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首页 [英]约翰·吉林厄姆:中古不列颠:(牛津大学出版社 2000年版)

[英]约翰·吉林厄姆:中古不列颠:(牛津大学出版社 2000年版)

[英]约翰·吉林厄姆:中古不列颠:(牛津大学出版社 2000年…

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2008-08-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

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MedievalBritain:AVeryShortIntroductionVeryShortIntroductionsareforanyonewantingastimulatingandaccessiblewayintoanewsubjectTheyarewrittenbyexperts,andhavebeenpublishedinlanguagesworldwideVeryShortIntroductionsavailablefromOxfordPaperbacks:ANCIENTPHILOSOPHYJuliaAnnasTHEANGLOSAXONAGEJohnBlairARCHAEOLOGYPaulBahnARISTOTLEJonathanBarnesAugustineHenryChadwickTHEBIBLEJohnRichesBuddhaMichaelCarrithersBUDDHISMDamienKeownCLASSICSMaryBeardandJohnHendersonContinentalPhilosophySimonCritchleyCOSMOLOGYPeterColesDarwinJonathanHowardDESCARTESTomSorellDRUGSLesIversenEIGHTEENTHCENTURYBRITAINPaulLangfordTheEuropeanUnionJohnPinderTHEFRENCHREVOLUTIONWilliamDoyleFreudAnthonyStorrGalileoStillmanDrakeGandhiBhikhuParekhHEGELPeterSingerHEIDEGGERMichaelInwoodHINDUISMKimKnottHISTORYJohnHArnoldHUMEAJAyerIndianPhilosophySueHamiltonIntelligenceIanJDearyISLAMMaliseRuthvenJUDAISMNormanSolomonJungAnthonyStevensKANTRogerScrutonTHEKORANMichaelCookLITERARYTHEORYJonathanCullerLOGICGrahamPriestMACHIAVELLIQuentinSkinnerMARXPeterSingerMEDIEVALBRITAINJohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsMUSICNicholasCookNIETZSCHEMichaelTannerNINETEENTHCENTURYBRITAINChristopherHarvieandHCGMatthewpaulEPSandersPOLITICSKennethMinoguePsychologyGillianButlerandFredaMcManusROMANBRITAINPeterSalwayROUSSEAURobertWoklerRUSSIANLITERATURECatrionaKellySOCIALANDCULTURALANTHROPOLOGYJohnMonaghanandPeterJustSOCIOLOGYSteveBruceSocratesCCWTaylorSTUARTBRITAINJohnMorrillTHEOLOGYDavidFFordTHETUDORSJohnGuyTWENTIETHCENTURYBRITAINKennethOMorganWittgensteinACGraylingVisitourwebsitefornewsofforthcomingtitleswwwoupcoukvsiJohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsMedievalBritainAVeryShortIntroductionGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAthensAucklandBangkokBogotáBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiFlorenceHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiParisSãoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoWarsawwithassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkText©JohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsThemoralrightsoftheauthorshavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)TextfirstpublishedinTheOxfordIllustratedHistoryofBritainFirstpublishedasaVeryShortIntroductionAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationsEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableISBN–––XTypesetbyRefineCatchLtd,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedinSpainbyBookPrintSL,BarcelonaContentsListofIllustrationsviListofMapsviiiTheNormanKingsThePlantagenetKingsPolitics,Law,andReligionintheEarlyMiddleAgesTheEconomyintheEarlyMiddleAgesEnglandatWar,–Wealth,Population,andSocialChangeintheLaterMiddleAgesStillatWar,–TowardsaNationFurtherReadingChronologyGenealogiesofRoyalLinesIndexListofIllustrationsAerialphotographofOldSarumCourtesyofUniversityofCambridgeCommitteeforAerialPhotographyIndenturewithseals,sCourtesyofThePublicRecordOfficeTwoscenesfromthelifeanddeathofThomasBecketCourtesyofTheBritishLibraryCauterizingawoundwithredhotinstruments,twelfthcenturyCourtesyofTheDeanandChapterofDurhamCathedralThebattleofBouvines()(MatthewParis)CourtesyofTheMasterandFellowsofCorpusChristiCollege,CambridgeMagnaCarta,andCourtesyofTheMansellCollection(top)andTheDeanandChapterofDurhamCathedral(bottom)ThebuildingoftheabbeyofStAlbans,thirteenthcentury(MatthewParis)CourtesyofTheBritishLibraryAtypicalWelshman,asseenfromWestminstertowardstheendofthethirteenthcenturyCourtesyofThePublicRecordOfficeThetombofKingEdwardII,cCourtesyofAFKerstingAknightpreparingforthelists,c(LuttrellPsalter)CourtesyofTheBritishLibraryAKentishpeasant,c(RegisterofArchbishopWilliamCourtenay)CourtesyofHisGraceTheArchbishopofCanterburyandtheTrusteesofLambethPalaceLibraryA‘lostvillage’:MiddleDitchford(Glos)CourtesyofUniversityofCambridgeCommitteeforAerialPhotographyJohnBallpreachingtotherebelhostledbyWatTylerCourtesyofTheBritishLibraryKingRichardIII,c–CourtesyofTheSocietyofAntiquariesThepublisherandtheauthorapologizeforanyerrorsoromissionsintheabovelistIfcontactedtheywillbepleasedtorectifytheseattheearliestopportunityListofMapsTheAnglo�Normanrealm–TheContinentaldominionsofHenryIIMainroadsinmedievalEnglandandWalesEnglishmilitaryenterprisesinWesternEuropeinthelaterMiddleAgesThepre�ReformationdiocesesofEnglandandWales(thirteenthcentury)ChapterTheNormanKingsandAllThatOnChristmasDayDukeWilliamofNormandywasacclaimedkingofEnglandinWestminsterAbbeyItwasanelectrifyingmomentTheshoutsofacclamation–inEnglishaswellasinFrench–alarmedtheNormanguardsstationedoutsidetheabbeyBelievingthatinsidethechurchsomethinghadgonehorriblywrong,theysetfiretotheneighbouringhousesHalfacenturylater,aNormanmonkrecalledthechaosofthatday‘Asthefirespreadrapidly,thepeopleinthechurchwerethrownintoconfusionandcrowdsofthemrushedoutside,sometofighttheflames,otherstotakethechancetogolootingOnlythemonks,thebishopsandafewclergyremainedbeforethealtarThoughtheywereterrified,theymanagedtocarryonandcompletetheconsecrationofthekingwhowastremblingviolently’DespitehisvictoryatHastings,despitethesurrenderofLondonandWinchester,William’spositionwasstillaprecariousoneandhehadgoodreasontotrembleItwastotakeatleastanotherfiveyearsbeforehecouldfeelfairlyconfidentthattheconquesthadbeencompletedTherewererisingsagainstNormanruleineveryyearfromto:inKent,inthesouthwest,intheWelshmarches,intheFenland,andinthenorthTheNormanshadtolivelikeanarmyofoccupation,living,eating,andsleepingtogetherinoperationalunitsTheyhadtobuildcastles–strongpointsfromwhichafewmencoulddominateasubjectpopulationTheremaywellhavebeennomorethan,NormanslivinginthemidstofahostilepopulationofoneortwomillionThisisnottosaythateverysingleEnglishmanactivelyopposedtheNormansUnquestionablythereweremanywhocooperatedwiththemitwasthiswhichmadepossiblethesuccessfulNormantakeoverofsomanyAngloSaxoninstitutionsButthereisplentyofevidencetoshowthattheEnglishresentedbecominganoppressedmajorityintheirowncountryTheyearsofinsecurityweretohaveaprofoundeffectonsubsequenthistoryTheymeantthatEnglandreceivednotjustanewroyalfamilybutalsoanewrulingclass,anewcultureandlanguageProbablynootherconquestinEuropeanhistoryhashadsuchdisastrousconsequencesforthedefeatedAlmostcertainlythishadnotbeenWilliam’soriginalintentionIntheAerialphotographofOldSarum:agraphicillustrationoftheproblemsfacingthefirstpostConquestgenerationTheNormancathedralhuddlesclosetothecastle,itselfbuilttodefendagroupofmentoosmalltoneedthefullextentoftheprehistoricrampartsMedievalBritainearlydaysmanyEnglishmenwereabletooffertheirsubmissionandretaintheirlandsYetbysomethinghadclearlychangedDomesdayBookisarecordofalanddeeplymarkedbythescarsofconquestIntherewereonlyfoursurvivingEnglishlordsofanyaccountMorethan,thegnshadlosttheirlandsandbeenreplacedbyagroupoflessthanbaronsAfewofthenewlandlordswereBretonsandmenfromFlandersandLorrainebutmostwereNormansInthecaseoftheChurchwecanputadatetoWilliam’santiEnglishpolicyInhehadsomeEnglishbishopsdeposedandthereafterappointednoEnglishmantoeitherbishopricorabbeyInmilitarymatters,theharryingofthenorthduringthewinterof–alsosuggestsruthlessnessonanewscaleataboutthistimeInYorkshirethismeantthatbetweenandlandvaluesfellbyasmuchastwothirdsButwheneverandhoweveritoccurred,itiscertainthatbytheAngloSaxonaristocracywasnomoreanditsplacehadbeentakenbyanewNormaneliteNaturallythisneweliteretaineditsoldlandsontheContinenttheresultwasthatEnglandandNormandy,oncetwoseparatestates,nowbecameasinglecrossChannelpoliticalcommunity,sharingnotonlyarulingdynasty,butalsoasingleAngloNormanaristocracyGiventheadvantagesofwatertransport,theChannelnomoredividedEnglandfromNormandythantheThamesdividedMiddlesexfromSurreyFromnowon,until,thehistoriesofEnglandandNormandywereinextricablyinterwovenSinceNormandywasaprincipalityruledbyadukewhoowedhomagetothekingofFrancethisalsomeantthatfromnowon‘English’politicsbecamepartofFrenchpoliticsButtheFrenchconnectionwentdeeperstillTheNormans,beingFrenchmen,broughtwiththemtoEnglandtheFrenchlanguageandFrenchcultureMoreover,wearenotdealingwithasinglemassiveinputof‘Frenchness’inthegenerationafterfollowedbyagradualreassertionof‘Englishness’TheNormanConquestofwasfollowedbyanAngevinconquestof–althoughthisdidnotinvolvethesettlementofaLoireValleyaristocracyTheNormanKingsinEngland,theeffectofthearrivalofthecourtofHenryIIandEleanorofAquitainewastoreinforcethedominanceofFrenchcultureWhereasinlessthanpercentofWinchesterpropertyownershadnonEnglishnames,bytheproportionhadrisentooverpercent,mostlyFrenchnameslikeWilliam,Robert,andRichardThisreceptivenesstoContinentalinfluencemeansthatatthistimeitistheforeignnessofEnglishartthatismoststrikingInecclesiasticalarchitecture,forexample,theEuropeanterms‘Romanesque’and‘Gothic’describethefashionablestylesmuchbetterthan‘Norman’and‘EarlyEnglish’AlthoughchurchesbuiltinEngland,likemanuscriptsilluminatedinEngland,oftencontainsomerecognizablyEnglishelements,thedesignswhichthearchitectsandartistswereadaptingcamefromabroad,sometimesfromtheMediterraneanworld(Italy,Sicily,orevenByzantium),usuallyfromFranceItwasaFrencharchitect,WilliamofSens,whowascalledintorebuildthechoirofCanterburyCathedralafterthefireofSimilarlyHenryIII’srebuildingofWestminsterAbbeywasheavilyinfluencedbyFrenchmodelsIndeedsogreatwasthepreeminenceofFranceinthefieldsofmusic,literature,andarchitecture,thatFrenchbecameatrulyinternationalratherthanjustanationallanguage,alanguagespoken–andwritten–byanyonewhowantedtoconsiderhimselfcivilizedThus,inthirteenthcenturyEngland,Frenchbecame,ifanything,evenmoreimportantthanithadbeenbeforeFromthetwelfthtothefourteenthcenturyawelleducatedEnglishmanwastrilingualEnglishwouldbehismothertonguehewouldhavesomeknowledgeofLatin,andhewouldspeakfluentFrenchInthiscosmopolitansocietyFrenchwasvitalItwasthepracticallanguageoflawandestatemanagementaswellasthelanguageofsongandverse,ofchansonandromanceTheNormanConquest,inotherwords,usheredinaperiodduringwhichEngland,likethekingdomofJerusalem,canfairlybedescribedasapartofFranceoverseas,Outremerinpoliticalterms,itwasaFrenchcolony(thoughnot,ofcourse,onethatbelongedtotheFrenchking)untiltheearlythirteenthcenturyandaculturalcolonythereafterMedievalBritainInwesternandnorthernBritain,beyondthebordersofconqueredEngland,laypeoplesandkingdomsthatretainedtheirnativeidentitiesformuchlongerAsindependentpeopleslivinginwhatwere,byandlarge,thepoorerpartsoftheisland,theyremainedtruetotheiroldwaysoflifeOnlygradually,duringthecourseofthetwelfthandthirteenthcenturies,didtheWelshandtheScotscometoshareinthisFrenchledEuropewideprocessofculturalhomogenizationThetimelagwastohaveprofoundconsequencesBythesFrenchspeakingEnglishintellectualssuchasthehistorianWilliamofMalmesburywerebeginningtodescribetheirCelticneighboursasbarbarians,tolookuponthemaslawlessandimmoralsavages,pastoralpeopleswholivedinprimitivefashionbeyondthepaleofcivilizedsocietybutwhooccasionallylaunchedhorrifyinglyviolentraidsacrossthebordersAnewcondescendingstereotypewascreated,onewhichwastobecomedeeplyentrenchedinEnglishassumptionsOneofthewaysinwhichEnglish–andtoalesserextentWelshandScottish–societychangedinthisperiodcreatesspecialproblemsforthehistorianThisisthetremendousproliferationofwrittenrecordswhichoccurredduringthetwelfthandthirteenthcenturiesManymoredocumentsthaneverbeforewerewrittenandmanymorewerepreservedWhereasfromthewholeoftheAngloSaxonperiodabout,writsandcharterssurvive,fromthethirteenthcenturyalonethereareuncountedtensofthousandsOfcoursethe,AngloSaxondocumentswereonlythetipoftheicebergmanymoredidnotsurviveButthisistruealsoofthethirteenthcenturyIthas,forexample,beenestimatedthatasmanyasmillioncharterscouldhavebeenproducedforthirteenthcenturysmallholdersandpeasantsaloneEvenifthisweretobearathergenerousestimate,itwouldstillbetruethatwholeclassesofthepopulation,serfsforexample,werenowconcernedwithdocumentsinwaysthatpreviouslytheyhadnotbeenWhereasinthereignofEdwardtheConfessoronlythekingisknowntohavepossessedaseal,inEdwardI’sreignevenserfswererequiredbystatutetohavethemAtthecentreofthisdevelopment,andtosomeTheNormanKingsextentitsmotor,laytheking’sgovernmentThekingpossessedpermanentlyorganizedwritingoffices,thechancery,andthentheexchequertoo:theywerebecomingbusierandbusierInHenryIII’sreign,wecanmeasuretheamountofsealingwaxwhichthechanceryusedInthelatesitwasgettingthroughlbperweekbythelatestheamounthadgoneuptolbperweekNotonlywasthegovernmentissuingmoredocumentsthaneverbeforeitwasalsosystematicallymakingcopiesandkeepingthemHerethekeydateisInthatyearthechanceryclerksbegantokeepcopies,onrollsofparchment,ofmostoftheletters–andcertainlyofalltheimportantones–sentoutunderthegreatsealThesurvivalofthechanceryenrolmentsmeansthatfromhistoriansknowagreatdealmoreabouttheroutineofgovernmentthaneverbeforeThesearedevelopmentsoffundamentalimportanceTheproliferationofrecordsinvolvedashiftfromhabituallymemorizingthingstowritingthemdownItmeantthatthewholepopulationwasnow,inasense,‘participatinginliteracy’eveniftheycouldnotthemselvesreadtheybecameaccustomedtoseeingdaytodaybusinesstransactedthroughthemediumofwritingClearlythisdevelopmentofaliteratementalityiscloselylinkedwiththeculturalmovementcommonlyknownasthetwelfthcenturyRenaissanceAtfirstthepowerhousesofthenewlearningalllayabroadinthetownsandcathedralsofItalyandFrancebutbythelatetwelfthcenturythereweresomeschoolsofhigherlearninginEnglandandbythestwouniversities,firstatOxfordandthenatCambridge,hadbeenestablishedAtOxfordtherewereschoolswheremencouldlearnseverelypracticalsubjectssuchasconveyancing,administration,andelementarylegalprocedureAndthroughoutEnglandthesignspointtoanincreasingnumberofschoolsatalllevelsButaretheseprofounddevelopmentsassociatedwithrevolutionarychangesinotheraspectsofsocialorganizationClearly,theproductionofallthesewrittenrecordsmeansthatsocietyisbecomingmorebureaucratic,butdoesthismeanthattherelationshipsbetweenclassesMedievalBritainarebeingconservedorbeingalteredIstheeconomicsystemchangingIsthepoliticalsystemchangingOrarebothmerelybeingmoreelaboratelyrecordedThesearenotquestionswhichitiseasytoanswerThecumulativenatureoftheevidencetendstodeceiveForexample,aparticularformofrelationshipbetweenmenmayfirstbeclearlydocumentedinthethirteenthcenturyButdoesthismeanthattherelationshipitselforiginatedinthatcenturyOrthatthesetypesofrelationshipwerefirstfixedinwritingthenOronlythatthisistheearliestperiodfromwhichtherelevantdocumentshappentohavesurvivedAcaseinpointisthefactthattheearliestknownexamplesofatypeofdocumentknownasthe‘indentureofretainer’datefromthethirteenthcenturyTheindenturerecordsthetermsonwhichamanwasengagedtoservehislorditwouldnormallyspecifyhiswagesand,ifitwasalongservicecontract,hisretainingfeeOnthebasisofthesedocuments,historianshavedecidedthatthe‘indenturedretainer’andthe‘contractarmy’bothcameintoexistencetowardstheendofthethirteenthcentury,IndenturewithsealsThisindenturerecordsanagreementmadeinthesbetweenalordandthemenofFreistonandButterwick(Lincs)ThefiftyorsovillagerswhosesealsareattachedclearlylivedinasocietywhichwasalreadythoroughlyaccustomedtousingwrittenlegaldocumentsThe

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[英]约翰·吉林厄姆:中古不列颠:(牛津大学出版社 2000年版)

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