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首页 [英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及人的魔法(柏格 1901)

[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及人的魔法(柏格 1901)

[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及人的魔法(柏格 1901)

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2008-08-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及人的魔法(柏格 1901)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EGYPTIANMAGICbyEAWALLISBUDGELATEKEEPEROFTHEEGYPTIANANDASSYRIANANTIQUITIESINTHEBRITISHMUSEUMKegan,Paul,TrenchandTrübnerCo,LondonScannedatsacredtextscom,April,RedactedbyJBHareThistextisinthepublicdomainThesefilesmaybeusedforanynoncommercialpurpose,providedthisnoticeofattributionisleftintacttoSIRJNORMANLOCKYER,KCB,FRS,ETC,ETC,ETC,ATOKENOFESTEEMFORAGREATASTRONOMER,ANDAMARKOFTRUEREGARDFORAFRIENDCONTENTSPREFACECHAPTERIANTIQUITYOFMAGICALPRACTICESINEGYPTCHAPTERIIMAGICALSTONESORAMULETSCHAPTERIIIMAGICALFIGURESCHAPTERIVMAGICALPICTURESANDFORMULÆ,SPELLS,ETCCHAPTERVMAGICALNAMESCHAPTERVIMAGICALCEREMONIESCHAPTERVIIDEMONIACALPOSSESSION,DREAMS,GHOSTS,LUCKYANDUNLUCKYDAYS,HOROSCOPES,PROGNOSTICATIONS,TRANSFORMATIONS,ANDTHEWORSHIPOFANIMALSPREFACEASTUDYoftheremainsofthenativereligiousliteratureofancientEgyptwhichhavecomedowntoushasrevealedthefactthatthebeliefinmagic,thatistosay,inthepowerofmagicalnames,andspells,andenchantments,andformulæ,andpictures,andfigures,andamulets,andintheperformanceofceremoniesaccompaniedbytheutteranceofwordsofpower,toproducesupernaturalresults,formedalargeandimportantpartoftheEgyptianreligionAnditiscertainthat,notwithstandingthecontinuousprogresswhichtheEgyptiansmadeincivilization,andthehighintellectualdevelopmenttowhichtheyeventuallyattained,thisbeliefinfluencedtheirmindsand,fromtheearliesttothelatestperiodoftheirhistory,shapedtheirviewsconcerningthingstemporalaswellasspiritualinamannerwhich,atthisstageinthehistoryoftheworld,isverydifficulttounderstandThescrupulouscarewithwhichtheyperformedtheirpviiiinnumerablereligiousceremonies,andcarriedouttheruleswhichtheyhadformulatedconcerningtheworshipofthedivinePowerorpowers,andtheirdevotiontoreligiousmagic,gainedforthemamongthenationswithwhomtheycameincontactthereputationofbeingatoncethemostreligiousandthemostsuperstitiousofmenThatthisreputationwas,onthewhole,welldeserved,istheobjectofthislittlebooktoshewEgyptianmagicdatesfromthetimewhenthepredynasticandprehistoricdwellersinEgyptbelievedthattheearth,andtheunderworld,andtheair,andtheskywerepeopledwithcountlessbeings,visibleandinvisible,whichwereheldtobefriendlyorunfriendlytomanaccordingastheoperationsofnature,whichtheyweresupposedtodirect,werefavourableorunfavourabletohimInnatureandattributesthesebeingswerethoughtbyprimitivemantocloselyresemblehimselfandtopossessallhumanpassions,andemotions,andweaknesses,anddefectsandthechiefobjectofmagicwastogivemanthepreeminenceoversuchbeingsThefavourofthebeingswhowereplacableandfriendlytomanmightbeobtainedbymeansofgiftsandofferings,butthecessationofhostilitiesonthepartofthosethatwereimplacableandunfriendlycouldonlybeobtainedbywheedling,andpixcajolery,andflattery,orbymakinguseofanamulet,orsecretname,ormagicalformula,orfigure,orpicturewhichhadtheeffectofbringingtotheaidofthemortalwhopossesseditthepowerofabeingthatwasmightierthanthefoewhothreatenedtodoeviltohimThemagicofmostearlynationsaimedatcausingthetransferenceofpowerfromasupernaturalbeingtoman,wherebyhewastobeenabledtoobtainsuperhumanresultsandtobecomeforatimeasmightyastheoriginalpossessorofthepowerbuttheobjectofEgyptianmagicwastoendowmanwiththemeansofcompellingbothfriendlyandhostilepowers,nay,atalatertime,evenGodHimself,todowhathewished,whetherthewerewillingornotThebeliefinmagic,thewordbeingusedinitsbestsense,isolderinEgyptthanthebeliefinGod,anditiscertainthataverylargenumberoftheEgyptianreligiousceremonies,whichwereperformedinlatertimesasanintegralpartofahighlyspiritualworship,hadtheirorigininsuperstitiouscustomswhichdatefromaperiodwhenGod,underanynameorinanyform,wasunconceivedinthemindsoftheEgyptiansIndeeditisprobablethateventheuseofthesignwhichrepresentsanaxe,andwhichstandsthehieroglyphiccharacterbothforGodand"god,"indicatesthatthisweaponandtoolwasemployedinthepxperformanceofsomeceremonyconnectedwithreligiousmagicinprehistoric,oratanyrateinpredynastictimes,whenitinsomemysteriouswaysymbolizedthepresenceofasupremePowerButbethisasitmay,itisquitecertainthatmagicandreligiondevelopedandflourishedsidebysideinEgyptthroughoutallperiodsofherhistory,andthatanyinvestigationwhichwemaymakeoftheonenecessarilyincludesanexaminationoftheotherFromthereligiousbooksofancientEgyptwelearnthatthepowerpossessedbyapriestormanwhowasskilledintheknowledgeandworkingofmagicwasbelievedtobealmostboundlessBypronouncingcertainwordsornamesofpowerinthepropermannerandinthepropertoneofvoicehecouldhealthesick,andcastouttheevilspiritswhichcausedpainandsufferinginthosewhowerediseased,andrestorethedeadtolife,andbestowuponthedeadmanthepowertotransformthecorruptibleintoanincorruptiblebody,whereinthesoulmightlivetoalleternityHiswordsenabledhumanbeingstoassumediversformsatwill,andtoprojecttheirsoulsintoanimalsandothercreaturesandinobediencetohiscommands,inanimatefiguresandpicturesbecamelivingbeingsandthingswhichhastenedtoperformhisbehestsThepowersofnatureacknowledgedhismight,andwindandrain,pxistormandtempest,riverandsea,anddiseaseanddeathworkedevilandruinuponhisfoes,andupontheenemiesofthosewhowereprovidedwiththeknowledgeofthewordswhichhehadwrestedfromthegodsofheaven,andearth,andtheunderworldInanimatenaturelikewiseobeyedsuchwordsofpower,andeventheworlditselfcameintoexistencethroughtheutteranceofawordbyThothbytheirmeanstheearthcouldberentasunder,andthewatersforsakingtheirnaturecouldbepiledupinaheap,andeventhesun'scourseintheheavenscouldbestayedbyawordNogod,orspirit,ordevil,orfiend,couldresistwordsofpower,andtheEgyptiansinvokedtheiraidinthesmallestaswellasinthegreatesteventsoftheirlivesTohimthatwasversedinthelorecontainedinthebooksofthe"doublehouseoflife"thefuturewasaswellknownasthepast,andneithertimenordistancecouldlimittheoperationsofhispowerthemysteriesoflifeanddeathwerelaidbarebeforehim,andhecoulddrawasidetheveilwhichhidthesecretsoffateanddestinyfromtheknowledgeofordinarymortalsNowifviewssuchastheseconcerningthemagician'spowerwereheldbytheeducatedfolkofancientEgyptthereislittletowonderatwhenwefindthatbeliefsandsuperstitionsofthemostdegradedcharacterflourishedwithrankluxurianceamongthepeasantspxiiandworkingclassesofthatcountry,whofailedtounderstandthesymbolismoftheelaborateceremonieswhichwereperformedinthetemples,andwhoweretooignoranttodistinguishthespiritualconceptionswhichlayattheirroottomeetthereligiousneedsofsuchpeoplethemagician,andinlatertimesthepriest,founditnecessarytoprovidepageantsandceremonieswhichappealedchieflytothesenses,andfollowingtheirexample,unscrupulousbutclevermentookadvantageoftheignoranceofthegeneralpublicandpretendedtoknowledgeofthesupernatural,andlaidclaimtothepossessionofpowerovergods,andspirits,anddemonsSuchfalseknowledgeandpowertheysoldformoney,andforpurposesofgainthesocalledmagicianwasreadytofurtheranysordidtransactionorwickedschemewhichhisdupewishedtocarryoutThismagicdegeneratedintosorcery,anddemonology,andwitcraft,andthosewhodealtinitwereregardedasassociatesoftheDevil,andservantsofthepowersofdarkness,andworkersofthe"blackart"Inthe"white"and"black"magicoftheEgyptiansmostofthemagicknownintheothercountriesoftheworldmaybefounditisimpossibleyettosayexactlyhowmuchthebeliefsandreligioussystemsofothernationswereinfluencedbythem,butthereisno,doubtthatcertainviewsandreligiousideasofmanyheathenandpxiiiChristiansectsmaybetraceddirectlytothemManyinterestingproofsmightbeadducedinsupportofthisstatement,butthelimitsofthisbookwillnotadmitoftheirbeinggivenhereWhenweconsidertheloftyspiritualcharacterofthegreaterpartoftheEgyptianreligion,andrememberitsgreatantiquity,itishardtounderstandwhytheEgyptianscarefullypreservedintheirwritingsandceremoniessomuchwhichsavouredofgrossandchildishsuperstition,andwhichmusthavebeentheproductoftheirpredynasticorprehistoricancestors,evenduringtheperiodoftheirgreatestintellectualenlightenmentButthefactremainsthattheydidbelieveinOneGodWhowasalmighty,andeternal,andinvisible,Whocreatedtheheavens,andtheearth,andallbeingsandthingsthereinandintheresurrectionofthebodyinachangedandglorifiedform,whichwouldlivetoalleternityinthecompanyofthespiritsandsoulsoftherighteousinakingdomruledbyabeingwhowasofdivineorigin,butwhohadlivedupontheearth,andhadsufferedacrueldeathatthehandsofhisenemies,andhadrisenfromthedead,andhadbecometheGodandkingoftheworldwhichisbeyondthegraveandthat,althoughtheybelievedallthesethingsandproclaimedtheirbeliefwithalmostpassionateearnestness,theyseemnevertohavefreedthemselvesfromahankeringpxivafteramuletsandtalismans,andmagicalnames,andwordsofpower,andseemtohavetrustedinthesetosavetheirsoulsandbodies,bothlivinganddead,withsomethingofthesameconfidencewhichtheyplacedinthedeathandresurrectionofOsirisAmatterforsurpriseisthattheyseemtoseenothingincongruousinsuchamixtureofmagicandreligion,andthegeneralattitudeofthemindoftheEgyptianonthepointiswellillustratedbythefollowingfactsAttachedtotheserviceofRâ,theSungod,atThebeswerenumerouscompaniesofpriestswhosedutiesconsistedasmuchinmakingcopiesofreligiousbooksandinkeepingalivethe"divinetraditions,"asinministeringtothegodintheirappointedseasonsThemembersofthesecompanieswhowrotethecopiesoftheBookoftheDeadwhichwereburiedwithkingsandqueensandpersonagesofroyalorexaltedrankdeclaredthepowerandomnipotenceofAlmightyGod,WhosevisibleemblemtomankindwastheSun,andHissovereigntyoverthingscelestialandthingsterrestrialwithnouncertainvoice,andweshouldexpectthemtobelievewhattheyproclaimed,ie,thatGodwassufficientlypowerfultoprotectHisemblemintheskyYetthepriestsofThebesmadecopiesofworkswhichcontainedtextstoberecitedatspecifiedhoursofthedayandnight,andgavedirectionsfortheperformanceofpxvmagicalceremonies,theavowedobjectofsuchbeingtopreventthemythicalmonsterÂpepfromvanquishingtheSungodAnditisstatedinallseriousnessthatifapieceofpapyrusuponwhichafigureofthemonsterhasbeendrawn,andawaxfigureofhimbeburntinafiremadeofacertainkindofgrass,andtheprescribedwordsberecitedoverthemastheyburn,theSungodwillbedeliveredfromÂpep,andthatneitherrain,norcloud,normistshallbeabletopreventhislightfromfallingupontheearthMoreover,therubricdescribestheperformanceoftheceremonyasameritoriousact!EAWALLISBUDGELONDON,Augustth,CHAPTERIANTIQUITYOFMAGICALPRACTICESINEGYPTINthefirstvolumeofthisseriesanattemptwasmadetosetbeforethereaderastatementoftheideasandbeliefswhichtheancientEgyptiansheldinrespectofGod,the"gods,"theJudgment,theResurrection,andImmortalityinshort,tosketchinbriefoutlinemuchofwhatwasbeautiful,andnoble,andsublimeintheirreligionThefactsofthisstatementwerederivedwhollyfromnativereligiousworks,thelatestofwhichissomethousandsofyearsold,andtheearliestofwhichmaybesaidtopossessanantiquityofbetweensixandseventhousandyearstheextractsquotedinsupportofthedeductionssetforthinitwereintendedtoenablethereadertojudgeforhimselfastothegeneralaccuracyoftheconclusionstheregivenManywritersontheEgyptianreligionhavesomewhatblinkedthefactthatithadtwosidesontheoneitcloselyresemblesinpmanyrespectstheChristianreligionoftoday,andontheotherthereligionofmanyofthesectswhichflourishedinthefirstthreeorfourcenturiesofourera,andwhichmaybesaidtohaveheldbeliefswhichwerepartChristianandpartnonChristianInitsnonChristianaspectitrepresentsacollectionofideasandsuperstitionswhichbelongtoasavageorsemisavagestateofexistence,andwhichmaintainedtheirholdinadegreeuponthemindsoftheEgyptianslongaftertheyhadadvancedtoahighstateofcivilizationWemaythinkthatsuchideasandbeliefsarebothchildishandfoolish,butthereisnopossiblereasonfordoubtingthattheywereveryrealthingstothosewhoheldthem,andwhethertheyarechildishorfoolishorboththeycertainlypassedintothereligionofthepeopleofEgypt,whereintheygrewandflourished,andwere,atleastmanyofthem,adoptedbytheEgyptianconvertstoChristianity,orCoptsReferenceismadetotheminthebestclassicalworksoftheancientEgyptians,anditismorethanprobablethatfromthemtheyfoundtheirwayintotheliteraturesoftheothergreatnationsofantiquity,andthroughtheGreeks,Romans,Arabs,andothersintothecountriesofEuropeInthefollowingpagesanattemptwillbemadetoplaceinthereader'shandstheevidenceastothemagicalsideoftheEgyptianreligion,whichwouldhavebeenoutofplaceintheformerwork,theobjectofwhichwastodescribebeliefsofamorespiritualnatureBut,aspinthebookontheEgyptianIdeasoftheFutureLife,thefactsheregivenaredrawnfrompapyriandothernativedocuments,andtheextractsarequotedfromcompositionswhichwereactuallyemployedbytheEgyptianstoproducemagicaleffectsThe"magic"oftheEgyptianswasoftwokinds:()thatwhichwasemployedforlegitimatepurposesandwiththeideaofbenefitingeitherthelivingorthedead,and()thatwhichwasmadeuseofinthefurtheranceofnefariousplotsandschemesandwasintendedtobringcalamitiesuponthoseagainstwhomitwasdirectedInthereligioustextsandworksweseehowmagicismadetobethehandmaidenofreligion,andhowitappearsincertainpassagessidebysidewiththemostexaltedspiritualconceptionsandtherecanbenodoubtthatthechiefobjectofmagicalbooksandceremonieswastobenefitthosewhohadbysomemeansattainedsufficientknowledgetomakeuseofthemButtheEgyptianswereunfortunateenoughnottobeunderstoodbymanyofthestrangerswhofoundtheirwayintotheircountry,andasaresultwrongandexaggeratedideasoftheirreligionwerecirculatedamongthesurroundingnations,andthemagicalceremonieswhichwereperformedattheirfuneralswererepresentedbytheignoranteitherassillyactsofsuperstitionorastricksofthe"black"artButwhereasthemagicofeveryothernationoftheancientEastwasdirectedentirelyagainstthepowersofdarkness,andwaspinventedinordertofrustratetheirfelldesignsbyinvokingaclassofbenevolentbeingstotheiraid,theEgyptiansaimedbeingabletocommandtheirgodstoworkforthem,andtocompelthemtoappearattheirdesireThesegreatresultsweretobeobtainedbytheuseofcertainwordswhich,tobeefficacious,mustbeutteredinapropertoneofvoicebyadulyqualifiedmansuchwordsmightbewrittenuponsomesubstance,papyrus,preciousstones,andthelike,andwornontheperson,whentheireffectcouldbetransmittedtoanydistanceAsalmosteveryman,woman,andchildinEgyptwhocouldafforditworesomesuchcharmortalisman,itisnottobewonderedatthattheEgyptianswereataveryearlyperiodregardedasanationofmagiciansandsorcerersHebrew,andGreek,andRomanwritersreferredtothemasexpertsintheoccultsciences,andasthepossessorsofpowerswhichcould,accordingtocircumstances,beemployedtodoeithergoodorharmtomanFromtheHebrewswereceive,incidentally,itistrue,considerableinformationaboutthepowersoftheEgyptianmagicianSaintStephenboaststhatthegreatlegislatorMoses"waslearnedinallthewisdomoftheEgyptians,"anddeclaresthathe"wasmightyinwordsandindeeds,"andtherearenumerousfeaturesinthelifeofthisremarkablemanwhichshewthathewasacquaintedwithmanyofthepracticesofpEgyptianmagicThephrase"mightyinwords"probablymeansthat,likethegoddessIsis,hewas"strongoftongue"andutteredthewordsofpowerwhichheknewwithcorrectpronunciation,andhaltednotinhisspeech,andwasperfectbothingivingthecommandandinsayingthewordTheturningofaserpentintowhatisapparentlyaninanimate,woodenstick,andtheturningofthestickbackintoawrithingsnake,arefeatswhichhavebeenperformedintheEastfromthemostancientperiodandthepowertocontrolanddirectthemovementsofsuchvenomousreptileswasoneofthethingsofwhichtheEgyptianwasmostproud,andinwhichhewasmostskilful,alreadyinthetimewhenthepyramidswerebeingbuiltButthiswasbynomeanstheonlyproofwhichMosesgivesthathewasversedinthemagicoftheEgyptians,for,likethesageÂbaanerandkingNectanebus,andalltheothermagiciansofEgyptfromtimeimmemorial,heandAaronpossessedawonderfulrodbymeansofwhichtheyworkedtheirwondersAtthewordofMosesAaronlifteduphisrodandsmotethewatersandtheybecamebloodhestretcheditoutpoverthewaters,andfrogsinnumerableappearedwhenthedustwassmittenbytheroditbecameliceandsoonMosessprinkled

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[英]E·A·沃利斯·柏芝:埃及人的魔法(柏格 1901)

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