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首页 [英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及亡灵书(大英博物馆1895)

[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及亡灵书(大英博物馆1895)

[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及亡灵书(大英博物馆1895)

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2008-08-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及亡灵书(大英博物馆1895)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SacredTextsEgyptTHEBOOKOFTHEDEADThePapyrusofAnibyEAWALLISBUDGEIntroductionTranslationBecauseofthesubstantialamountofhieroglypicsinterspersedintheoriginaltext,Ihaveomittedthe###'glyph'placeholderwherecontextpermits,forreadabilityOnlyactualillustationshavebeeninsertedintothefileDuetospaceconsiderationstheinterlineartranslation,whichisprimarilyofinteresttostudentsofAncientEgyptian,willnotbepostedThisshouldnotbeahardship,sincetheDoverreprinteditionisstillinprintandwidelyavailableThefileabove,whichappearsatontheInternetatSacredTextsforthefirsttimeisafaithfuletextoftheeditionoftheEAWallaceBudgetranslationoftheEgyptianBookoftheDeadInNovemberofIinventoriedmylibraryandfoundthatIwasmissingBudge'sBookoftheDeadSowhenacopyoftheDoverreprintcameupatthelocalusedbookstore,IpurchaseditTomydismay,theversionofthetextwidelypostedontheInternetdidnotseemtomatchtheDoverreprintoftheversionAccordingtoJohnMarkOckerbloom,theproprietoroftheexcellentOnlineBooksPage,theversioncirculatingontheInternetisahighlyeditedversionofBudgefromamuchlaterdate()Hewrites:"Ididalittlelegwork,anditappearsthatthe"mysterytext"isinfactfromtheMediciSocietyeditionofAccordingtoareprintbyUniversityBooks,forthisedition"ThetranslationwasrewrittenandthegreaterpartoftheIntroductionwasalsorewrittenbySirWallis,whoconcludedaprefacetoitwiththepleasedwords,'andtheentireworkthusbecomestrulya"NewEdition"'"It'sunclearwhetherBudgehimselfdidtherewriteofthetranslation,butit'sclearthatheatleastclaimsresponsibilityforit,anditdoesappeartodrawfairlyheavilyonhisearliertranslation"ThankstoMrOckerbloomforclearingupthismysteryInanycase,theversionnowatsacredtextsisacompletelynewetext,whichIbelievetobeamuchbetterversionofthistextTitlePagePrefaceTheProseEddaIndexhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodindexhtm(of)::AMContentsIntroductionTheVersionsOfTheBookOfTheDeadTheLegendOfOsirisTheDoctrineOfEternalLifeTheEgyptians'IdeasOfGodTheLegendOfRaAndIsisTheAbodeOfTheBlessedTheGodsOfTheBookOfTheDeadThePrincipalGeographicalAndMythologicalPlacesInTheBookOfTheDeadFuneralCeremoniesThePapyrusOfAniTranslationPlateIPlateIIPlateIIIPlateIVPlatesVandVIPlatesVIIXPlatesXIandXIIPlateXIIIPlateXIVPlateXVPlateXVIPlateXVIIPlateXVIIIPlateXIXPlateXXPlateXXIPlateXXIIPlateXXIIIandPlateXXIVPlateXXVPlateXXVIPlateXXVIIPlateXXVIIIPlatesXXIXandXXXPlatesXXXIandXXXIITheProseEddaIndexhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodindexhtm(of)::AMPlateXXXIIPlateXXXIIIPlatesXXXIIIandXXXIVPlatesXXXVandXXXVIPlateXXXVIITheProseEddaIndexhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodindexhtm(of)::AMSacredTextsEgyptIndexNextTHEBOOKOFTHEDEADThePapyrusofAniINTHEBRITISHMUSEUMTHEEGYPTIANTEXTWITHINTERLINEARTRANSLITERATIONANDTRANSLATION,ARUNNINGTRANSLATION,INTRODUCTION,ETCbyEAWALLISBUDGELatekeeperofAssyrianandEgyptianAntiquitiesintheBritishMuseumscannedatwwwsacredtextscom,OctDecNext:PrefaceTitlePagehttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm::AMSacredTextsEgyptIndexPreviousNextPREFACEThePapyrusofAni,whichwasacquiredbytheTrusteesoftheBritishMuseumintheyear,isthelargest,themostperfect,thebestpreserved,andthebestilluminatedofallthepapyriwhichdatefromthesecondhalfoftheXVIIIthdynasty(aboutBCto)Itsrarevignettes,andhymns,andchapters,anditsdescriptiveandintroductoryrubricsrenderitofuniqueimportanceforthestudyoftheBookoftheDead,andittakesahighplaceamongtheauthoritativetextsoftheThebanversionofthatremarkableworkAlthoughitcontainslessthanonehalfofthechapterswhicharecommonlyassignedtothatversion,wemayconcludethatAni'sexaltedofficialpositionasChancelloroftheecclesiasticalrevenuesandendowmentsofAbydosandThebeswouldhaveensuredaselectionofsuchchaptersaswouldsufficeforhisspiritualwelfareinthefuturelifeWemaythereforeregardthePapyrusofAniastypicalofthefuneralbookinvogueamongtheThebannoblesofhistimeThefirsteditionoftheFacsimileofthePapyruswasissuedin,andwasaccompaniedbyavaluableIntroductionbyMrLePageRenouf,thenKeeperoftheDepartmentofEgyptianandAssyrianAntiquitiesBut,inordertosatisfyawidelyexpresseddemandforatranslationofthetext,thepresentvolumehasbeenpreparedtobeissuedwiththesecondeditionoftheFacsimileItcontainsthehieroglyphictextofthePapyruswithinterlineartransliterationandwordforwordtranslation,afulldescriptionofthevignettes,andarunningtranslationandintheIntroductionanattempthasbeenmadetoillustratefromnative{pvi}EgyptiansourcesthereligiousviewsofthewonderfulpeoplewhomorethanfivethousandyearsagoproclaimedtheresurrectionofaspiritualbodyandtheimmortalityofthesoulThepassageswhichsupplyomissions,andvignetteswhichcontainimportantvariationseitherinsubjectmatterorarrangement,aswellassupplementarytextswhichappearintheappendixes,havebeen,asfaraspossible,drawnfromothercontemporarypapyriintheBritishMuseumThesecondeditionoftheFacsimilehasbeenexecutedbyMrFCPriceEAWALLISBUDGEBRITISHMUSEUMJanuary,Next:ContentsPrefacehttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm::AMSacredTextsEgyptIndexPreviousNextCONTENTSPREFACEvINTRODUCTION:THEVERSIONSOFTHEBOOKOFTHEDEADixTHELEGENDOFOSIRISxlviiiTHEDOCTRINEOFETERNALLIFElvEGYPTIANIDEASOFGODlxxxiiTHEABODEOFTHEBLESSEDciTHEGODSOFTHEBOOKOFTHEDEADcviiGEOGRAPHICALANDMYTHOLOGICALPLACEScxxxiiiFUNERALCEREMONIEScxxxviiiTHEPAPYRUSOFANIcxliiTABLEOFCHAPTERScliiiTHEHIEROGLYPHICTEXTOFTHEPAPYRUSOFANI,WITHINTERLINEARTRANSLITERATIONANDWORDFORWORDTRANSLATIONTRANSLATIONBIBLIOGRAPHYNext:TheVersionsOfTheBookOfTheDeadContentshttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm::AMSacredTextsEgyptIndexPreviousNextINTRODUCTIONTHEVERSIONSOFTHEBOOKOFTHEDEADThefourgreatVersionsoftheBookoftheDeadTHEhistoryofthegreatbodyofreligiouscompositionswhichformtheBookofDeadoftheancientEgyptiansmayconvenientlybedividedintofouroftheperiods,whicharerepresentedbyfourversions:TheversionwhichwaseditedbythepriestsofthecollegeofAnnu(theOnoftheBible,andtheHeliopolisoftheGreeks),andwhichwasbaseduponaseriesoftextsnowlost,butwhichthereisevidencetoprovehadpassedthroughaseriesofrevisionsoreditionsasearlyastheperiodoftheVthdynastyThisversionwas,sofarasweknow,alwayswritteninhieroglyphics,andmaybecalledtheHeliopolitanversionItisknownfromfivecopieswhichareinscribeduponthewallsofthechambersandpassagesinthepyramidsofkingsoftheVthandVIthdynastiesatSakkâraandsectionsofitarefoundinscribedupontombs,sarcophagi,coffins,stelæandpapyrifromtheXIthdynastytoaboutADSeeNaville,Todtenbuch(Einleitung),pHenceknownasthe"pyramidtexts"Ie,Unâs,Tetâ,PepiI,Mentuemsaf,andPepiIITheirpyramidswereclearedoutbyMMMarietteandMasperoduringtheyears,andthehieroglyphictextswerepublished,withaFrenchtranslation,inRecueildeTravaux,tiiixiv,Paris,IntheXIth,XIIth,andXIIIthdynastiesmanymonumentsareinscribedwithsectionsoftheUnâstextThuslinesarefoundinhieroglyphicsuponthecoffinofAmamu(BritishMuseum,NoSeeBirch,EgyptianTextsoftheEarliestPeriodfromtheCoffinofAmamu,PlatesXVIIXX)IlandonthecoffinofApaankh,fromSakkâra(seeLepsius,Denkmäler,ii,BlbMaspero,Recueil,tiii,ppandff)Il{footnotepagex}andonthecoffinofAntef(seeLepsius,Denkmäler,ii,BlMaspero,Recueil,tiii,pp,)lineonacoffinofMenthuhetepatBerlin(seeLepsius,AeltesteTexte,Bl)linesonthesarcophagusofHeruhetep(seeMaspero,Mémoires,t,i,p)AsectionisfoundonthewallsofthetombofQueenNeferu(seeMaspero,Recueil,tiii,pffMémoires,ti,p)othersectionsarefoundonthesarcophagusofTaka(seeLepsius,Denkmäler,ii,Bll,Maspero,GuideauVisiteur,p,NoMémoires,ti,p)linesoccuronthesteleofApa(seeLedrain,MonumentsÉgyptiensdelaBiblNationale,Paris,,foll,)linesffarefoundonthesteleofNehi(seeMariette,NoticedesMonàBoulaq,pMaspero,Recueil,tiii,p)andlinesonthecoffinofSebekAa(seeLepsius,AeltesteTexte,BlMaspero,Recueil,tiv,p)IntheXVIIIthdynastylinewascopiedonawallinthetempleofHatshepsetatDêrelbaharî(seeDümichen,HistInschriften,BllMaspero,Recueil,ti,pff)andcopiesoflinesoccurinthepapyriofMuthetep(BritishMuseum,No,)andNeferutenf(Paris,No,SeeNaville,Todtenbuch,BdI,BlAegZeitschrift,BdXXXII,pandNaville,Einleitung,pp,)IntheXXVIthdynastywefindtextsoftheVthdynastyrepeatedonthewallsofthetombofPetaAmenapt,thechiefkherhebatThebes(seeDümichen,DerGrabpalastdesPatuamenapinderThebanischenNekropolis,Leipzig,)andalsouponthepapyruswrittenfortheladySais###,aboutAD(seeDevéria,CataloguedesMSSÉgyptiens,Paris,,pNo)SignorSchiaparelli'swordsare:"Essoèscrittoinieratico,diuntipopaleograficospeciale:l'enormeabbondanzadisegniespletivi,lafrequenzadisegnioquasidemoticioquasigeroglifici,lasottigliezzaditutti,el'incertezzaconcuisonotracciati,cherivelaunamanopiùabituataascrivereinTheVersionsOfTheBookOfTheDeadhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm(of)::AMgrecocheinegiziano,sonoaltrettanticaratterideltipoieraticodelperiodoesclusivamenteromano,acuiilnostropapiroappartienesenzaalcundubbio"IlLibrodeiFunerali,pOnDevéria'sworkinconnectionwiththisMS,seeMaspero,LeRitueldusacrificeFunéraire(inRevuedel'HistoiredesReligions,txv,p){px}IITheThebanversion,whichwascommonlywrittenonpapyriinhieroglyphicsandwasdividedintosectionsorchapters,eachofwhichhaditsdistincttitlebutnodefiniteplaceintheseriesTheversionwasmuchusedfromtheXVIIIthtotheXXthdynastyIIIAversioncloselyalliedtotheprecedingversion,whichisfoundwrittenonpapyriinthehieraticcharacterandalsoinhieroglyphicsInthisversion,whichcameintouseabouttheXXthdynasty,thechaptershavenofixedorderIVThesocalledSaïteversion,inwhich,atsomeperiodanteriorprobablytotheXXVIthdynasty,thechapterswerearrangedinadefiniteorderItiscommonlywritteninhieroglyphicsandinhieratic,anditwasmuchusedfromtheXXVIthdynastytotheendofthePtolemaicperiodEarlyformsoftheBookoftheDeadTheBookoftheDeadTheearliestinscribedmonumentsandhumanremainsfoundinEgyptprovethattheancientEgyptianstooktheutmostcaretopreservethebodiesoftheir{pxi}deadbyvariousprocessesofembalmingThedepositofthebodyinthetombwasaccompaniedbyceremoniesofasymbolicnature,inthecourseofwhichcertaincompositionscomprisingprayers,shortlitanies,etc,havingreferencetothefuturelife,wererecitedorchantedbypriestsandrelativesonbehalfofthedeadThegreatestimportancewasattachedtosuchcompositions,inthebeliefthattheirrecitalwouldsecureforthedeadanunhinderedpassagetoGodinthenextworld,wouldenablehimtoovercometheoppositionofallghostlyfoes,wouldendowhisbodyinthetombwithpowertoresistcorruption,andwouldensurehimanewlifeinaglorifiedbodyinheavenAtaveryremoteperiodcertaingroupsofsectionsorchaptershadalreadybecomeassociatedwithsomeoftheceremonieswhichprecededactualburial,andtheseeventuallybecameadistinctritualwithclearlydefinedlimitsSidebyside,however,withthisritualthereseemstohaveexistedanotherandlargerwork,whichwasdividedintoanindefinitenumberofsectionsorchapterscomprisingchieflyprayers,andwhichdealtonalargerscalewiththewelfareofthedepartedinthenextworld,anddescribedthestateofexistencethereinandthedangerswhichmustbepassedsuccessfullybeforeitcouldbereached,andwasfoundedgenerallyonthereligiousdogmasandmythologyoftheEgyptiansThetitleof"BookoftheDead"isusuallygivenbyEgyptologiststotheeditionsofthelargerworkwhichweremadeintheXVIIIthandfollowingdynasties,butinthisIntroductionthetermisintendedtoincludethegeneralbodyoftextswhichhavereferencetotheburialofthedeadandtothenewlifeintheworldbeyondthegrave,andwhichareknowntohaveexistedinrevisededitionsandtohavebeeninuseamongtheEgyptiansfromaboutBC,totheearlycenturiesoftheChristianeraUncertaintyofthehistoryofitssourceThehome,origin,andearlyhistoryofthecollectionofancientreligioustextswhichhavedescendedtousare,atpresent,unknown,andallworkingtheoriesregardingthem,howeverstronglysupportedbyTheVersionsOfTheBookOfTheDeadhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm(of)::AMapparentlywellascertainedfacts,mustbecarefullydistinguishedastheoriesonly,solongasasingleancientnecropolisinEgyptremainsunexploredanditsinscriptionsareuntranslatedWhethertheywerecomposedbytheinhabitantsofEgypt,whorecordedtheminhieroglyphiccharacters,andwhohaveleftthemonumentswhicharetheonlytrustworthysourcesofinformationonthesubject,orwhethertheywerebroughtintoEgyptbytheearlyimmigrantsfromtheAsiaticcontinentwhencetheycame,orwhethertheyrepresentthereligiousbooksoftheEgyptiansincorporatedwiththefuneraltextsofsomeprehistoricdwellersonthebanksoftheNile,areallquestionswhichthepossiblediscoveryofinscriptionsbelongingtothefirstdynastiesoftheEarlyEmpirecanalonedecideTheevidencederivedfromthe{pxii}ItsantiquityenormousmassofnewmaterialwhichweowetotheallimportantdiscoveriesofmastabatombsandpyramidsbyMMaspero,andtohispublicationoftheearlyreligioustexts,provesbeyondalldoubtthatthegreaterpartofthetextscomprisedintheBookoftheDeadarefarolderthantheperiodofMena(Menes),thefirsthistoricalkingofEgyptCertainsectionsindeedappeartobelongtoanindefinitelyremoteandprimevaltimeInternalevidenceofitsantiquityTheearliesttextsbearwithinthemselvesproofs,notonlyofhavingbeencomposed,butalsoofhavingbeenrevised,oredited,longbeforethedaysofkingMeni,andjudgingfrommanypassagesinthecopiesinscribedinhieroglyphicsuponthepyramidsofUnas(thelastkingoftheVthdynasty,aboutBC),andTeta,PepiI,MerenRa,andPepiII(kingsoftheVIthdynasty,aboutBC),itwouldseemthat,evenatthatremotedate,thescribeswereperplexedandhardlyunderstoodthetextswhichtheyhadbeforethemThemostmoderateestimatemakescertainsectionsoftheBookoftheDeadasknownfromthesetombsolderthanthreethousandyearsbeforeChristWeareinanycasejustifiedinestimatingtheearliestformoftheworktobecontemporaneouswiththefoundationofthecivilizationwhichwecallEgyptianinthevalleyof"LestextesdesPyramidesnousreportentsiloindanslepasséquejen'aiaucunmoyendelesdaterquededirequ'ellesétaientdejàvieillescinqmilleansavantnotreèreSiextraordinairequeparaissecechiffre,ilfaudrabiennoushabitueràleconsidérercommereprésentantuneévaluationàminimatouteslesfoisqu'onvoudrarechercherlesoriginesdelareligionÉgyptienneLareligionetlestextesquinouslafontconnaîtreétaientdéjàconstituésavantlaIredynastie:c'estànousdenousmettre,pourlescomprendre,dansl'étatd'espritoùétait,ilyaplusdeseptmilleans,lepeuplequilesaconstituésBienentendu,jeneparleiciquedessystèmesthéologiques:sinousvoulionsremonterjusqu'àl'originedeséémentsqu'ilsontmisenœuvre,ilnousfaudraitreculerversdesagesencorepluslointains"Maspero,LaMythologieÉgyptienne(inRevuedel'HistoiredesReligions,txix,pandinÉtudesdeMythologieetd'ArchéologieÉgyptiennes,tii,p)Comparealso"dassdieeinzelnenTexteselbstdamalsschoneineraltenheiligenLitteraturangehörten,unterliegtkeinemZweifel,siesindinjederHinsichtalterthümlicheralsdieältestenunserhaltenenDenkmälerSiegehörenineinefüruns'vorhistorische'ZeitundmanwirdihnengewisskeinUnrechtanthun,wennmansiebisindasvierteJahrtausendhineinversetzt"Erman,DasVerhältnissdesaegyptischenzudensemitischenSprachen,inZDMG,BdXLVI,p"LenombredesprièresetdesformulesdirigéescontrelesanimauxvenimeuxmontrequeleffroileserpentetlescorpioninspiraitauxÉgyptiensBeaucoupd'entreellessontécritesdansunelangueetavecdescombinaisonsdesignesquineparaissentplusavoirétécomplètementcomprisesdesscribesquilescopiaientsousOunasetsousPepiJecrois,quantàmoi,qu'ellesappartiennentanplusvieuxritueletremontentandelàdurègnedeMînî"Maspero,LaReligionÉgyptienne(inRevuedel'HistoiredesReligions,txii,p)SeealsoRecueildeTravaux,tiv,pTheVersionsOfTheBookOfTheDeadhttp:wwwsacredtextscomegyebodebodhtm(of)::AMSosindwirgezwungen,wenigstensdieerstenGrundlagendesBuchesdenAnfängendenAegyptischenCivilizationbeizumessen"SeeNaville,DasAegyptischeTodtenbuch(Einleitung),Berlin,,p{pxiii}theNileTofixachronologicallimitfortheartsandcivilizationofEgyptisabsolutelyimpossibleEvidenceoftheantiquityofcertainchaptersTheoldestformoreditionoftheBookoftheDeadaswehavereceiveditsuppliesnoinformationwhateverastotheperiodwhenitwascompiledbutacopyofthehieratictextinscribeduponacoffinofMenthuhetep,aqueenoftheXIthdynasty,aboutBC,madebythelateSirJGWilkinson,informsusthatthechapterwhich,accordingtothearrangementofLepsius,bearsthenumberLXIV,wasdiscoveredinthereignofHesepti,thefifthkingoftheIstdynasty,aboutBCOnthiscoffinaretwocopiesofthechapter,theoneimmediatelyfollowingtheotherIntherubrictothefirstthenameofthekingduringwhosereignthechapterissaidtohavebeen"found"isgivena

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[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及亡灵书(大英博物馆1895)

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