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首页 剑桥希腊罗马战争史 卷二

剑桥希腊罗马战争史 卷二

剑桥希腊罗马战争史 卷二

Stlnz
2008-08-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《剑桥希腊罗马战争史 卷二pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THECAMBRIDGEHISTORYOFGREEKANDROMANWARFAREWarfarewasthesinglebiggestpreoccupationofhistoriansinantiquityInrecentdecadesfreshtextualinterpretations,numerousnewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesandamuchbroaderanalyticalfocusemphasizingsocial,economic,politicalandculturalapproacheshavetransformedourunderstandingofancientwarfareVolumeiiofthistwovolumeHistoryreflectsthesedevelopmentsandprovidesasystematicaccount,writtenbyadistinguishedcastofcontributors,ofthevariousthemesunderlyingthewarfareoftheRomanworldfromthelateRepublictothesixthcenturyEmpireofJustinianandhissuccessorsForeachbroadperioddevelopmentsintrooptypes,equipment,strategyandtacticsarediscussedTheseareplacedinthebroadercontextofdevelopmentsininternationalrelationsandtherelationshipofwarfaretoboththestateandwidersocietyNumerousillustrations,aglossaryandchronology,andinformationabouttheancientauthorsmentionedsupplementthetextThiswillbecometheprimaryreferenceworkforspecialistsandnonspecialistsalikephilipsabinisProfessorofStrategicStudiesintheDepartmentofWarStudiesatKing’sCollegeLondonHismainacademicinterestconcernstheanalyticalmodellingofconflict,andheistheauthorofLostBattles:ReconstructingtheGreatClashesoftheAncientWorld()andcoeditor(withTimCornellandBorisRankov)ofTheSecondPunicWar:AReappraisal()HeteachesandwritesaboutthestrategyandtacticsofwarfarefromancienttimestothetwentyfirstcenturyhansvanweesisProfessorofAncientHistoryatUniversityCollegeLondonHeistheauthorofStatusWarriors:War,ViolenceandSocietyinHomerandHistory()andGreekWarfare:MythsandRealities()andeditorofWarandViolenceinAncientGreece()Hehascoedited(withNickFisher)ArchaicGreece:NewApproachesandNewEvidence(),(withEgbertBakkerandIrenedeJong)Brill’sCompaniontoHerodotus()and(withKurtRaaflaub)ACompaniontoArchaicGreece(forthcoming)michaelwhitbyisProfessorofClassicsandAncientHistoryattheUniversityofWarwickHeisthecoeditorofvolumexivofTheCambridgeAncientHistory()andauthorofRomeatWar,ad–()aswellasseveralarticlesonlateRomanwarfare,andhasmadeseveraltelevisionappearancestalkingaboutancientwarfarefromtheGraecoPersianWarstothecollapseoftheRomanEmpireCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,THECAMBRIDGEHISTORYOFGREEKANDROMANWARFAREVOLUMEIIRomefromthelateRepublictothelateEmpireEditedbyPHILIPSABINDepartmentofWarStudies,King’sCollegeLondonHANSVANWEESDepartmentofHistory,UniversityCollegeLondonMICHAELWHITBYDepartmentofClassicsandAncientHistory,UniversityofWarwickCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,cambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,Sa˜oPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKPublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgC©CambridgeUniversityPressThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionsofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressFirstpublishedPrintedintheUnitedKingdomattheUniversityPress,CambridgeAcataloguerecordforthispublicationisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryisbnhardbackCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofURLsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriateCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CONTENTSListoffigurespageviiListofmapsxiEditors’prefacexiiAcknowledgementsxxiiPARTI:THELATEREPUBLICANDTHEPRINCIPATEInternationalrelationsharrysidebottom(FellowinAncientHistory,GreyfriarsHall,Oxford)Militaryforcesborisrankov(ProfessorofRomanHistory,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon)WaradriangoldsworthyBattlecatherinemgilliver(LecturerinAncientHistory,CardiffUniversity)WarfareandthestateAMilitaryfinanceandsupplydominicrathbone(ProfessorofAncientHistory,King’sCollegeLondon)BThemilitaryandpoliticsrichardalston(ProfessorofAncientHistory,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon)vCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,vicontentsWarandsocietycolinadams(SeniorLecturerinAncientHistory,UniversityofLiverpool)PARTII:THELATERROMANEMPIREInternationalrelationsmarkhumphries(ProfessorofAncientHistory,UniversityofSwansea)Militaryforceshughelton(ProfessorofAncientHistoryandClassics,TrentUniversity)Warmichaelwhitby(ProfessorofAncientHistory,UniversityofWarwick)BattlephilipranceWarfareandthestateadlee(SeniorLecturerinClassics,UniversityofNottingham)Warandsocietyandrewfear(LecturerinAncientHistory,UniversityofManchester)ChronologicaltableGlossaryListofancientauthorsBibliographyAbbreviationsPrimarysourcesMainbibliographyIndexofancientpassagescitedGeneralindexCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,FIGURESCoindepictingTrajanpresentingaDaciantoasenatorLondon,BritishMuseumC©CopyrightTheTrusteesoftheBritishMuseumpageEngravedrelieffromtheBoscorealecupdepictingAugustus,seatedonafoldingchaironadaiswithsoldiersandalictorinattendance,receivingakneelingdelegationRelieffromthearchofMarcusAureliusinRomedepictingMarcusAurelius,seatedonapedestalwithstandards,soldiersandanadvisorinattendance,listeningtoarequestRelieffromTrajan’scolumndepictingtheconclusionoftheFirstDacianWar,withtheDacianssubmittingtoRomanauthority,exceptfortheuprightDecebalusC©CopyrightDAIRom(neg)CoindepictingtheseatedTrajancrowningakingofParthiaLondon,BritishMuseumC©CopyrightTheTrusteesoftheBritishMuseumRockhewnreliefdepictingKingShapurofPersiahumiliatingdefeatedRomanrulersReproducedfromRGhirshmann,Iran:ParthiansandSassaniansTombstoneofPubliusFlavoleius,asoldieroflegioxivGeminaMainz,LandesmuseumSculptureofthepraetorianguardTheMansellCollectionScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictingNumidianlightcavalryDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictingRomancavalrypursuingheavilyarmouredhorsemenequippedwithbowsDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsCoinofCaesardepictingadefeatedGaul(possiblytherebelleaderVercingetorix)surmountedbythetriumphalviiCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,viiilistoffiguresdisplayofcapturedGallicarmourLondon,BritishMuseumScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictinglegionariesconstructingafortDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictingtheRomanarmycrossingtheDanubeintoDaciaonabridgeofboatsDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsCoinofAugustusdepictingtherecoveryfromtheParthiansofthestandardslostbyCrassusinhisdisastrousdefeatatCarrhaeUniversityofGlasgow,HunterCoinCabinetPartsofasmallcatapultfromAmpuriasinSpainBarcelona,ArchaeologicalMuseumSecondcenturyadshieldbossoftinnedbrassfoundintheRiverTyne,belongingtoJuniusDubitatusoflegioviiiAugustaLondon,BritishMuseumC©CopyrightTheTrusteesoftheBritishMuseumSculpturefromMainzofRomanlegionariesofthefirstcenturyadinfightingposeMainz,LandesmuseumMarblerelieffromPraenestedepictingawargalleyofthelatefirstcenturybcTheMansellCollectionScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictingRomantroopsattackingaDacianfortificationDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsFragmentofpayaccountoflegionary(ads)PMasadaReproducedbypermissionoftheIsraelExplorationSocietyScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictingsoldiersforagingforsuppliesDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsScenefromTrajan’scolumndepictinghorsesandsuppliesbeingtransportedbyboatDrawingbySReinach,Re´pertoiredereliefsgrecsetromainsRelieffromthebaseofTheodosius’obeliskinthehippodromeofConstantinopledepictingTheodosiusI,seatedwithcoemperorsValentinianII,ArcadiusandHonorius,receivingkneelingforeignenvoysC©CopyrightDAIIstanbul(neg)Photo:PSteyerArmouredinfantry,midthirdcentury,fromthefrescoofthecrossingoftheRedSeainthesynagogueatDuraEuropusDamascus,NationalMuseumYaleUniversityArtGallery,DuraEuropusCollectionCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,listoffiguresixRemainsofaskeletonandthearmourofaninfantryman,midthirdcenturyfromacollapsedmineinDuraEuropusYaleUniversityArtGallery,DuraEuropusCollectionRelieffromthearchofConstantine,Rome,depictinginfantryonthemarch,cad–MosaicofhuntersfromPiazzaArmerina,Sicily,showingtheprobableappearanceofinfantry,earlyfourthcenturyPhoto:ScalaArtResource,NYLateantiquereliefdepictingarmouredinfantryMuseiVaticani(negVAT)ArmouredinfantrymenintheVirgiliusVaticanusMS,earlyfifthcenturyC©CopyrightBibliotecaApostolicaVaticana,MSLat,folvBattlescene,midfifthcentury,fromamosaicdepictingtheflightoftheAmoritesRome,BasilicadiSantaMariaMaggioreArmouredinfantrymenintheVirgiliusRomanusMS,latefifthcenturyC©CopyrightBibliotecaApostolicaVaticana,MSLatBattlesceneshowingarmouredinfantryinaMSofHomer’sIliad,cadMilan,BibliotecaAmbrosianaInfantry,latesixthcentury,fromthereliefdepictingthemeetingofJosephandJacobatGoshen,fromthethroneofMaximianinRavennaArmouredandunarmouredinfantry,earlyseventhcentury,fromasilverplatedepictingthebattlebetweenDavidandGoliathNewYork,TheMetropolitanMuseumofArt,GiftofJPierpontMorgan,()GraffitoofachargingclibanariusfromDuraEuropus,midthirdcenturyYaleUniversityArtGallery,DuraEuropusCollectionCataphracthorsearmourfromDuraEuropus,midthirdcenturyYaleUniversityArtGallery,DuraEuropusCollectionRelieffromthearchofGaleriusinThessalonicadepictingcataphracts,latethirdcenturyC©CopyrightDAIAthen(negSaloniki)Photo:WagnerUnarmouredcavalryman,fifth–seventhcentury,fromafrescodepictingStSisinniusspearingafemaledemon,inthemonasteryofStApollo,Bawit,EgyptPorphyrystatueoftetrarchs,depictingtheprobableappearanceofseniorofficers,cadVenice,BasilicadiSanMarcoPhoto:AlinariCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,xlistoffiguresMissoriumofTheodosiusIdepictingemperorandguardsMadrid,AcademiadelaHistoriaConsulardiptychofStilichoshowingtheprobableappearanceofanofficercadMonza,TesorodelDuomoLateRomanwalls:TheodosianwallsofConstantinople,earlyfifthcenturyReproducedfromCMango,ByzantineArchitecture()GranariesatDara,earlysixthcenturyReproducedfromCMango,ByzantineArchitecture()PlanofDara,earlytomidsixthcenturySangariusbridge,cadPhoto:authorReliefdepictingthebattleoftheMilvianBridgefromthearchofConstantine,RomeMosaicofStDemetriusasprotectorofhiscity,witharmsaroundthebishopandgovernorThessalonica,churchofStDemetriusWashington,DC,DumbartonOaksCollection(negD())LateRomaninfantrymanandhisequipmentfromaMSofDerebusbellicisOxfordUniversity,BodleianLibrary,MSCanonMisc,folvC©BodleianLibrarySixthcenturyEgyptianivoryreliefdepictingamountedarmouredarcherandarmouredinfantryTrier,RheinischeLandesmuseumPhoto:ThZu¨hmerLateRomanartillerypiecefromaMSofDerebusbellicisOxfordUniversity,BodleianLibrary,MSCanonMisc,folrC©BodleianLibraryTheBarberiniivory,depictingalateRomanemperor,perhapsJustinian,asavictoriouscavalrymanParis,Muse´eduLouvrePhoto:RMNIvorydiptychofAniciusPetroniusProbus,depictingtheemperorHonoriusinmilitarydressPhoto:AlinariaSolidusofArcadius,inmilitarydress,cadCourtesyoftheSyndicsoftheFitzwilliamMuseum,CambridgebSolidusofHonorius,inmilitarydress,cadPagefromaMSofNotitiaDignitatumdepictingtheinsigniaofthemagisterofficiorumOxfordUniversity,BodleianLibrary,MSCanonMisc,folrC©BodleianLibraryCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,MAPSSpainandAfricapagexvGaulandGermanyxviItalyandtheBalkansxviiTheeastxviiiRomanBritainxixTheprovincesunderTrajanxxTheprovincesunderDiocletianxiCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,EDITORS’PREFACEWarfarewasthesinglebiggestpreoccupationofhistoriansinantiquity,butmodernacademicinterestinthesubjecthasrevivedonlyinthelastfewdecadesThenarrowlyfocusedstudiesofwarwrittenbeforetheFirstWorldWarbyDelbru¨ck,Kromayer,Veithandothershavenowbeensupersededbyamuchwiderspectrumofwork,rangingfromtheindividualsoldier’sexperienceofbattletotheplaceofancientwarfarewithinwidersocial,economic,politicalandculturalstructuresPartlyasaresultofthisbroaderfocus,andpartlythroughrichertextualanalysisandafloodofnewarchaeologicaldiscoveries,ourunderstandingofancientwarfarehasbeentransformedWiththeexceptionofpopularsurveyworks,however,thereisnocomprehensiveoverviewofthisburgeoningfieldofstudyTheCambridgeHistoryofGreekandRomanWarfareaimstofillthisgap:itstwovolumessurveytheadvancesmadesincethesinallaspectsofresearchonancientwarfare,andprovideanopportunityforadistinguishedgroupofexpertsinthefieldtotakethesubjectfurtherstillbypresentinganarrayofnewideasandsuggestingmanynewdirectionsOuraiminthisworkisnottoprovideanarrativeaccountofthecountlesswarswhichtookplaceacrossaperiodspanningfifteencenturies–suchaccountsarereadilyavailablefromanynumberofothersources,notleasttheCambridgeAncientHistory–buttoofferathematicanalysisofthemainaspectsofwarfareintheancientworldThreeimportantintroductorychapterssetthescene:thefirstputsthepresentvolumesintheirhistoriographicalcontextandexplainsfurthertherationalefortheirpublicationtheothertwoaddressthenatureofevidenceandtheproblemsofitsinterpretation,twoissueswhicharefundamentaltoanewandbetterunderstandingofancientwarfareThebulkofthevolumesisdividedintofourchronologicallyorderedparts,eachcoveringaspanofthreeorfourcenturiesThesechronologicaldivisionsservetodrawattentiontothebroadchangeswhichoccurredinwarfareandthesocietiesinwhichthiswarfarewaspractisedandpursuedDetailedchronologicaltablesattheendofeachvolumealsohelpreaderstoplacethediscussioninitsproperhistoricalframeThefirstpartofvolumeicoverstheearliestxiiCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,editors’prefacexiiicenturiesofGreeksociety,whichgeneratedourmostfamousaccountsofancientwarfare,Homer’sIliadandOdyssey,aswellas‘proper’historicalaccountsofconflicts,withThucydides’recordofthePeloponnesianWaroftenregardedastheacmeofancienthistoriographyInthesecondpart,earlyRomeandtheHellenisticworldaredealtwithinparallel,aratherunusualcombinationdesignedtostimulateafreshanalyticalperspectiveandtoovercomethecommontendencytokeeptheGreekandRomanworldsinentirelyseparatecompartmentsThefirstpartofthesecondvolumebridgesoneofthegreatpoliticaltransitionsoftheancientworld,thatfromtheRomanRepublictothePrincipateofAugustusandhissuccessors,withtheintentionofhighlightingcontinuingissuesandrecurrentthemesThefinalpartdealswiththelaterEmpire,aperiodlongseenthroughtheprismof‘declineandfall’butoneinwhichmostscholarsnowidentifyarobustandprotracteddefenceofimperialinterestsinaworldwhichwasexperiencingprofoundchanges,internallythroughtheadoptionofChristianityandexternallythroughthearrivaloftheHunsWithineachchronologicalpart,thesubdivisionsarethematicandreflectthekeyaspectsofancientwarfareidentifiedinmodernhistoriography:()theroleofwarandpeaceininternationalrelations()thenature,compositionandstatusofdifferentkindsofarmedforces()thepracticalitiesandethicsoftheconductofwarsandcampaigns()thenatureandexperienceofcombatinpitchedbattlesandsieges()thepoliticalandeconomicdimensionsofwarand()thesocialandculturaldimensionsofwarThesamesubdivisionsareappliedineachofthefourparts,soastoenablereaderstomakecomparisonsandtopursueparticularthemesthroughoutantiquity‘Waristerrible’,saidPolybius,‘butnotsoterriblethatweshouldputupwithanythingtoavoidit’()Thesevolumesexamineboththeformstakenbytheterrorofwarintheancientworldandtheforceswhichalltoooftenmadeitseemnecessarytoresorttoviolenceatthecostofgivingup‘thethingwhichweallpraythatthegodsmaygiveustheonlyincontestableblessingamongthesocalledgoodthingsinlife–Imeanpeace’()PhilipSabinHansvanWeesMichaelWhitbyCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheinspirationforthesevolumescamefromPaulineHire,formerclassicseditoratCambridgeUniversityPress,andweareverygratefulforherhelpandadviceintheearlystagesofthisworkThanksarealsoduetoAshleyClementsforhiscarefulsubeditorialworkandtoHilaryScannell,AlisonPowell,MichaelSharpandSineadMoloneyfortheirmanyandvariedcontributionsinbringingthisprojecttocompletionWealsowishtothankBarbaraHirdforherworkinproducingtheindexesxivCambridgeHistoriesOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,d°NcbAB°CD°EE°W°WF°E°Ncb°Nd°NB°CD°EE°WF°EkmmilesIlerdaNarbo

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