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首页 [德]苏为德 著:中国史上的民间宗教运动与异端教派( 波士顿 2003年版)

[德]苏为德 著:中国史上的民间宗教运动与异端教派( 波士顿 2003年版)

[德]苏为德 著:中国史上的民间宗教运动与异端教派( 波士顿 …

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简介:本文档为《[德]苏为德 著:中国史上的民间宗教运动与异端教派( 波士顿 2003年版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

POPULARRELIGIOUSMOVEMENTSANDHETERODOXSECTSINCHINESEHISTORYCHINASTUDIESPublishedfortheInstituteforChineseStudiesUniversityofOxfordEDITORS:GLENDUDBRIDGEFRANKPIEKEVOLUMEPOPULARRELIGIOUSMOVEMENTSANDHETERODOXSECTSINCHINESEHISTORYBYHUBERTSEIWERTINCOLLABORATIONWITHMAXISHABRILLLEIDEN•BOSTONThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSeiwert,HubertMichael,PopularreligiousmovementsandheterodoxsectsinChinesehistoryByHubertSeiwertincollaborationwithMaXishapcm–(Chinastudiesvol)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNChina–Religion–HistoryITitleIIChinastudies(Leiden,Netherlands)volBLS'–dcISSN–ISBN©CopyrightbyKoninklijkeBrillNV,Leiden,TheNetherlandsAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,translated,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherAuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluseisgrantedbyBrillprovidedthattheappropriatefeesarepaiddirectlytoTheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,SuiteDanvers,MA,USAFeesaresubjecttochangeprintedinthenetherlandsForBärbel,Anne,andEvaThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSForewordxiConventionsandAbbreviationsxivGENERALINTRODUCTIONPARTONEPOPULARSECTSANDHETERODOXYBEFORETHEMINGDYNASTYINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERONE:PropheciesandMessianisminHanConfucianismCHAPTERTWO:PopularSectsandtheEarlyDaoistTraditionRootsoftheDaoistTraditionNewDevelopmentsduringtheHanDynastyTheFormationofDaoistOrthodoxiesPopularSectsaftertheHanDynastyEschatologyandMillenarianismCHAPTERTHREE:HeterodoxMovementsinMedievalBuddhismCritiqueofBuddhismasaHeterodoxReligionBuddhism,PopularReligions,andRebellionsEschatologicalBeliefsinBuddhistSectarianismTheSocialDimensionofHeterodoxBuddhistSectarianismTheEliminationofHeterodoxyConclusion:TheFormationofOrthodoxiesandHeterodoxiesviiiCONTENTSCHAPTERFOUR:PopularSectarianismduringtheSongandYuandynastiesPopularBuddhismandBuddhistSectarianismTheWhiteCloudmovementTheWhiteLotusmovementOtherSectarianTraditionsHeterodoxsectsduringtheSongMillenariansectsduringtheYuanPARTTWOPOPULARRELIGIOUSMOVEMENTSDURINGTHEMINGANDQINGDYNASTIESINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERFIVE:TheLuoTeaching:TheShapingofaNewTraditionTheFormationofaNewTraditionTheUnfoldingofaTraditionTheDynamicsofaPopularReligiousMovementCHAPTERSIX:TheSpectrumofPopularReligiousTeachingsinLateMingPopularReligiousTeachingsinEarlyMingHuangtianJiao(YellowHeavenTeaching)HongyangJiao(VastYangTeaching)SanyiJiao(ThreeinOneTeaching)CHAPTERSEVEN:HomogenizationandDiversificationofSectarianTraditionsTheLonghuaJing(DragonFlowerScripture)asSynthesisofSectarianTraditionsinNorthChinaProliferationofPopularSectsundertheQingZhangBaotaiandHisSectarianNetworkTheShouyuanJiaoandBaguaJiaoNetworksContinuationofCumulativeTraditions:YiguanDaoCONTENTSixCHAPTEREIGHT:TheDynamicsofPopularReligiousMovementsDuringtheQingandMingDynastiesInnovationandHistoricalContinuityTheEmergenceofNewReligiousMovementsChangingDegreesofHeterodoxyDiversification,Homogenization,andtheDynamicsofExpansionRewardsandCostsofMembershipEPILOGUE:PopularReligiousMovementsandEliteCultureAPPENDIX:OntheTwoVersionsoftheJiulianJingBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankFOREWORDPlansforwritingthisbooksprangupmorethantenyearsagowhenascholarshipoftheVolkswagenFoundationallowedmetodoresearchintheFirstHistoricalArchivesinPekingDuringthesemonths,ProfessorMaXishaoftheInstituteofWorldReligionsattheChineseAcademyfortheSocialScienceskindlyofferedmehishelpIprofitedimmenselyfromhisstupendousfamiliaritywiththedocumentsofthisarchiveandothersourcesonthehistoryofpopularsectsinMingandQingChinaDuringourconversationsfirstplansweremadeforajointpublicationItwasagaintheVolkswagenFoundationthatmadeitpossibleforMaXishatospentoneyearasavisitingscholarattheUniversityofHannovertocontinueourcooperationandpreparethepublicationofamonographonChinesepopularreligioussectarianismDuringthistimeMaXishawroteasubstantialChinesedraftprovidingcopioushistoricaldatatobecomplementedbytheresultsofmyownresearchHadIbeenabletoworkcontinuouslyonthisprojectandtofinishitwithintheplannedtime,theresultwouldhavebeenabookcoauthoredbyMaXishaandmeYet,eventstookanotherturnWritingabookinEnglishprovedtobeaheavyexerciseformethatrequiredmuchmoretimethanIhadanticipated,whileteachingandotherobligationsleftlittleroomforwritingduringuniversitytermsIn,whenIhadfinishedthefirstversionofseveralchapters,MaXisha’sandHanBingfan’sZhongguominjianzongjiaoshi(HistoryofChinesePopularReligions)appeared,whichcontainedmost(andmuchmore)ofthehistoricalinformationofMaXisha’sdraftAsthismonumentalpublicationofalmostpagesprovidescopiousquotationsfromarchivalsourcesunknowntomebefore,IhadtoreconsiderandrevisemymanuscriptInIreceivedacalltotheUniversityofLeipzigMovingwithmyfamilytothisstimulatingcityinformerEastGermany,whichatthattimewasinarushoftransformation,andtoworkatatimehonoureduniversityundergoingcompleterestructuringwasafascinatingbutdemandingexperienceWriting,however,wentslowlyandfirstdoubtscamewhetherIwouldeverbeabletofinishthisbookwithinthenextyearsThen,in,IwasappointedexpertmemberofanEnquêteCommissionofxiiFOREWORDtheGermanBundestagtoinvestigatetheactivitiesofsocalledsectsandcultsinGermanyUntillatethistaskabsorbedmytimeandenergy,andresearchonChinesesectscametoastandstillTheexperienceofthiscommissiondid,however,helpmetounderstandhowstateofficialswithanaverageamountofprejudicesperceiveoddreligiousminoritiesThisunderstandingwasusefulfortheevaluationofreportsbyChineseofficialsonpopularsectsWhenaftertheEnquêteCommissionIresumedworkonthepresentbook,theprojecthadturnedfromadreamtoanightmareInandintwolargecollectionsofbaojuanhadbeenpublishedinMainlandChinaandinTaiwanThus,ahugenumberoffirsthandsectarianscripturesweremadeavailable,mostofwhichIknewonlyfromquotationsThoughitwasillusionarytostudythoroughlythesescriptures,IhadtoconsideratleastthosethatseemedmostimportantWholechaptershadtobecompletelyrewrittenProgresswasdespairinglyslowuntilinIwasgrantedonetermsabbaticalleave,whichagainstallapprehensionfinallyallowedmetocompletethemanuscriptAshasbeenexplained,thisbookowesmuchtoMaXishaIhavetothankhimforhiscooperationandencouragement,withoutwhichIwouldnothaveenvisionedthisprojectItdependstoagreatextentonhisresearch,evenifinsomecasesIdidnotsharehisviewsNeedlesstosay,IaloneamresponsibleforthemistakesandshortcomingsofthisbookGuoPeihonghastranslatedlargepartsofMaXisha’shandwrittenChinesedraftintoGermanandassistedinmanyotherwaysduringtheearlyphaseoftheprojectRaikZillmann’sskillatcomputersrescuedmefromcompletedespairwhenhesucceededinrecoveringthedestroyedfilesofthemanuscriptIwanttothankthembothIamalsogratefultomycolleaguesintheInstitutefortheStudyofReligionsatLeipzigUniversityfortheirunderstandingandsupportwhenIhadlesstimefortheaffairsoftheinstitutethanwasprobablyneededTheVolkswagenFoundationhassupportedthisprojectwithaconsiderablegrantthatallowednotonlyMaXishatospentoneyearinHannoverandmetoworkinPekingforsevenmonthsitalsomadeitpossibletopurchasethesourcesandotherbooksneededfortheresearchIhavetothanktheFoundationforthisgrantandforitspatiencewhenthepromisedresultswerelongdelayedPatriciaRadderofBrillAcademicPublisherswasfastandextremelyefficientinconsideringthemanuscriptFOREWORDxiiiandpreparingthefinalstepsforthepublicationIamgratefultoherandtheserieseditorsforacceptingthebookIamalsoindebtedtoLynneMilesMorillowhohaseditedthemanuscriptMostofallIwanttothankmywifeforherunceasingencouragementandunderstandingAlthoughworkonthisbookoccasionallystrainedthetoleranceofmyfamily,shereadandcorrectedthefinalversionofthemanuscriptAboveall,however,herloveandsupportivespiritenabledmetoovercomethemanydownsthatIexperiencednotonlywhileworkingonthisbookThepastfourteenyearswereatimeofintenseactivityforbothofusItwasalsoatimeofimportantchanges,mostofthempleasantWhenwewenttoPekingin,ourdaughterAnnewasoneyearoldEvawasborninNowbothareintheirteensIhavetoapologizetothemiftheirchildhoodwassometimeslackingtheattentionoftheirfathertheywerejustifiedtoexpectCONVENTIONSANDABBREVIATIONSConventionsItalicsItalicsareusedforexpressionsinlanguagesotherthanEnglish,unlesstheyhavebeenadoptedintheEnglishlanguageIftheyarewrittenwithdiacriticstheyarealwaysregardedasforeignexpressionstitlesofbooksandscripturesthetitlesanddesignationsofdeities,unlesstheycanbeidentifiedasnamesof(alleged)humanpersonsForexample:“Laozi”referstothebookofLaozi,while“Laozi”referseithertothelegendarypersonorthedeityLaoziThesamedeityisalsoknownasTaishangLaojunDesignationssuchasWujishengzuorWushengLaomu,whichcanbetranslated,arenotconsideredtobepropernamesbuttitlesorconceptsSanskritnamesofdeitiesarealwaysconsideredpropernamestheChinesenamesofreligioussectsandmovements(forexampleTaipingdao,Wudoumidao,Huangtianjiao)ItisoftenunclearwhethertheseexpressionsarepropernamesordescriptivetermsItalicsarenotusedforpropernames(ofpersons,places,dynasties,andsoforth)thenamesofreignerasTranslationsofsectnamesandbooktitlesUnlessthereareestablishedandunequivocaltranslations,thenamesofreligioussectsandthetitlesofscripturesareusuallynottranslated,allowingclearidentificationAtranslationisgiveninparenthesesonfirstoccurrenceinthemaintextThetranslationofsectnamesandChineseexpressionscanalsobefoundintheindex,thetranslationofbooktitlesinthebibliographyofsourcesCONVENTIONSANDABBREVIATIONSxvPagenumbersReferencestopagenumbersofpublicationsandsourceeditionswithWesternstylepaginationareprecededby“p”or“pp”IfthepagenumberofWesternstylepaginationisfollowedby“a”,“b”,or“c”,itreferstothedifferentsectionsonthepagesinsomesourceeditionsReferencestoChinesestylepaginationaregivenasnumbers(withoutpreceding“p”)followedby“a”or“b”,whichreferstotherectoorversooftheleaves(ortherightandleftsideinmodernfacsimilereprints)HistoricaldatesInthemaintextyearsaregivenaccordingtoWesternchronologyInthenotessometimestheChinesechronologyofthesourcesisgiven,thatis,thenameofthereignerafollowedbytheyear,themonth,andthen(insomeinstances)theday(“Hongwu”thusmeanssixthmonthofthethirdyearoftheHongwuera,“Hongwu”meansfifthdayofthesixthmonthofthethirdyearoftheHongwuera)TheyearaccordingtoWesternchronologyisthenaddedinbrackets,forexampleHongwu()Asaconvention,thewholeyearoftheChinesecalendarisreferredtobythenumberofthecorrespondingyearoftheWesterncalendar,althoughtheeleventhandtwelfthmonthoftenfallintothenextyearoftheWesterncalendarAbbreviationsBJCJ:Baojuanchuji����Vols–Taiyuan:Shanxirenmincubanshe,DZTY:RenJiyu,ed���Daozangtiyao��Beijing:Zhongguoshehuikexuechubanshe,ThenumberafterDZTYreferstothenumberinthiscataloguej:juan�(“scroll”),referstothetraditionalnumberingof“volumes”or“chapters”inChinesebooksJJCLFZZ:Junjichulufuzouzhe������(RecordsattachedtomemorialsoftheGrandCouncil,FirstHistoricalArchivesPeking)xviCONVENTIONSANDABBREVIATIONSMaHan:MaXisha,andHanBingfang������Zhongguominjianzongjiaoshi������Shanghai:Renminchubanshe,MJZJ:MingQingminjianzongjiaojingjuanyuwenxian!"����#�$ThescriptureandliteratureofpopularreligionintheMingandQingdynasty!Vols–Taibei:Xinwenfengchubanshe,T:ReferstothenumberofthescriptureinTaishÙShinshåDaizÙkyÙTaishÙ:TaishÙShinshåDaizÙkyÙ'()*'#Vols–Tokyo:IssaikyÙkankÙkai,–WWDZ:DaozangVols–BeijingTianjin:Wenwuchubanshe,Tianjingujichubanshe,()WXZJ:WanziXuzangjing,#Vols–Taibei:Xinwenfengchubanshe,ZPZZ:Zhupizouzhe��(Memorialspresentedtotheemperor,FirstHistoricalArchivesPeking)ShortandvarianttitlesofChinesesourcesarelistedinthebibliographyGENERALINTRODUCTIONThesequenceofchaptersofthisbookroughlyfollowschronologicalorderfromantiquitytothenineteenthcenturyMyresearchinterestinpopularreligiousmovementsinChinadeveloped,however,inthereverseorderIfirstnoticedtheimportanceofreligiouscommunitiesoutsidethestructuresofofficialBuddhismandDaoismwhenIdidresearchintothereligioushistoryofTaiwanmorethantwentyyearsagoIrealizedthatwhatduringthenineteenthcenturywasconsideredtobelayBuddhism,inTaiwanwereinfactvegetarianreligiousgroupsderivingfromtraditionsthatontheChinesemainlandwereregardedasheterodoxsectsInTaiwan,however,fewsourceswerefoundindicatingthatthesegroupssufferedfrompersecutionTheyratherappearedtohavebeenagenerallyacceptedpartofthelocalreligiouscultureSomeyearslater,IturnedagaintothesevegetariansocietiestotracetheirearlierhistoryinsouthernChinaIgainedtheimpressionthatpopularreligioussectswereasignificantpartofreligiouscultureduringtheMingandQingdynasties,inanycasemuchmoreimportantthanitappearedinmostdescriptionsofChinesereligioushistoryThisimpressionwassupportedwhenImetProfessorMaXishawhoinformedmeabouthisownresearchanddirectedmyattentiontothecountlessdocumentsintheFirstHistoricalArchivesinPekingdealingwithpopularreligioussectsIdevelopedtheideaofamonographonMingandQingsectarianismbasedonarchivalmaterialsandsectarianbaojuanliteraturethatwouldcombinetheapproachesofthepioneerbooksbySusanNaquinandDanielOvermyerSinceitprovedtobeillusionaryCfHubertSeiwert,VolksreligionundnationaleTraditioninTaiwanStudienzurregionalenReligionsgeschichteeinerchinesischenProvinz(MünchenerOstasiatischeStudien),Stuttgart:Steiner,,pp–CfHubertSeiwert,“PopularreligioussectsinsoutheastChina:SectconnectionsandtheproblemoftheLuoJiaoBailianJiaodichotomy,”JournalofChineseReligions,(),pp–CfSusanNaquin,MillenarianrebellioninChinaTheEightTrigramsuprisingof,NewHavenLondon:YaleUniversityPress,SusanNaquin,ShantungrebellionTheWangLunuprisingof,NewHavenLondon:YaleUniversityPress,DanielOvermyer,FolkBuddhistreligionDissentingsectsinlatetraditionalChina(HarvardEastAsianSeries),Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,togiveacomprehensivedescriptionofpopularreligioussectsinlateGENERALINTRODUCTIONimperialChina,IintendedtotreatvariousaspectsinamoresystematicwaytoillustratetheirplaceinChinesereligiouscultureItwasagainMaXishawhoconvincedmethatthesectarianmovementsoftheMingandQingdynastiesshouldbeunderstoodagainstthebackgroundofalonghistoryofpopularsectarianismThus,thescopeofresearchwasfurtherextendedtothepastandthebooknowincludesadescriptionofpopularreligiousmovementspriortotheMing,thatis,fromtheHantotheYuandynastiesThisfirstpartisintendedasahistoricalintroductiondesignedtoillustratethecontinuitiesinChinesereligioushistoryandtoshowsomepersistingfactorsinthereligiouscultureFo

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[德]苏为德 著:中国史上的民间宗教运动与异端教派( 波士顿 2003年版)

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