercentury,rulerstriedtostandardizecoinage,imposelaws,promoteonereligion,and,aboveall,topersuadetheirsubjects,oftenofdifferentraces,tolivetogetherinpeaceTheMagonsaeteweretoldnotto®ghtwiththeHwicces,norSaxonswithDanes,NormanswithEnglish,orEnglishwithWelshOftentheseappealswereignoredButkingsremainedthedrivingforcebehindthedevelopmentofnationalidentityandwhen,in,CharlesIstoodintheBanquetingRoominWhitehall,accusedoftreasonbytheEnglishpeople,itwasasthoughthenationhadturnedonitscreatorBythemidtwentiethcentury,itseemedthatmonarchyeverywherewasonthewayout,andcrownedheadsanendangeredspeciesAftertheFirstWorldWar,themonarchsofGermany,Russia,Austria,andTurkeytumbled,precededbythoseofFrance()andfollowedbySpain()andItaly()ButthelatetwentiethcenturysawsignsofacomebackSpainvotedtorestoreitsmonarchyafterthebreakupofCommunism,theRussiansrecoveredthebonesoftheRomanovsfromthecellaratEkaterinburgandgavethemdecentburialintherenamedStPetersburgtheroyalfamiliesofAustriaandYugoslaviawereallowedhomeItmaybeonlyawhimper,andinothercountriestheforcesofrepublicanismmakeprogressButoneexplanationmaybethewidespreaddisillusionwithpartypoliticians,thecorridorsof`expower'litteredwithdisgracedpresidentsandcorruptprimeministersMonarchs,intheirreducedroleofconstitutionalumpire,mayseemlessdivisiveandmorewidelyacceptableasheadsofstateHistorycastsalongshadowOurlivesarein¯uencedbymenandwomenlongforgottenbymostofusÐbyVortigernwho,ifGildasistobebelieved,invitedintheSaxonstoprotecttheBritonsfromthePictsbyOffa,whopushedtheWelshbackintotheirmountainfastnessesbypageviiTostig,whosebitterquarrelwithhisbrotherHaroldmayhaveletintheNormansbyDermotMacMurrough,kingofLeinster,whocalledtheAngloNormansintoIrelandbyEdwardII,whoseineptitudemayhavedoneasmuchtopreserveScottishindependenceasthevalourofRobertBrucebyWilliamIII,summonedtorescueEnglandandScotlandfrompoperyandautocracy,andderidedassoonashehadaccomplishedhismissionTheyhelpedtoshapethelanguagewespeak,theloyaltiesweprofess,andtheattitudesweadoptWehaveincludedshortbiographiesofanumberofpeoplewhowerenotthemselvesmonarchsÐGodwin,SimondeMontfort,Cromwell,Albert,andothersÐbutwhoweresoclosetothethronethattheirin¯uencecannotbedisregardedManyreaderswill,ofcourse,disagreewithourchoicesandouropinions,butwewouldwelcomecommentandcorrectionJCandAHviiiPrefacepageixAbbreviationsabdicabdicatedaccaccededbbornburburiedccircacrcreatedddiedda(s)daughter(s)depdeposedillegillegitimateinclinclude(d)kinswkinswomanleglegitimatemmarriednrnearreburreburiedrestrestoredsson(s)succsucceededwidwidowpagexTheKingsQueensofBritainpagepageMythsMostnationshavetheirownfoundingmyth,intendedtogivethemdignityandimportance,andsometimestocomforttheminbadtimesChristianEuropederivedmanyofitsmythsfromtheBible,anddynastiestracedtheirdescentfromNoahorAdamThepaganAngloSaxonsclaimedancestryfromtheheathengods,OdinandThorTheclassicalworldwasalsoafertilesource,withmythsofdescentfromtheGreeksorTrojansMostmythsaccumulateddetailandembellishmentastheydevelopedWhentheymovedintoliterature,painting,ormusic,theyacquiredafreshvitalityWagner'sTristanundIsoldeorTennyson's`IdyllsoftheKing'arenolessbeautifulforbeingbasedonshakyhistoricalfoundationsAttheleast,mythstellushownationswouldliketoseethemselvesandpromoteconceptsofbravery,chivalry,loyalty,andfortitudeBrutusThelegendthatBritainwasfoundedbyBrutus,adescendantofAeneas,whoescapedfromthefallofTroy,wasstartedbyNenniusintheninthcenturyGeoffreyofMonmouth,aproli®cmythmakeroftheearlytwelfthcentury,elaboratedbyexplainingthatBrutuslandedatTotnes,overcamethegiantGogmagog,andfoundedLondonunderthenameofTrinovantumorNewTroyThestoryheldcredenceuntilTudortimes,withJohnLelandprotestingitsauthenticityaslateasScotaScotland'sreplytoEngland'sclaimofdescentfromBrutuswasScota,adaughterofPharaohofEgyptAccordingtoNennius'saccount,writtenintheninthcentury,ScotawasmarriedtoaScythiannoblemanlivinginEgyptatthetimeoftheescapeoftheHebrewsfromcaptivityHisoffspring,aftermanyvicissitudes,reachedDalriada(modernKintyreandmidArgyll)viaSpainThemythwaspopularizedbyJohnForduninhisScotichroniconwritteninthefourteenthcenturyBladudissaidbyGeoffreyofMonmouthtohavesucceededHudibrasaskingoftheBritons,tohavefoundedthecityofBath,andtohavekilledhimselfwhileattemptingto¯y,`dashedintocountlesspieces'LudissaidbyGeoffreyofMonmouthtohavebeentheelderbrotherofCassivellaunus,tohavefounded(orrefounded)London,andtobeMythsburiedthereThereis,atpresent,noevidencethatLondonexistedbeforetheRomanoccupationofadLudgatewassaidtohavebeennamedafterhim,butitsearliestmentionisasLutgatac±Leir(Lear)TheearliestaccountsofkingLeirandhisthreedaughtersisinGeoffreyofMonmouth'sHistoryoftheKingsofBritain,writteninthetwelfthcenturyThoughitprobablydrawsonprevioussources,theyhavenotbeensecurelyidenti®edGeoffreydescribedLeirasthesonofBladudThebasicstoryofhisthreenameddaughtersandthelovetestisoutlined,andLeiriscreditedwithfoundingLeicesterInGeoffrey'sversion,LeirwasburiedatLeicesterinatombundertheriverSoarHeofferedahappyending,withLeirrestoredtohiskingdombyCordelia'said,thusprovidingsomeexcusefortheendingwhichNahumTatemadeinforShakespeare'splayColeThenurseryrhymewhichgavefametoOldKingColeandhis®ddlersthreewasextantintheseventeenthcenturyIntheaccountgivenbyGeoffreyofMonmouthinthetwelfthcentury,ColefoundedColchesterandsubmittedtotheRoman,Constantius,whosubsequentlymarriedCole'sdaughter,HelenTheirsonwastheemperorConstantineThenameColchesterderivesinfactfromtheriverColneonwhichthetownstandsArthurThestoryofkingArthurandtheKnightsoftheRoundTableisoneofthemostenduringofalllegends,popularwithpoetsanddramatists,composers,and®lmmakersTheusualsettingisthethirteenthandfourteenthcenturies,whenthecultofchivalrywasdevelopingEdwardIandhisqueenvisitedGlastonburyintoseewhatweresaidtobethebonesofArthurandGuinevere,andhisgrandsonEdwardIIIhadaroundtablemade(stillatWinchester),heldagreattournamenttherein,andbasedtheOrderoftheGarterinpartonthestoryThe®rstwritertopopularizeArthur'sdeedswasGeoffreyofMonmouth,whoseArthurwasanheroicleaderoftheWelsh(Britons)intheirstrugglesagainsttheSaxonsHavingdealtwiththem,ArthurproceededtocrushtheScots,Picts,andIrish,andoccupyIcelandandGotland,beforetacklingRomeitself,whichhewouldcertainlyhaveovercomehadhenotbeencalledhomebynewsofMordred'streacheryGeoffreyplacedtheseeventsintheimmediatepostRomanperiod(late®fthcentury),andquotedfromGildasandfromNennius,writingintheMythslatesixthandtheninthcenturiesGildashasnomentionofArthur,andhisherointhestruggleagainsttheSaxonswasAmbrosiusAurelianus,anobleRoman,thoughhedidmentionalaterBritishvictoryatMonsBadonisNenniusretainedAmbrosiusbutaddedanArthur,whotookoverhistaskThetenthcenturyAnnalesCambriaerecordedthatArthurdefeatedtheSaxonsinatthebattleofBadonandwaskilledinKingArthur'sRoundTablewas®rstmentionedinArthurianliteratureinbyWace,aNormanpoet,whoexplainedthatitwasdesignedtoavoiddisputesamongtheknightsaboutprecedenceTheroundtablenowinWinchestercastlehasbeendatedtothelatethcentMythsTheWelshpoemGododdin,writtenabout,referredparentheticallytoaherocalledArthurWiththis,thehuntwasontoidentify`Badon'and`Camlann',whereArthurwassaidbytheAnnalestohavediedThe®rstisusuallyidenti®edasBadburynearSwindonorBaydonnearLambourn,eitherofwhichwould®taSaxonBritishencounterinthelate®fthcenturythesecondhasbeenidenti®edwiththeriverCamelinCornwallHowever,Arthurhasalsobeenclaimedformanyotherregions,includingCumbriaandScotlandRomanoBritishRulersAlthoughtheoccupationofBritaindidnottakeplaceuntilafterad,contactswiththeRomanworldhadbeenincreasingsincetheRomanseizureofGaulinthe®rstcenturybc,particularlyinsouthernEnglandTradedeveloped,andBritishkingsinthelater®rstcenturybcissuedcoinsbaseduponRomanmodelsForatimeaftertheClaudianconquest,Romeruledthroughclientkings,buttherevoltofBoudiccainadcausedtheabandonmentofthatpolicyKingdomsdidnotreappearuntilRomanBritainbegantobreakup,afterHonoriusinhadwarnedittoexpectnomorehelpfromRomeCassivellaunusiswellknownthroughtheprominencegiventohiminCaesar'saccountofhissecondexpeditioninbcCaesardescribedhisterritoryasnorthoftheThamesandsomeeightymilesfromtheKentishports,whichplacesitinHertfordshire,andcommentedthat`ourarrivalmovedtheBritonstoappointhimcommanderinchiefforthewholecampaign'Hisresistanceshowedhimtobeamanofskillandsomeauthority,capableofgivingordersforadiversionaryattackupontheRomanbasecampbackinKent,butafterCaesarhadoverrunhisheadquartersatWheathampstead,nearStAlbans,hewasforcedtosubmitandpromisednottomolesthisneighbourstotheeast,theTrinovantesNothingmoreisheardofCassivellaunus,andthoughcoinscirculated,hedidnotinscribehisnameIthasrecentlybeensuggestedthathewasnotnecessarilyruleroftheCatuvellauniandthatCaesarRomanoBritishRulersmayhavemagni®edhisimportanceGeoffreyofMonmouth,writinginthetwelfthcentury,devotedmuchspacetohisexploitsMandubracius,youngsonofImanventius,kingoftheTrinovantes,¯edtoGaulwhenhisfatherwaskilledbyCassivellaunus,andsoughtCaesar'sprotectionHewasreinstatedwhenCaesarinvadedBritaininbcHeisidenti®edinCaesar'sDeBelloGallico,butithasbeensuggestedthatCelticsourcesgivehisnameasAvarwy,theRomanversionbeinganicknamemeaning`theblacktraitor'Commius,aBelgicGaul,servedwithCaesarandwasmadekingoftheAtrebatesaftertheirdefeatatthebattleoftheriverSambreThecontinentalAtrebateshadcloselinkswithBelgictribesinsouthernEngland,andinbcCommiuswassentbyCaesartonegotiateafriendlywelcomeHewastakencaptivebutreleasedwhenCaesarlandedThefollowingyearheaccompaniedCaesaronthesecondexpeditionandnegotiatedCassivellaunus'scapitulation,buttwoyearslaterhejoinedVercingetorix'srebellioninGaulandforsometimemaintainedresistancetotheRomansSurvivingaplottoassassinatehim,hesurrendered,withtheprovisothatheshouldneverhavetolookuponaRomanagainHemovedtoBritain,becomingkingoftheAtrebatesintheHampshireregion,issuinghisowncoinsHisterritoriesweredividedbetweenhissonsorgrandsonsTincommius,Verica,andEppillusAddedomarusisknownonlythroughhiscoins,foundoverawideareabetweenOxfordshireandEssex,suggestingthatheruledtheCatuvellauniandTrinovantes,probablycbcAndocoisanotherrulerknownonlybyhiscoinage,andthenameispresumablyanabbreviationofAndocomiusHiscoins,whicharenotplentiful,arefoundalmostexclusivelyintheCatuvellauniheartlandbetweenwestEssexandOxfordshireHisdatesarenotcertain,butbctoadhavebeensuggestedTincommius,oneofthethreesonsorgrandsonsofCommius,tookthekingshipoftheRegniinSussexandissuedcoinsHewasforcedoutofhiskingdomandjourneyedtoRomecadwithDubnovellaunus,kingofKent,toaskAugustustoprotectthemThereisnoevidencethathelpwasforthcomingRomanoBritishRulersmileskmArbeiaSouthShieldsClanoventaRavenglassCorstopitumCorbridgeEburacumYorkIsuriumBrigantumAldboroughLindumLincolnLuguvalliumCarlislePetuariaBroughonHumberCARVETIINOVANTAEPARISISELGOVAEVOTADINIOceanusGermanicusManaviaMonaOceanusHibernicusANTONINEWALLHADRIAN'SWALLBRIGANTESRomanoBritishRulersWATLINGSTREETAquaeSul

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[英]约翰·坎农&安妮·哈格里夫斯:不列颠的国王与女王(牛津 2001)

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