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首页 [美]贝淡宁:中国新儒家:变革社会中的政治和日常生活(普林斯顿 2008)

[美]贝淡宁:中国新儒家:变革社会中的政治和日常生活(普林斯顿 2008)

[美]贝淡宁:中国新儒家:变革社会中的政治和日常生活(普林斯顿…

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2008-08-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]贝淡宁:中国新儒家:变革社会中的政治和日常生活(普林斯顿 2008)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

China’sNewConfucianismChina’sNewConfucianismPoliticsandEverydayLifeinaChangingSocietyDanielABellPrincetonUniversityPressPrincetonandOxfordCopyright©byPrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreet,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,MarketPlace,Woodstock,OxfordshireOXSYAllRightsReservedFULLCIPTOCOMEISBNBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataisavailableThisbookhasbeencomposedinPrintedonacidfreepaper∞pressprincetoneduPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFormymotherandAnthonyCONTENTSAcknowledgmentsIntroductionPoliticsFromCommunismtoConfucianism:ChangingDiscoursesonChina'sPoliticalFutureWar,Peace,andChina'sSoftPowerHierarchicalRitualsforEgalitarianSocietiesSocietySex,Singing,andCivility:TheCostsandBenefitsoftheKaraokeTradeHowShouldEmployersTreatDomesticWorkersThePoliticsofSports:FromtheWorldCuptotheOlympicsEducationACritiqueofCriticalThinkingTeachingPoliticalTheoryinBeijingOnBeingConfucian:WhyConfuciansNeedn’tBeOld,Conservative,andSeriousAppendicesIDepoliticizingtheAnalectsIIJiangQing’sPoliticalConfucianismACKNOWLEDGMENTSInSpring,IwroteanessayonmyteachingexperienceinBeijingthatwaspublishedintheperiodicalDissentTheessayseemedtogeneratemuchinterest–more,infact,thananythingIhadpreviouslywritten–andIwasencouragedtowriteotherChinarelatedessaysinasimilarveinThreeotheressayswerepublishedinDissent(Fall,Spring,Winter)SomyfirstthanksistoDissent,whichpublishedearlierversionsofchapters,,,andIamalsogratefultotheorganizersofaconferenceonritualheldatHongKongBaptistUniversity,whereIpresentedamoreacademicversionofchaptertoRichardBellamy,whocommissionedanearlierversionofchapterthatwaspublishedinGovernmentandOpposition,vol,no,SpringtotheorganizersofaconferenceonthethoughtofJiangQingheldinZhuhai,June,whereIpresentedanearlierversionofappendixone(aChineseversion,translatedbyXieHuiyuan,willbepublishedbyShanghaiVIHoraiPublishers)andtoWangHui,whocommissionedanearlierversionofappendixtwothatwaspublishedintheChineselanguageperiodicalDuShu,August(translatedbyWuWanwei)AlltheseessayshavebeensubstantiallyrevisedforthisbookIhaveafeelingthatmywritingimproveswithageButthemainreasonforimprovementlieshasnothingtodowithmyabilitiesAsIgetolder,Imakemorefriends,andthisexpandingnetworkoffriendsmeansthatIcangetmorecritical–andkind–feedbackonmyworkI’vesenteachchapterinthisbooktoseveralfriends,andthebookhasbeenrevisedseveraltimesinreactiontotheircommentsInfact,I’vemadesomanychangesthatI’velosttrackofwhichideahasbeenimprovedinresponsetowhichcommentbywhichfriendSoI’vedecidedtoleaveoutanyattributionsofthanksinthetextitselfTheliberalindividualistmightsaythatI’veplagiarizedotherpeople’sideasTheConfucianmightsaythatIshouldnotusemynamequaindividualauthorandthatthebookshouldberegardedaspartofatraditionWell,I’mnotsurewhattosayPerhapsIshouldsaythatit’ssafetoassumethegoodideasinthebookarecommunalcreations,butthatI’msolelyresponsibleforthebadonesLetmethankthefollowingfriends(inalphabeticalorder)forcommentsonearlierversionsofparticularchapters:RogerAmes,PeterBaier,SebastienBillioud,JoeCarens,JosephChan,CiJiwei,ChanSinYee,JohnDelury,AvnerdeShalit,JohnDryzek,PaulDumouchel,JamesFallows,FawazGerges,DanGutmann,HeBaogang,JohnHolden,IanHolliday,HongXiuping,JiangQian,JiangQing,ParagKhanna,DavidKelly,LiWanquan,LiangZhiping,AntonyOu,PengGuoxiang,LiQiang,RandyPeerenboom,HenryRosemont,Jr,MasayukiSato,andWeiZhengxiangLetmealsothankRichardBaumandmembersoftheinternetgroupChinapol,forusefulexchangesofideasandresourcesMorethankstoIanHollidayforcomingupwiththeideaforthecoverillustrationand()fordesigningitIowespecialthankstothefollowingfriendswhowrotedetailedwrittencommentsonlargechunksofthebook:SteveAngle,BaiTongdong,FanRuiping,SteveGeisz,andPaikWooyealLetmealsothankWuYunandJiangHaiboforresearchassistanceIwouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetoWanJunrenandmycolleaguesatTsinghuaforprovidingasupportiveandstimulatingenvironmentforteachingandresearchIowemosttothefollowingpeople:PJIvanhoe,myfriendfromafar,whoreadthroughtwoversionsofthemanuscriptandwrotedetailedcommentseachtimemyeditorIanMalcolm,forhiskindnessandhelpfulsuggestionsMichaelWalzer,coeditorofDissent,forhissupportandinspiringtheorizingthememoryofmygrandmotherThereseandunclesJeanClaudeandMaurice,whowillforeverformpartofmyidentitymyrelativesinCanada,China,France,Japan,andtheUnitedStatesforemotionalsupportmywifeBingandsonJulien,forunrestrainedyetlovingcriticismandmymotherandAnthony,towhomthisbookisdedicatedANoteonChineseSourcesThetranslationsfromChineselanguagematerial,unlessotherwiseindicated,aremyownIhaveusedpinyinromanization,exceptwhereitwouldn’tmakeanysensetothenonChinesereaderandthecorrectcharactermightnotbeobvioustotheChinesereader,inwhichcaseIhaveusedsimplifiedChinesecharacters(thoughIdothinkthetraditionalcomplexformismoreaestheticallypleasingandIhopemoreusewillbemadeofthatforminthefuture)FortheclassicalChinese,Ihavemadeuseoftheoriginalsourcesalongwiththefollowingtranslations:forTheAnalectsofConfucius,thephilosophicaltranslationbyRogerTAmesandandHenryRosemont,JrforMencius,thetranslationbyDCLauandforXunzi,thetranslationbyJohnKnoblockHowever,thesetranslationshavebeenmodifiedtosuitmyownstyleandvocabularyIntroductionWhat’sthebigstoryabouttheriseofmodernChinaIsitthecontinuinghumanrightsabusesTheexpansionofpersonalfreedomsThedevelopmentoflocaldemocracyTheresilienceoftheauthoritarianstateOrperhapstheeconomicmiracle,withhundredsofmillionsliftedoutofpovertyOrthehundredsofmillionsstilllivinginpovertyTheanswer,ofcourse,isalloftheaboveAjokeaboutChinaisthatonecansayanythingaboutitwithoutgettingitrightAnotherjokeisthatonecansayanythingaboutitwithoutgettingitwrongYetanotherjokeisthatthelongeronestaysinthecountry,themoreintimatethegraspofthelanguage,cultureandhistory,thelessconfidentonefeelsaboutjudgmentsandpredictionsStill,theremayberoomforonemoreChinastoryMystoryisinformedbypersonalexperiencelivingandworkinginBeijingThemainplotconcernstherevivaloftheConfuciantraditioninpoliticsandeverydaylifeThemoralofthestoryisthatcreativeadaptationofthelegacycanbehelpfulfordealingwiththechallengesofcontemporaryChinaAndIwilltrytotellthestoryinplainlanguageaccessibletoallthosewhotrytounderstandChinaMystorybeginsbyaskingafewquestionsaboutmodernChinaInpolitics,whydoCommunistPartyleadersinvokecenturiesoldConfucianvaluesWhydosocialcriticsalsoinvokethosevaluesThereare,perhaps,evenmorepuzzlingquestionsWhydoseniorCommunistPartyleadersdietheirhairblackAndwhydolocalofficialsgetpromotediftheycarefortheirelderlyparentsWhydosocialcriticsuseMenciustocriticizeimperialismWemightalsoaskwhyhierarchicalritualscontributetomaterialequalityInsociallife,therearemorepuzzlesWhyispaidsexoftenprecededbysingingduetsWhydoesthecrimeratespikejustbeforetheChineseNewYearWhydoChinesecheerforGoliathsininternationalsportingeventsWhydodomestichelperswanttobetreatedlikefamilymembersIt’salsoworthaskingsomequestionsaboutmyownstudentsWhydotheysendmecriticalemailsratherthanraiseobjectionsinclassWhydotheysingtogetherAndwhydotheywantmetosingwiththemIdonotmeantoimplythattherearesimpleanswerstothesequestionsAnyseriousanalysisneedstodiscussthevariouseconomic,political,andpsychologicalforcesthathelptoexplainsuchphenomenaMyvantagepointlivinginBeijing,readingChineselanguagedebates,andtalkingtoChinesefromvariouswalksoflife,offerssomeinsightintothoseforcesToinvokeaclassicalmetaphor,however,onealsoneedstoundersandthe“roots”ofmodernsocietyChinaspecialistsintheWestoftenfocustheirenergiesonstudyofthe“branches”(suchasdemocracy,civilsociety,propertyrights)thatseemtoowetheirorigintoWestern“roots”Asaresult,theyoftenmisconstrueormissaltogetherthecontemporarybranchesthatarisefromChina’sownrootsandshowlittlecapacityforpredictingwhatnewbranchesmightsproutfromChina’spowerfulandvenerabletraditionsOntheotherhand,specialistsinChinesethoughtoftenspendtheirtimeonhistoricalinterpretationsoftextsTheysometimesgestureatimplicationsformodernsociety,butrarelyspellthemoutinanydetailInmyview,anysoundunderstandingofChinaneedstoexploreboththerootsandthebranchesIwilltrytouncoverandexploredistinctiveanddeepaspectsofChinesecultureandpointtocontemporarymanifestationsIwillalsotrytosortoutthegoodfromthebad,andtosuggest–inallhumility!–howtraditionalvaluesandpracticescanbeadaptedandmadedefensibleincontemporaryChinesesocietyandperhapsbeyondMyaimisnottopromoteanyparticularpoliticalagenda,buttoenrichthediscourseofpossibilitiesWell,maybeIshouldtakethatbackIdohaveanagendaandIshouldcomecleanaboutmynormativecommitmentsIworrythatmuchthinkingandpolicymakinginWesterncountriesisbasedoncrudestereotypesaboutChina,suchastheviewthatthereistotalitariancontrolofintellectualdiscourseTherealityismuchmorecomplexMyhopeisthatgreaterawarenessofphilosophicaltraditionsandcurrentdiscoursesinChinawillreducetheriskofconflictsbasedonmisunderstandingsIntheworstcasescenario,suchmisunderstandingscanpoisoninternationalrelationsandleadtowarTherearecrazypeopleinboththeUnitedStatesandChinawhoseemtobeplanning,ifnothoping,forwarbetweenthetwocountriesThosepeopleshouldbestoppedbyotherswhoappreciateandcareforwhat’sgoodaboutbothcountriesIwillleavethepositiveaccountsofAmericanculturetoothers(personally,Ilovethechoiceofcerealsinsupermarkets,drivingfastonopenhighways,andthesportsscene)ThisbookwilldiscusssomeofthepositivefeaturesofChinesecultureWhatIhopetoshowisthatChinashouldn’tbecondemnedjustbecauseitdoesn’tlooklikeusWeshouldallowforjustifiablemoraldiversityThat’sthekeytointernationalpeaceButperhapsIshouldn’toverstatethepoliticalimportanceofthiskindofbookMaybeit’sjustamatterofcontributingafewinsightsthatwillhelpvisitorstoChinaenjoytheirexperienceThiswillsoundmorearrogant,butletmegoaheadIalsohaveanagendaforChinaIrealizeit’srecklessforaforeignertotrytotelltheChinesewhattheyshouldbedoingButIcan’tstopmyselfIcareaboutmynewhomeIalsolikeConfucianvalues,andIhopetheycanberevivedincontemporaryChinaButwhichConfucianvaluesshouldberevivedWell,itdependsConfucianismisalongtraditionwithdifferentstrandsanddifferentcombinationsofvalueswithdifferenttraditionsToday,thereareatleastthreestrandsOneisthestrandpopularizedbyYuDan,whosebookontheAnalectsofConfuciushassoldmorecopiesthananybooksinceMao’sLittleRedBook(actually,mostofMao’sbooksweredistributedforfree)HeraccountoftheAnalectsseemsrelativelyapoliticalSheaimstohelppeopledealwiththepressuresofmodernsocietyWeshouldn’tworrytoomuchaboutexternalgoodslikestatusandmoneyWhatmattersisourinnerattitudeSolongasourheartsareintherightplace,thingswillbeOKOfcourse,suchviewsarenotreallyapoliticalTheydeflectattentionfromtheeconomicandpoliticalconditionsthatactuallycausepeople’smiseryAnyoneconcernedwiththoseconditionsneedstoinvokemorepoliticalinterpretationsofConfucianismButherewerunintomoretroubleEvensincetheHandynasty(morethantwothousandyearsago),themostprominentpoliticalinterpretationshavebeenmanipulatedbyChinesegovernmentsfortheirownpurposesHereConfucianismhasbeencombinedwithLegalism,China’sothermainpoliticaltradition,tojustifysuchpracticesasblindobediencetotheruler,theuseofharshpunishments,andthesubordinationofwomenButthereisanotherinterpretationofConfucianism–let’scallit“LeftConfucianism”–thatstressessuchvaluesastheobligationofintellectualstocriticizebadgovernmentsandtheobligationofthestatetoprovideforthematerialwellbeingofthepeopleSuchvaluesowetheiroriginmainlytothe“originalConfucianism”ofConfucius,Mencius,andXunzi,beforeConfucianismbecameestablishedasstateorthodoxyInImperialtimes,thecriticaltraditionwascarriedforwardbysuchscholarsasHuangZongxiandGuYanwuAndtoday,newleftistssuchasGanYangarecallingforthecreationofa“Confuciansocialistrepublic”ConfucianscholarssuchasJiangQingopenlyacknowledgethattheirinterpretationoftheConfuciantraditionmostcloselyparallelssocialistideals:notthe“actuallyexistingsocialism”inChinatoday,butthesocialistidealsdefendedbyKarlMarxandothersThisConfuciantraditionaimstoinfluencecontemporarypolitics,butitalsoremainsseparatefromstatepowerandorthodoxy,alwaysreadytopointtothegapbetweentheidealsandthesocialrealityThat’sthetraditionIfindinspiringLetmeaddresstheworrythatI’musingtheConfucianlabelsimplytopromoteprogressiveorsocialistideasthatowetheirorigintoWesternrootsIdonotdenythatsuch“Western”valuesasdemocracy,solidarity,humanrights,andtheruleoflawneedtobeadoptedinChinaButtheyalsoneedtobeadaptedinChinaTheyneedtobeenriched,andsometimesconstrained,byConfucianvaluesForexample,WesternprogressivesandLeftConfucianscanagreethatthegovernment’sfirstobligationistoprovideforthedisadvantagedinsocietyToacertainextent,theycanalsoagreeaboutwhatitmeanstobedisadvantaged:itmeansbeingdeprivedofthematerialgoodsthatunderpinanydecentconceptionofthegoodlifeBeyondthat,however,therewillbeimportantdifferencesIntheWesternmind,thosedeprivedoftheopportunitytochoosetheirpoliticalleadersarealsodisadvantagedIntheConfucianmind,itisnotnecessarilythecaseAmoreseriousharmisbeingdeprivedoffamilymembersandfriendsthatmakeupthegoodlifeHence,whenMenciussaysthegovernmentshouldgivefirstconsiderationto“oldmenwithoutwives,oldwomenwithouthusbands,oldpeoplewithoutchildren,andyoungchildrenwithoutfathers,”hedoesn’tjustmeanthatthosepeoplearemateriallypoorNordoeshemeanthattheyaredisadvantagedbecausetheylackdemocraticrightsForMencius,theyaredisadvantaged(partly,ifnotmainly)becausetheyaredeprivedofkeyhumanrelationsThechoiceoftopicsreflectsmyexperienceasaWesterntrainedscholarlivingandworkinginChinaaswellasmyownpersonalinterestsandcommitmentsMybookhasthreepartsThefirstpartdiscussesrecentpoliticaldebatesanddevelopmentsThesecondpartdealswithsocialissuessuchassex,sports,andthetreatmentofdomesticworkersThelastpartdiscusseseducationandmyownexperienceasateacherandselfstyledConfucianeducatorIneachpart,Iwillpointtosomeofthemodernbranchesand“Confucian”rootsthathelptoexplainseeminglypuzzlingphenonemaincontemporaryChinaIwillalsobedrawinguponmy“LeftConfucian”commitmentstoevaluatesomeofthosephenomenaandproposealternativesifneedbeIntermsofstyle,I’vedeliberatelyavoidedheavygoingacademicjargonanddidmybesttominimizefootnotesandqualificationsItwasn’talwayseasy–inmyusualacademicmode,thechallengeistoavoidaddingfootnotestofootnotes–butthereadercanjudgeifIsucceededI’vealsoaddedtwoappendices–criticaldiscussionsofinfluentialChineselanguagebooksonthecontemporaryrelevanceofConfucianism–thatmaybeofinteresttothosewhoarereadingthisfootnotePartPoliticsChapterFromCommunismtoConfucianism:ChangingDiscoursesonChina’sPoliticalFutureIntheUnitedStates,thepoliticalfutureisconstrained,forbetterorworse,byconstitutionalarrangementsthathavebeeninplaceformorethantwocenturiesBarringdramaticdevelopmentsthatfewwouldwelcome,suchasnuclearwarormajorterroristattacks,itishighlyunlikelythatthepoliticalsystemwillchangemuchoverthenextfewdecadesInChina,bycontrast,thepoliticalfutureiswideopenAccordingtotheformulationoftheChineseCommunistParty(CCP),thecurrentsystemisthe“primarystageofsocialism,”meaningthatit’satransitionalphasetoahigherandsuperiorformofsocialismiTheecononomicfoundation,alongwiththelegalandpoliticalsuperstructure,willchangeinthefutureForindependentintellectuals,theonlyremotelyplausiblejustificationforthecurrentsystemofeconomicliberalizationcombinedwithtightpoliticalcontrolisthatitisatemporarynecessitygiventheneedtoprovidesocialorderduringthedisruptiveperiodofeconomicdevelopment(andmanywouldrejectthisclaim)NobodyarguesthatthecurrentpoliticalsystemshouldremaininplaceoncetheeconomyisdevelopedThequestionis,whatcomesaftereconomicdevelopmentInChina,thedebatesonthisquestionaresomewhatconstrainedduetopoliticalcontrolsaswellasthewidelyfeltneedtodealwithChina’smoreimmediateeconomicandsocialproblemsTherealsoseemstobeanaversionto“utopianthinking,”whichisanunderstandablereactiontoMao’sdisastrousattemptstosweepawaythepastduringtheGreatLeapForwardandtheCulturalRevolutionStill,fewdoubtthatthere’saneedforadifferent–andmoreinspiring–politicalmodelinthefutureInprivatediscussions,thereisroomforspeculationa

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[美]贝淡宁:中国新儒家:变革社会中的政治和日常生活(普林斯顿 2008)

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