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首页 [美]扎加利·布里特曼著:奥斯维辛集中营之后(的神):大屠杀后犹太人思想的传统与变迁

[美]扎加利·布里特曼著:奥斯维辛集中营之后(的神):大屠杀后犹太人思想的传统与变迁

[美]扎加利·布里特曼著:奥斯维辛集中营之后(的神):大屠杀后…

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2008-08-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]扎加利·布里特曼著:奥斯维辛集中营之后(的神):大屠杀后犹太人思想的传统与变迁pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

(GOD)AFTERAUSCHWITZThispageintentionallyleftblank(GOD)AFTERAUSCHWITZTRADITIONANDCHANGEINPOSTHOLOCAUSTJEWISHTHOUGHTZacharyBraitermanPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPRINCETON,NEWJERSEYCOPYRIGHT�BYPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPUBLISHEDBYPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESS,WILLIAMSTREET,PRINCETON,NEWJERSEYINTHEUNITEDKINGDOM:PRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESS,CHICHESTER,WESTSUSSEXALLRIGHTSRESERVEDLIBRARYOFCONGRESSCATALOGINGINPUBLICATIONDATABRAITERMAN,ZACHARY,–(GOD)AFTERAUSCHWITZ:TRADITIONANDCHANGEINPOSTHOLOCAUSTJEWISHTHOUGHTBYZACHARYBRAITERMANPCMINCLUDESBIBLIOGRAPHICALREFERENCESANDINDEXISBN(CLOTH:ALKPAPER)HOLOCAUST(JEWISHTHEOLOGY)THEODICYJUDAISMTHCENTURYITITLEBMHB�DCTHISBOOKHASBEENCOMPOSEDINGALLIARDTHEPAPERUSEDINTHISPUBLICATIONMEETSTHEMINIMUMREQUIREMENTSOFANSINISOZ(R)(PERMANENCEOFPAPER)HTTP:PUPPRINCETONEDUPRINTEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICATOMYGRANDPARENTSWilliamBraiterman(z�l),–MatildaSilver(z�l),–ThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTSIXINTRODUCTIONModernitySurpassed:JewishReligiousThoughtafterAuschwitzPARTIONETheodicyandItsOthers:FormsofReligiousResponsetotheProblemofEvilTWOAntiTheodicy:InBibleandMidrashTHREETheodicies:InModernJewishThoughtPARTIIFOUR“Hitler’sAccomplice”!RevisioningRichardRubensteinFIVEDoIBelongtotheRaceofWordsAntiTheodicFaithandTextualRevisionintheThoughtofEliezerBerkovitsSIXWhyIstheWorldTodayNotWaterRevelation,Fragmentation,andSolidarityintheThoughtofEmilFackenheimCONCLUSIONDiscourse,Sign,Diptych:RemarksonJewishThoughtafterAuschwitzNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXThispageintentionallyleftblankACKNOWLEDGMENTSPARTSOFTHISBOOKwerepublishedunderseparatecoverThefollowingjournalshavekindlyallowedmetoreprintthosematerialsherePortionsofChapterappearedas“‘Hitler’sAccomplice’!TheTragicTheologyofRichardRubenstein,”inModernJudaism()portionsofChapterappearedas“AntitheodicFaithintheThoughtofEliezerBerkovits,”inJournalofJewishThoughtandPhilosophy,no(fall)andportionsofChapterappearedas“FideismRedux:EmilFackenheimandtheStateofIsrael,”inJewishSocialStudies,no(fall)IwouldalsoliketothankthefacultyandstaffattheUniversityofJudaismwhereIspenttheacademicyear–asaFinkelsteinpostdoctoralfellowThisgeneroussupportallowedmetheopportunitytoexpandintellectualandsocialhorizonsMostofall,IamhappytoacknowledgeenormousintellectualdebtsthisprojecthasaccruedInparticularIwanttothankVanHarvey,DavidBiale,EdithandMichaelWyschogrod,StevenZipperstein,HesterGelber,EinatRamon,JamesHyman,KenKoltunFromm,AryehCohen,ElliotDorff,DavidEllenson,DavidMyers,NaomiSeidman,andtheanonymousreviewersattheaforementionedjournalsIowespecialgratitudetoArnoldEisenforcloselyreadingcountlessdraftsassupervisorofwhatwasthenmydoctoraldissertationHislineforlineeyeshapedandsharpenedthisproject(bothintermsofcontentandform)fromtheverystartGreatthanksalsogotoStevenKepnesandtheanonymousreaderfortheiracuteattentiontothismanuscriptforPrincetonUniversityPressThesepeopleallforcedmetograpplewithquestionsthatbymyselfIoverlookedorunderplayedTheircommentscombinedrigorandconcernforthisproject’scoherenceThebook’sfaultsaremyownresponsibilityLast,IoweimmeasurablegratitudetomybrotherJaredBraitermanandtoMargaretKaralisfortheirsenseofstyle,boundlesshumor,andcriticalinsightThispageintentionallyleftblank(GOD)AFTERAUSCHWITZThispageintentionallyleftblankINTRODUCTIONMODERNITYSURPASSEDJEWISHRELIGIOUSTHOUGHTAFTERAUSCHWITZOnceuponatimeweweredreamingofsweetandimaginaryfiresandofcrumblingweddingcanopies,buthe,Sutzkever,beheldmaninhisutterugliness,inhisphysicalandspiritualdegradation(MarcChagall)ZYGMUNTBAUMANwascertainlynotthefirsttonotethat“theHolocaustwasbornandexecutedinourmodernrationalsociety,atthehighstageofourcivilizationandatthepeakofculturalachievement,andforthisreasonitisaproblemofthatsociety,civilizationandculture”Indeed,catastrophicsufferingbelongstotheentiretwentiethcenturyacenturyinwhichmassmurderandmassdeathmarkedtheconvergenceofmodernorganization,moderntechnology,andhumanpropensitiesforviolenceandapathyTheHolocaust,twoworldwars,theArmeniangenocide,theStalinistgulag,HiroshimaandNagasaki,Maoistpurges,killingfieldsinCambodia,Bosnia,andRawanda,alongwiththespectersofnuclearapocalypse,globalenvironmental,disasterandthespreadofAIDSallcombinetohaunttheWesternimaginationTobesure,thisalltoofamiliarlitanyhasalreadybecomerote,piouslyintoned,theneasilyignoredButthesenamesstillworktodifferenteffectonthosewhotakethetimetolingeroverthemThelitanyretainsitspowertounderminethevalueofthehumanperson,themeaningofhistoryandmodernity,andthesignificanceofhumanculturalpracticeandsocialorganization(alongwithbeliefinGod)Theendemicsufferingthathasriddledtheentiretwentithcenturyconfrontstheologians,philosophers,artists,novelists,andpoetswiththedilemmaoforientinghumanlifeandthoughtaroundtheexperienceandmemoryofprofoundnegativityandbrokenculturaltraditionsJewishreligiousthoughtprovidesafocalnodewithwhichtoanalyzepostmodern(postHolocaust)attemptsatrefiguringculturalandintellectualpraxisInthefollowingpages,IexaminehowcatastrophicsufferinganditsmemoryabsorbtheworkofthreepivotalcontemporaryJewishthinkers:RichardRubenstein,EliezerBerkovits,andEmilFackenheimTheirwritingshaveframedpostHolocaustreligiousdiscourse,definingINTRODUCTIONitsleftwing,itsrightwing,anditscenterAssumingthatreligiousreflectionintersectswithreading,myfocusistwofold:theologicalandliteraryInthelatesandthroughoutthes,Rubenstein,Berkovits,andFackenheimbegantoreworkreceivednotionsaboutGodandcovenantbyrereadingtraditionalJewishtextsIntheprocess(anddespitefiercedisagreementsamongthemselves),theyhavearticulatedauniquelypostHolocausttheologicalsensibilitydominatedbywhatweareabouttocallantitheodicyTheodicyisafamiliartechnicalterm,coinedbytheGermanphilosopherGottfriedWilhelmLeibniztomean“thejustificationofGod”Weexpandthistoincludeanyattempttojustify,explain,orfindacceptablemeaningtotherelationshipthatsubsistsbetweenGod(orsomeotherformofultimatereality),evil,andsufferingIncontrast,antitheodicymeansrefusingtojustify,explain,oracceptthatrelationshipAlthoughitoftenbordersonblasphemy,antitheodicydoesnotconstituteatheismitmightevenexpressstubbornlovethathumanpersonshaveforGodAfterall,theauthorofagenuineantitheodicstatementmustbelievethatanactualrelationshipsubsistsbetweenGodandevilinordertorejectitandtheymustloveGodinordertobeoffendedbythatrelationshipAntitheodicyismyownneologismIuseitinordertoaccountforaparticularreligioussensibility,based(inpart)onfragmentsselectivelyculledfromclassicalJewishtexts,thatdominatespostHolocaustJewishthoughtItwillbecomeapparentinthechaptersthatfollowthatmyuseoftheodicyisintentionallybroadCriticalreadersmightevenobjectthatIhaveappliedittoobroadly,thatIhavefoundtheodicywherenoneinfactexistsThiswillappearespeciallytobethecasewhenIturntoJewishthinkerslikeJosephSoloveitchikandMordecaiKaplanthinkerswhoostensiblyrejecttheveryprojectoftheodicy,alongwithother“God’seye”explanatoryframeworksIwouldonlypointoutthattheodicyconstitutesalargefamilyofdifferent(andoftencontradictory)typesofreligiousutteranceTheseincludetheoriesofjustdeserts,spiritualorethicalcatharsis,thefreewillargument,privationtheoriesofevilthatdenyitsultimateexistence,andepistemologicaldoubtsaboutthehumancapacitytoknowthewaysofGodortheologicallyinterpretmoralexperienceSometheodiciesascribeblametovictims,othersmeritTheauthorofonetypeoftheodicstatementinterpretssufferingasapunishingsignofdivinedispleasureAnothermightunderstanditasasignofGod’spassionateloveforthepersonssufferingAnothermightprofessthehumaninabilitytoreadsuchsignsMypurposeincastingsowideanetistoshowhowthesecontradictorytypesofreligiousutterancearemadetofunctiontothesameeffect:tojustifyGodandprovidenceinthefaceofevilandsufferingInmyview,anyutterancethatattributespositivespiritualormoral“meaning”togenuineevil,anyattemptto“redeem”sufferMODERNITYSURPASSEDing,risksenteringintothisfamilyresemblanceReaderswillfindthisauthorlargelyunsympathetictothistask,butnotentirelyIndeed,IsuggestattheendofChapterthatreligiousthinkersmustsometimestakethisriskinultimatelydesperateattemptstodrawgoodoutofevilMyownsuspicionsregardingtheodicyandmysympathiestowardsantitheodicydonotoverlookthepointthatneitherrepresentstableentitiesTheodicyandantitheodicyarebutsecondorder,heuristiccategorieswithwhichtoevaluatethemeaningofagivenreligiousutteranceAssuch,bothremainsubjecttointenseinterpretiveplayAstatementthatistheodicinonecontext(eg,“GodisgoodbecauseGodrewardstherighteousintheworldtocome”)canbecomeantitheodicinanothersemanticcontext(eg,“Godmisgovernsthisworldandsodefersrewarduntiltheworldtocome”)ThesameslippageholdstrueofantitheodicstatementsThenotionthatwecanneverexplainthewaysofGodbymeansofspeculationcanturntheodicwhenfollowedbystatementsthatjustifyGodandaffirmtheultimatemoralvalueofsufferingIndeed,suchstatementsmaysometimesevenfollowclaimsthatareligiousthinkerrejectstheodicy!ImakethesepointsattheendofChapterandinmydiscussionofSoloveitchikandKaplaninChapterInthemeantime,Iwanttosuggestthefollowingabouttheauthorialintentofreligiousthinkers:whetherornotaparticularthinkerconsciouslyunderstandsherselftohaveexplicitlyemployedtheodicydoesnotmeanthatshehasnotmadeimplicituseofitItisnotcoincidentalthatpostHolocaustJewishthinkersmakelittletonosuchuseoftheodicyexplicitorimplicitThecollapseoftheodicyintheirworkspeakstovexingquestionssurroundingtheHolocaust’shistoricalandtheologicaluniquenessRubensteinandFackenheimhavearguedthattheHolocaustrepresentedauniqueandradicalevilinhumanhistorythathasrupturedtraditionaltheologicalcategoriesliketheodicyAgainstRubensteinandFackenheim,otherscholarsmaintainthattheHolocaustwasonlyoneofmanycatastrophesinJewishhistoryassuch,itneitherrequiresnorhasgeneratedanyuniquetheologicalresponseItwillbecomeclearthatIdisagreewithbothpositionsOntheonehand,theHolocaustandpostHolocaustthoughtoccurwithinbroaderhistoricalandtheologicalcontextsOnecannotproperlyunderstandtheHolocaustoutsideofthelargercontextofmodernmassdeathNorcanoneunderstandcontemporaryJewishresponsetocatastrophewithoutreflectingupontheshapeofclassicalandmodernJewishthoughtAtthesametime,AuschwitzrepresentsatheologicalpointofnoreturnAuniquelymoderncatastrophewithuniquelymodernimplicationsbefelltheJewishpeopleinthetwentiethcenturyInturn,thiscatastropheanditsmemoryhaveprofoundlyreshapedthegiventheodicandantitheodiccontoursofitsreligiouscultureINTRODUCTIONWereturntothequestionconcerningtheuniquenessoftheHolocaustattheendofthisintroductionNarrowingourfocusfornow,weseethattheHolocausthasradicallycomplicatedtheprojectoftwentiethcenturyJewishmodernismBy“Jewishmodernism,”Imeanaseriesofdisjointedeffortstorenewtraditionalideational,social,andtextualpatternsbrokenbytheunevenencounterwithWesterncultureModernJewishthinkerssoughtto“makeitnew”byturningagainstnineteenthcenturyviewsofprogressandothercanonsofEnlightenmentreasonandhistoricismExamplesincludetheneoHasidismofMartinBuberandAbrahamJoshuaHeschel,GershomScholem’srehabilitationofKabbalah’sintellectualrespectability,FranzRosenzweig’sreturntorevelationandritual,Soloveitchik’sphenomenologicalanalysisofHalakha,andgeneralreappraisalsoftheHebrewBibleandrabbinicaggadahTheseprojectsparalleledtheuseoftraditionalmotifsinthepoetry,novels,andpaintingsofHayimNahmanBialik,ShaiAgnon,MarcChagall,andsomanyothersInturn,theseJewishthinkersandartistsreflectedtheOrientalistturntoarchaic,Eastern,and“primitivist”tropesinthevariedworksofWassilyKandinsky,PaulKlee,ThomasMann,HermannHesse,EzraPound,JamesJoyce,andotheravantgardemodernistsInourviewtheHolocausthasposeduniquetheologicalproblemstothoseJewishthinkerswhofallunderthisrubricNotsurprisingly,littletono“postHolocaust”thoughtappearsamongultraOrthodoxJews,whohavewantednothingfromeithermodernityormodernismTheHolocaustintensifiedanalreadystrainedrelationbetweenJudaismandmodernculturalcurrentsItdidnottaketheHolocaustforKant,Hegel,Marx,Nietzsche,andFreud,andtheproponentsofhistoricismandpositivismtocastdoubtuponthecogencyofatraditionalnarrativepatternbasedonatranscendentdeitywhocreatedtheworld,choseoneparticularpeople,andrevealedtothatpeopleoneparticularsetofcommandmentsencodedinaparticulartextualcorpusthatwouldleadthemtowardprivilegedmessianicandotherworldlyfuturesJewishthinkerslikeBuber,Baeck,Rosenzweig,Heschel,Soloveitchik,andKaplanrespondedtothechallengeposedbymodernitybyrecastingtraditionalJewishtexts,tropes,andnarrativestructuresJudaismwasmadetoaccordwithmodernintellectualandculturaltrendswhilecallingthehegemonyofEnlightenmentreasonintoquestionTheHolocaust,however,hasexacerbatedextantquestionsaboutGod,Torah,Israel,mitzvah,andcovenantbyplacingthembeforethehistoricalpresenceofmonumentalhorrorBytheendofthetwentiethcentury,EuropeanhistoryhasunderminedmodernJewishlifeandthoughtmorethoroughlythandidnineteenthcenturyGermanGeistesgeschichteModernJewishreligiousthinkerslikeBuber,Heschel,Soloveitchik,andKaplanmadeonlyhaphazardandobliquereferencetotheHolocaustMODERNITYSURPASSEDimmediatelyafterthewarSomescholarsandcriticshavesuggestedthattheysufferedfromastateofpsychologicalshocklikemournersandterminallyillpatientswhoundergoatransitionalperiodofdenialanddisbeliefInthisviewaprolongedpsychicdistressrenderedmodernJewishtheologiansmuteHowever,wewillseeinChapterthatdespair,anxiety,anddisillusionmenthadalreadybeguntomarkthetheologicalliteratureofthesandearlysInthefaceoftragedy,Buber,Heschel,Soloveitchik,andKaplansoughttoaffirmguardedlyoptimisticappraisalsofGod,theultimatedirectionofprovidence,thehumanperson,society,Jewishdestiny,andtheabidingrelevanceoftraditionaltextsTheyignoredneithertragedynortheHolocaustInstead,AuschwitzrepresentedasilentbutasyetunnamedpresenceintheirpostwarwritingsDiscursivefactorsexplainthisrelativesilencebetterthanpsychologismBuber,Heschel,Soloveitchik,andKaplanlackedawidespreaddiscoursewithwhichtodiscusstheHolocaustAflurryofmemoirs,literature,film,andscholarshipwouldbegintochronicletheHolocaustingraphicdetailSuchtextsdisseminatedavocabulary,abodyofknowledgewithoutwhichonecouldonlyhavereferredtotheHolocaustinpassingandgeneraltermsIndeed,theverywordHolocaustappearedrelativelylateSometimeelapsedbeforethenameAuschwitzorphraseslike“Arbeitmachtfrei”assumedtheircurrenticonographicstatusWithoutasufficientlydevelopeddiscourse,therewassimplynolanguagewithwhichtotalkabouttheHolocaust,nopasticheofimage,figure,phrase,slogan,narrative,andreflectionwithwhichtorivetthereligiousimaginationReligiousthoughtcannotoperateinadiscursivevacuumInourcase,postHolocausttheologyowesitsorigintoalargerdiscoursetakingshapethroughoutthesandsTheEichmanntrial,thetestimonyitgenerated,andHannahArendt’sformulationofthe“banalityofevil”constitutedcentralmomentsinitsformationTheworkofElieWieselplayedapivotalrole,providingJewishtheologiansimagesofhunted,hanging,andburningchildren,deathmarches,concentrationcamplife,thefigureofthesurvivor,alanguageofwitness,andanantiaestheticofbitterdespairandresistancePrimoLevileftJewishtheologianswiththefigureofthe“Musselmann”thecampdenizenbrokenbywhatJeanAmerycalledtheNazi“logicofdestruction”AlexanderDonatusedtheterm“HolocaustKingdom”todesignateaspecificplaceinthehistoryofhumansufferingThecriticTerrenceDePresinhisstudyofHolocaustmemoirssuggestedtheimageof“excrementalassault”Inadditiontomemoirsandliteraryrepresentations,thesandssawthehistoricalstudiesofLucyDawidowiczandRaulHilberg,andthepsychologicalreflectionsofElieCohen,ViktorFrankl,andBrunoBettelheimThedocumentaryfilmNightandFogvisualizedtheHolocaust,providingmacabreimagesofwarehousedhumanhairandtyphusravagedINTRODUCTIONbodiesbulldozedintomassgravesThisextensiveHolocaustdiscoursedidmorethandominatepostHolocaustreligiousthoughtItconstitutedtheveryconditionofpossibilityforanysustainedtheologicalencounterwiththeHolocaustRubensteinwasoneofthefirstJewishtheologianstorespondtothisliterature,practicallyinventingpostHolocausttheologydenovoinwiththepublicationofAfterAuschwitzAtthetimeRubensteinwasacampusrabbiattheUniversityofPittsburghTheenfantterribleofJewishtheology,RubensteinwouldsoonsufferwhatMichaelBerenbaumcalledbureaucraticexcommunicationforadvancingradicalconclusionsinthewakeofcatastrophicsufferingWiththepublicationofAfterAuschwitz,RubensteinfoundhimselfpilloriedbytheorganizedJewishcommunityandunabletofindacademicworkHeeventuallytookateachingpostatFloridaStateUniversityinTallahasseeAtpresentheispresidentoftheUniversityofBridgeportanacademicinstitutionassociatedwithRevMoon’sUnificationChurchRubensteinhaddaredtoarguethattheHolocaustradicallysunderedJewsfrombiblicalandrabbinicideasaboutGod,covenantandelection,sufferingandredemptionfoundAcc

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[美]扎加利·布里特曼著:奥斯维辛集中营之后(的神):大屠杀后犹太人思想的传统与变迁

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