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首页 [英]詹姆士·巴肯:天才济济:苏格兰启蒙运动:爱丁堡一瞥(哈珀 2004)

[英]詹姆士·巴肯:天才济济:苏格兰启蒙运动:爱丁堡一瞥(哈珀 2004)

[英]詹姆士·巴肯:天才济济:苏格兰启蒙运动:爱丁堡一瞥(哈珀…

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简介:本文档为《[英]詹姆士·巴肯:天才济济:苏格兰启蒙运动:爱丁堡一瞥(哈珀 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

��CrowdedwithGeniusTheScottishEnlightenment:Edinburgh’sMomentoftheMindJAMESBUCHANForElizabethContentsIllustrationsvAcknowledgementsviiPrologueAuldReekieCharlie’sYearTheDiseaseoftheLearnedThePhilosopher’sOperaSmallerJoysfromLessImportantCausesTheThermometeroftheHeartTorrentsofWindTheSavageandtheShopkeeperTheArtofDancingEarthtoEarthTheManofFeelingEpilogueNotesAbouttheAuthorPraiseOtherBooksbyJamesBuchanCoverCopyrightAboutthePublisherIndexPhotographicInsertIllustrationsJohnCampbell‘ofthebank’,(WilliamMosman)Edinburgh,after(FrancisNicholson)PrinceCharlesEdwardStuart,(MauriceQuentindeLaTourDavidHume,(AllanRamsay)TheHighStreetbeforetheRemovaloftheLuckenbooths,(DavidAllan)JamesHutton,c(SirHenryRaeburn)NorthwestViewofEdinburghCastlefromtheWaterofLeith,(JosephFarington)HenryMackenzie,c(SirHenryRaeburn)RobertBurns,(AlexanderNasmyth)SirJohnandLadyClerkofPenicuik,(SirHenryRaeburn)DuncanForbesofCulloden,c(attrJeremiahDavison)EastViewofEdinburghCastle,c(PaulSandby)ProvostGeorgeDrummond,(SirGeorgeChalmers)PerspectiveViewoftheRoyalInfirmaryfromtheNorth,c(PaulSandby)JamesCraig,cs(DavidAllan)PlanoftheNewStreetsandSquaresIntendedfortheCityofEdinburgh,(JamesCraig)NorthwestViewoftheCastle,OldTownandBridgeofEdinburgh,(PhilipMercier)TheJournalist,withaviewofAuchinleck–orTheLandofStones,c(ThomasRowlandson)ILLUSTRATIONSTheHillofArthurSeat,andTownofEdinburgh,fromtheSouthwest,(JohnClerkofEldin)TheGeneralAssemblyoftheKirkofScotland,(DavidAllan)MrsAgnesMcLehose,(JohnMiers)Theauthorsandpublisherswouldliketothankthefollowingforpermissiontoreproduceillustrations:Plate,RoyalBankofScotland,Edinburgh,BridgemanArtLibrary,LondonAgnewSons,London,,,and,ScottishNationalPortraitGallery,PrivateScottishCollection,,,,and,EdinburghCityLibraries,NationalPortraitGallery,Londonand,BridgemanArtLibrary,LondonScottishNationalPortraitGallery,TheNationalGalleryofIreland,HultonArchive,BritishLibraryMapsreproducedcourtesyofEdinburghCityLibrariesAcknowledgementsTheauthorwouldliketothankthestaffsoftheBritishLibrary,theNationalLibraryofScotland,theNationalArchivesofScotland,EdinburghUniversityLibrary,theTownCouncilArchivesandtheEdinburghRoomoftheCentralPublicLibrary,EdinburghHeisgratefulfortheassistanceofCarolineDawnay,DavidMacMillan,CarolineKnox,JohnMurray,DeborahStewartby,AllanMassie,ConstantineNormanby,LizRobinson,MatthewRice,CarolineWestmoreand,lastbutforemost,JamesandAnnaBuxton��,PrologueEveryagehathitsconsolations,aswellasitssufferingsAdamFergusonForaperiodofnearlyhalfacentury,fromaboutthetimeoftheHighlandrebellionofuntiltheFrenchRevolutionofthesmallcityofEdinburghruledtheWesternintellectFornearfiftyyears,acitythathadforcenturiesbeenabywordforpoverty,religiousbigotry,violenceandsqualorlaidthementalfoundationsforthemodernworldThebattleofCullodenMoorin,whichthewriterJohnBuchancalled‘thelastfightoftheMiddleAges’,wasalsothebeginningofthemodernageforScotland’sancientcapitalThetown,whichhadsatlittlechangedonitsrockuntilthen,inconvenient,dirty,oldfashioned,alcoholic,quarrelsomeandpoor,begantoalter,firstslowly,theninaconvulsionLochsweredrained,ravinesspannedbybridges,streetsandsquaresthrownoutintothestonyfieldsAlegavewaytoteaandportandwhiskyPeopledinedatoneo’clock,thentwo,thenthree,andthenfourMendiscoveredtherewerewaysofcharmingwomenthissideCROWDEDWITHGENIUSofabductionTheyceasedtobringtheirpistolstotable,ortosharethesamecupTheyreadnewspapers,becameFreemasons,danced,burstintotearsSocietiessprangupforencouragingmanufactures,abolishingScottishpronunciationandspreadingtheGospelRents,profitsandthecostoflivingalldoubled,andthepooroldScotssoldierinSmollett’sHumphryClinkervowedindisgusttoreturntohisoldlifeamongtheMiamiIndiansofAmericaAnewtheoryofprogress,basedongoodlaws,internationalcommerceandthecompanionshipofmenandwomen,displacedtheantiqueworldofvalour,loyalty,religion,andthedagger‘Edinburgh,theSinkofAbomination’became‘Edinburgh,theAthensofGreatBritain’DavidHume,AdamSmith,WilliamRobertson,AdamFergusonandHughBlairwerethefirstintellectualcelebritiesofthemodernworld,asfamousfortheirmentalboldnessasfortheirbizarrehabitsandspotlessmoralcharactersTheytaughtEuropeandAmericahowtothinkandtalkaboutthenewmentalareasopeningtotheeighteenthcenturyview:consciousness,thepurposesofcivilgovernment,theforcesthatshapeanddistinguishsociety,thecompositionofphysicalmatter,timeandspace,rightactions,whatbindsandwhatdividesthetwosexesTheycouldviewwithadryeyeaworldwhereGodwasdeadorhadwithdrawnintoHimself,wherehierarchyhaddisintegratedandluxurywassuperabundantTheAmericanpatriotBenjaminFranklin,whofirstvisitedEdinburghwithhissonin,rememberedhisstayas‘thedensesthappiness’hehadeverexperiencedThefamousEncyclopédieoftheFrenchphilosophershaddevotedasinglecontemptuousparagraphtoÉcossein,butbyVoltairewaswriting,withmorethanatouchofmalice,‘todayitisfromScotlandthatwegetrulesoftasteinallthearts,fromepicpoetrytogardening’TheRussianPrincessRomanovnaDashkova,whocamefromStPetersburginthelatessohersoncouldstudytheclassicsattheCollege,wascaptivatedbythegenius,sociabilityandmodestyof‘l’immortelRobertson,Blair,SmithetFerguson’ThePrussianofficerJWvonArchenholz,whotravelledinEnglandandPROLOGUEScotlandinthes,toldhisGermanreadersthat‘moretruelearningistobefoundinEdinburghthaninOxfordandCambridgetakentogether’AsforEdinburgh,itwasintoxicatedwithitsownbrilliance‘Inthehistoryofeverypolishednation,’acorrespondentwrotetoTheScotsMagazineinJuly,‘thereisalwaysoneperiodatleasttobefound,whichiscroudedwithmenofgeniusineveryartandscienceThiswasthecaseofGreeceaftertheoverthrowofXerxes,ofRomeduringthereignofAugustus,ofFranceinthetimeofLewisXIV,andofEnglandinthetimeofQAnneFormypart,IpouroutmyheartwiththeutmostgratitudetoProvidenceforgivingmeabeinginthisillustriousperiodandIhavegreatreasontocongratulatethepresentgenerationofmycountrymenforenjoyingthesameblessing’HowdidthiscomeaboutHowdidScotland,bulliedorignoredbyitsneighboursforcenturies,findandkeepitsplaceinthesunHowdidacitythatconsistedofasinglelongstreetandfewerthanfortythousandinhabitantscomeforaseasontorivalParisWhatwasthis‘suddenburstofgeniussprungupinthiscountrybyasortofenchantment,soonaftertheRebellionof’NothinginhistoryissuddenorenchantedEdinburgh’smomenthaditsoriginsintheScottishpastandstillreverberatesinthepresentItwasabelatedreactiontoaseriesofinjuriestoScotland’ssenseofitselfinpolitics,inreligion,inmoralityAmentalcrisiswassurmountedinaphysicalcityofstone,ordure,taverns,turnpikestairs,toweringapartmentblocks,dancingassemblies,icychurchesandtorrentsofwindFromitsresolutioncamenotsimplymodernScotlandbutmodernityitselfAuldReekie,people,,Leith,andEdinburghinthewarmSeptemberofwasahandsome,crampedanddiscontentedprovincialtownofapproximatelyjustembarkingonmodernityAsacapitalcity,itwasnothingmuchIthadlostitsroyalcourttoLondoninwhenKingJamesVIsucceededtotheEnglishthrone,anditsnobilityfollowedattheamalgamationoftheScottishandEnglishparliamentsinEdinburghhadnomanufacturing,anditstradewasasetofpettifoggingmonopolies,downtowhohadtherighttorentoutthepallatburialsorruncoachestotheportofThetownlivedofflawyersattendingontheCourtofSessionandclergymencomingtotheGeneralAssemblyoftheChurchofScotlandandgentrysendingtheirchildrenuptoschoolandspendingthewinterintownInthefirstageofmillionaires,anEdinburghfamilywasrichwith£ayearTherewereninePresbyterianchurches,eachwithtwoministers,andtwomoreoutsidethewallstwobanks(whichsurvive)andacoupleofgeneralmerchantsthatcoulddiscountcommercialbillstwothriceweeklynewspapers(oneWhig,oneJacobite)TheScotsMagazine,foundedinandfulloftrials,poetry,billsofmortality,andanarrativeofScotsandworldAULDREEKIEaffairsfourprintingworkstogarbleBiblesandlawpapersofficesoftheFriendlyandSunFireInsuranceschemesafundforthewidowsofministersoftheKirkafewbrewersbetweentheCowgateandthewallsandthreemailcoachestoLondonaweek:thoughthereweremenalivetotellSirWalterScottthatoncethereturnmailbroughtjustasingleletterforthewholeofScotlandAstagecoachranmonthlytoLondon,spendingatleasttendaysontheroad,thoughaprivatechaisecoulddothejourneyfasterItwasnotuntilthetimeofRobertBurns’svisitinthatthejourneywascuttosixtyhoursTheparliamentaryUnionwithEnglandinandtheabolitionoftheScottishPrivyCouncilayearlaterhaddemolishedtheformaladministrationofScotlandInasmuchasthecountrywasruledatallduringthelongascendancyinLondonofSirRobertWalpole,itwascontrolledbytheDukeofArgyllandaclutchoflawofficersTheEdinburghTownCouncil,whoseconstitutionhadbeenviolentlydisputedbutalteredverylittlesincethetimeofJamesVI,wasapermanentoligarchythatnominateditsownsuccessorfromcandidatessubmittedbyrestrictivemerchantandcraftguildsandevenelectedthetown’sMPAdvocatesandclergymen,beingunincorporated,hadnosayineitherelectionTheCouncilmetinabuildinginParliamentClosehardagainstthesouthwestcornerofthehighchurchofStGilesanddiditsdrinkingatLuckyWilson’staverninWriters’CourtItsordinarymembershipwastwentyfive,whichcouldbeexpandedunderpreciseandobscureconditionstothirtythreeInthewordsofareformingpamphletof,‘IsitaSmallMatter,withyou,thattheGentlemenintheAdministrationofthisgreatCity,whoshouldrepresentnearFortyThousand,doatnotimerepresentFortyoftheInhabitants’‘Omnipotent,corrupt,impenetrable,’asawitnesswroteofthenineteenthcenturycouncillors,‘theymighthavebeensittinginVenice’TheycontrolledthetradeofthetownandofthePortofLeith,thestreetlightsandweightsandmeasuresandwatersupply,andnamedtheministerstothekirks,thedoctorstotheHighSchoolandtheunderjanitorstotheCollegeAsfortheCollegeprofessors,themagistratesmightCROWDEDWITHGENIUSarriveinabodyunannouncedtohearanewappointmentlectureThepurposeoftheCouncilwastomaintainpeacebetweentheguildsand,inalliancewiththeKirksessionsandthePresbytery,anatmosphereofunctuouspietyFromadistancethetownwasapalisadeoftowersrising,inthephraseofRobertChambers,‘fromapalaceontheplaintoacastleintheair’BetweenCastleHillandHolyroodranwhatDanielDefoecalled‘themostspacious,thelongest,andbestinhabitedStreetinEurope’ItwascalledinitsuppersectiontheLawnmarketthenlowerdowntheHighStreet,whichwasclosedatthebottombythegatecalledtheNetherbowPortand,atthebottom,theCanongateInpartsthestreetwassobroadthatfivecarriagescouldhavemovedabreast,butsohighcamberedthatfourofthemwouldhaveoverturnedConfinedbyitssite,theLawnmarketandHighStreetmadeasortofantiqueManhattanWithnowhereelsetogo,thepressureofpopulationhadsqueezedthestoneapartmentblocksor‘lands’upwardsThoseatthebackofParliamentClosetoweredtwelvestoreysabovetheCowgateSeenfromtheshoresoftheFirthofForth,thegarlandsofwoodandpeatsmokeroundthesepinnacleshadgivenrisetoanicknameforthetown:AuldReekieBetweenthelands,thewyndsandclosesransteeplydownravinestothewatersoftheNorthLoch,ortotheCowgateInthosefilthylanes,betweensagginghousesshowingtheirgablestothestreetandpigsrootinginthegutters,everyconditionmingledAsayoungmedicalstudentnamedOliverGoldsmithwroteinor,‘youmightseeawelldressedduchessissuingfromadirtyclose’Indeed,JaneMaxwell,whointhesecondhalfoftheeighteenthcenturybecameDuchessofGordonandtheleaderofEdinburghsociety,wasonceseenridinguptheHighStreetonasowwhichhersisterdroveonwithastickThelandsthemselvesaccommodateddancingmastersandLordsofSessionandallsortsinbetweenThedarkscalestairswereuprightstreets,athoroughfareofMusselburghfishwives,sweepsorcoalportersandbarefoothousemaidsSirWalterScott,whohadlostsixsiblingstothebadairofCollegeWynd,rememberedintheAULDREEKIEnextcenturythateachinhabitablespace‘wascrowdedliketheunderdeckofashipSicknesshadnonookofquiet,afflictionnoretreatforsolitaryindulgence’Burns,asusual,waschieflyinterestedinsexualprivacy,andshowedatouchingsympathyforhiswidowedlandlady,obligedtolistentosome‘DaughtersofBelialgandygoin’withtheirmenvisitorsintheapartmentupstairsThenineteenthcenturypublisherRobertChambersdescribedfromthisperiodagentlemanlawyer’sapartmentinForrester’sWynd,‘aregionofprofounddarknessandmystery,nownomore’,comprisingakitchenandthreerooms:‘mylady’sroom’,whichwasasortofparlour,thegentleman’sconsultingroomorstudy,andtheirbedroomThechildren,withtheirnurse,hadbedslaiddownforthematnightintheirfather’sroom,thehousemaidsleptunderthedresser,andthemanservantmadeshiftoutsideRentforthisopulencewasjust£ayearsterlingThedietofsuchafamilywouldhavebeenfish,occasionalbutchers’meat(butonlyinsummer),milkandoatmealTheywouldhaveeatenoffpewter‘oftenillcleaned’AttheOrphanHospital,thechildrenwhoworkedweavingwoolorlintfromsixamtoeightpmbreakfastedandsuppedonoatmealpottageandhomebrewedsmallbeer,anddinedasfollows:MondayKailwithoutflesh,andeggswhencheap,andinplacethereofcheeseandamutchkinofaletoeveryservant,andhalfamutchkintothechildren,thebreadasregulatedbythestatutesTuesdayKailwithflesh,andnoaleWendesdayKailwithoutfleshandeggswhencheapThursdayKailwithflesh,noaleFridayThesameasThursdaySaturdayKailwithoutflesh,andbutteroreggswhencheap,andaleSabbathBreadandbutterandaleasregulatedTherewasstilllittlebreadeatenOnceaweekDuncanForbesofCulloden,LordPresidentofthesupremecivilcourtknownasCROWDEDWITHGENIUStheCourtofSession,DrJohnClerkofListonshiels,whowasPresidentoftheRoyalCollegeofPhysicians,themathematicianColinMacLaurinandtheanatomyprofessorAlexanderMonroprimussuppedtogetherintheLordPresident’shouseintheCowgate,‘eachMan’,asMonroremembered,‘havinghisparticularDishDrClerkhadsomeBreadandWhey,ProfessorMonro’sDishwasboil’dspinagethePresidenthadasmallfishandbeforeMrMacLaurinaStakeoraChopwasplaced’Turnips,anewfangledfoddercropbeingtriedonimprovingestates,appearedonEdinburghtablesasadessertTherewereveryfewpublicbuildings,sothatalllegal,townandchurchbusinesswasdoneindarktavernsIndeedJohnCoutts,thegeneralmerchantwhotreatedwiththeHighlandrebelsandgavehisnametoalonglivedbank,becameinthefirstLordProvosttoentertainathome(President’sClose)ratherthaninatavernBythenextdecade,thereweresixhundredtavernlicenceswithintheRoyalty,orbounds,ofEdinburghThedrinkswerealeatapennyanEnglishquart,claret,whisky,WestIndiapunchandeven,in,thefirstspeculativeshiploadofportThetownwasabywordforinsobrietyEvenattheannualmeetingofthedirectorsoftheRoyalBank,thedrinkingwassuchastocausetheoldProvostGeorgeDrummond–whohadacoldandthustheprivilegeoftakingjustsackandwater–toaskGodto‘pardonmetheguiltofothers’Attheirmother’sfuneralin,thefuturePresidentoftheSessionDuncanForbesandhisbrotherhadbeensodrunkonthewaytothekirkyardthattheyleftthebodybehindSirJohnClerk,aBaronoftheExchequerCourt,thought‘nomanlooktsopoorsocontemptibleanddetestableasadrunkenjudge’JamesBoswellbarelydrankuntilhepassedadvocateandstartedpleadingintheEdinburghcourtsthenceforth,hewasrarelysoberDresswasbothgaudyandslovenlyTherewasnosuchthingintownasahaberdasheroraperfumerandthefewhairdresserseitherrefusedordidnotdaretodresshairontheSabbathWomencoveredheadandshouldersinlongplaidsthatcamedowntothewaist,scarletorcrimsonincolouror,moreoften,checkorAULDREEKIEtartanThatcostume,coupledwiththeirhighspiritsandgoodcarriage,greatlyimpressedEnglishvisitorsTheolderwomenstillworepatchesontheirfacesSomeoftheoldermenstillworeswords,thoughthepracticeofduellinginthestreethadabatedTheheartofEdinburghlayroundtheoldcathedralofStGiles,whichsincetheabolitionofbishopsattheReformationhadbeendividedintofourparishchurches:theNewChurchinthechoir,theOldChurchinthenave,Haddow’sHoleinthenorthwestcornerandtheTolboothinthewestInStGiles,everyMay,thesupremecourtofthechurchknownastheGeneralAssemblyhelditsannualmeetingInacitywithoutaroyalcourtoraparliament,thisecclesiasticalplenarywasahighdayinthecalendarFacingStGilesinthemiddleoftheHighStreetandseparatedfromitbyacrampedlanecalledtheKrameswasarowoffourstoreyhouseswithshopsonthegroundfloor,knownastheLuckenboothsTheseweredemolishedin,butearlierthebestmercersandclothierswerefoundthere:‘lucken’derivesfromadialectwordforlockedorshutup,andtheseboothsorshopscouldbelockedtoprotecttheirvaluablemerchandise

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[英]詹姆士·巴肯:天才济济:苏格兰启蒙运动:爱丁堡一瞥(哈珀 2004)

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