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首页 [美]麦克尔·哈特[意]安东尼奥·奈格里 著:帝国(英文版)

[美]麦克尔·哈特[意]安东尼奥·奈格里 著:帝国(英文版)

[美]麦克尔·哈特[意]安东尼奥·奈格里 著:帝国(英文版)

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2008-07-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]麦克尔·哈特[意]安东尼奥·奈格里 著:帝国(英文版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EMPIREEMPIREMichaelHardtAntonioNegriHARVARDUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandCopyright�bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFirstHarvardUniversityPresspaperbackedition,LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHardt,MichaelEmpireMichaelHardtandAntonioNegripcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cloth)ISBN(pbk)ImperialismINegri,Antonio,–IITitleJCH��dcFourthprinting,EverytoolisaweaponifyouholditrightAniDiFrancoMenfightandlosethebattle,andthethingthattheyfoughtforcomesaboutinspiteoftheirdefeat,andthenitturnsoutnottobewhattheymeant,andothermenhavetofightforwhattheymeantunderanothernameWilliamMorrisACKNOWLEDGMENTSWewouldliketothankthefriendsandcolleagueswhoreadpartsofthismanuscriptandfromwhosecommentswebenefited:RobertAdelman,E´tienneBalibar,DenisBerger,YannMoulierBoutang,TomConley,ArifDirlik,LucianoFerrariBravo,DavidHarvey,FredJameson,RebeccaKarl,WahneemaLubiano,SareeMakdisi,ChristianMarazzi,ValentinMudimbe,JudithRevel,KenSurin,ChristineThorsteinsson,JeanMarieVincent,PaoloVirno,LindsayWaters,andKathiWeeksThequotebyAniDiFrancoonpagevisfrom‘‘MyIQ,’’copyright�RighteousBabeMusic,allrightsreserved,andisusedbypermissionCONTENTSPrefacexiPARTThePoliticalConstitutionofthePresentWorldOrderBiopoliticalProductionAlternativeswithinEmpirePARTPassagesofSovereigntyTwoEuropes,TwoModernitiesSovereigntyoftheNationStateTheDialecticsofColonialSovereigntySymptomsofPassageNetworkPower:USSovereigntyandtheNewEmpireImperialSovereigntyINTERMEZZO:COUNTEREMPIREPARTPassagesofProductionTheLimitsofImperialismDisciplinaryGovernabilityResistance,Crisis,TransformationPostmodernization,orTheInformatizationofProductionMixedConstitutionCapitalistSovereignty,orAdministeringtheGlobalSocietyofControlxCONTENTSPARTTheDeclineandFallofEmpireVirtualitiesGenerationandCorruptionTheMultitudeagainstEmpireNotesIndexPREFACEEmpireismaterializingbeforeourveryeyesOverthepastseveraldecades,ascolonialregimeswereoverthrownandthenprecipitouslyaftertheSovietbarrierstothecapitalistworldmarketfinallycollapsed,wehavewitnessedanirresistibleandirreversibleglobalizationofeconomicandculturalexchangesAlongwiththeglobalmarketandglobalcircuitsofproductionhasemergedaglobalorder,anewlogicandstructureofruleinshort,anewformofsovereigntyEmpireisthepoliticalsubjectthateffectivelyregulatestheseglobalexchanges,thesovereignpowerthatgovernstheworldManyarguethattheglobalizationofcapitalistproductionandexchangemeansthateconomicrelationshavebecomemoreautonomousfrompoliticalcontrols,andconsequentlythatpoliticalsovereigntyhasdeclinedSomecelebratethisneweraastheliberationofthecapitalisteconomyfromtherestrictionsanddistortionsthatpoliticalforceshaveimposedonitotherslamentitastheclosingoftheinstitutionalchannelsthroughwhichworkersandcitizenscaninfluenceorcontestthecoldlogicofcapitalistprofitItiscertainlytruethat,instepwiththeprocessesofglobalization,thesovereigntyofnationstates,whilestilleffective,hasprogressivelydeclinedTheprimaryfactorsofproductionandexchangemoney,technology,people,andgoodsmovewithincreasingeaseacrossnationalboundarieshencethenationstatehaslessandlesspowertoregulatetheseflowsandimposeitsauthorityovertheeconomyEventhemostdominantnationstatesshouldnolongerbethoughtofassupremeandsovereignauthorities,eitheroutsideorevenwithintheirownbordersThedeclineinsovereigntyofnationstates,however,doesnotmeanthatsovereigntyassuchhasdeclinedxiiPREFACEThroughoutthecontemporarytransformations,politicalcontrols,statefunctions,andregulatorymechanismshavecontinuedtoruletherealmofeconomicandsocialproductionandexchangeOurbasichypothesisisthatsovereigntyhastakenanewform,composedofaseriesofnationalandsupranationalorganismsunitedunderasinglelogicofruleThisnewglobalformofsovereigntyiswhatwecallEmpireThedecliningsovereigntyofnationstatesandtheirincreasinginabilitytoregulateeconomicandculturalexchangesisinfactoneoftheprimarysymptomsofthecomingofEmpireThesovereigntyofthenationstatewasthecornerstoneoftheimperialismsthatEuropeanpowersconstructedthroughoutthemoderneraBy‘‘Empire,’’however,weunderstandsomethingaltogetherdifferentfrom‘‘imperialism’’TheboundariesdefinedbythemodernsystemofnationstateswerefundamentaltoEuropeancolonialismandeconomicexpansion:theterritorialboundariesofthenationdelimitedthecenterofpowerfromwhichrulewasexertedoverexternalforeignterritoriesthroughasystemofchannelsandbarriersthatalternatelyfacilitatedandobstructedtheflowsofproductionandcirculationImperialismwasreallyanextensionofthesovereigntyoftheEuropeannationstatesbeyondtheirownboundariesEventuallynearlyalltheworld’sterritoriescouldbeparceledoutandtheentireworldmapcouldbecodedinEuropeancolors:redforBritishterritory,blueforFrench,greenforPortuguese,andsoforthWherevermodernsovereigntytookroot,itconstructedaLeviathanthatoverarcheditssocialdomainandimposedhierarchicalterritorialboundaries,bothtopolicethepurityofitsownidentityandtoexcludeallthatwasotherThepassagetoEmpireemergesfromthetwilightofmodernsovereigntyIncontrasttoimperialism,EmpireestablishesnoterritorialcenterofpoweranddoesnotrelyonfixedboundariesorbarriersItisadecenteredanddeterritorializingapparatusofrulethatprogressivelyincorporatestheentireglobalrealmwithinitsopen,expandingfrontiersEmpiremanageshybrididentities,flexiblehierarchies,andpluralexchangesthroughmodulatingnetworksofcomPREFACExiiimandThedistinctnationalcolorsoftheimperialistmapoftheworldhavemergedandblendedintheimperialglobalrainbowThetransformationofthemodernimperialistgeographyoftheglobeandtherealizationoftheworldmarketsignalapassagewithinthecapitalistmodeofproductionMostsignificant,thespatialdivisionsofthethreeWorlds(First,Second,andThird)havebeenscrambledsothatwecontinuallyfindtheFirstWorldintheThird,theThirdintheFirst,andtheSecondalmostnowhereatallCapitalseemstobefacedwithasmoothworldorreally,aworlddefinedbynewandcomplexregimesofdifferentiationandhomogenization,deterritorializationandreterritorializationTheconstructionofthepathsandlimitsofthesenewglobalflowshasbeenaccompaniedbyatransformationofthedominantproductiveprocessesthemselves,withtheresultthattheroleofindustrialfactorylaborhasbeenreducedandprioritygiveninsteadtocommunicative,cooperative,andaffectivelaborInthepostmodernizationoftheglobaleconomy,thecreationofwealthtendsevermoretowardwhatwewillcallbiopoliticalproduction,theproductionofsociallifeitself,inwhichtheeconomic,thepolitical,andtheculturalincreasinglyoverlapandinvestoneanotherManylocatetheultimateauthoritythatrulesovertheprocessesofglobalizationandthenewworldorderintheUnitedStatesProponentspraisetheUnitedStatesastheworldleaderandsolesuperpower,anddetractorsdenounceitasanimperialistoppressorBoththeseviewsrestontheassumptionthattheUnitedStateshassimplydonnedthemantleofglobalpowerthattheEuropeannationshavenowletfallIfthenineteenthcenturywasaBritishcentury,thenthetwentiethcenturyhasbeenanAmericancenturyorreally,ifmodernitywasEuropean,thenpostmodernityisAmericanThemostdamningchargecriticscanlevel,then,isthattheUnitedStatesisrepeatingthepracticesofoldEuropeanimperialists,whileproponentscelebratetheUnitedStatesasamoreefficientandmorebenevolentworldleader,gettingrightwhattheEuropeansgotwrongOurbasichypothesis,however,thatanewimperialformofsovereigntyhasemerged,contradictsboththeseviewsTheUnitedxivPREFACEStatesdoesnot,andindeednonationstatecantoday,formthecenterofanimperialistprojectImperialismisoverNonationwillbeworldleaderinthewaymodernEuropeannationswereTheUnitedStatesdoesindeedoccupyaprivilegedpositioninEmpire,butthisprivilegederivesnotfromitssimilaritiestotheoldEuropeanimperialistpowers,butfromitsdifferencesThesedifferencescanberecognizedmostclearlybyfocusingontheproperlyimperial(notimperialist)foundationsoftheUnitedStatesconstitution,whereby‘‘constitution’’wemeanboththeformalconstitution,thewrittendocumentalongwithitsvariousamendmentsandlegalapparatuses,andthematerialconstitution,thatis,thecontinuousformationandreformationofthecompositionofsocialforcesThomasJefferson,theauthorsoftheFederalist,andtheotherideologicalfoundersoftheUnitedStateswereallinspiredbytheancientimperialmodeltheybelievedtheywerecreatingontheothersideoftheAtlanticanewEmpirewithopen,expandingfrontiers,wherepowerwouldbeeffectivelydistributedinnetworksThisimperialideahassurvivedandmaturedthroughoutthehistoryoftheUnitedStatesconstitutionandhasemergednowonaglobalscaleinitsfullyrealizedformWeshouldemphasizethatweuse‘‘Empire’’herenotasametaphor,whichwouldrequiredemonstrationoftheresemblancesbetweentoday’sworldorderandtheEmpiresofRome,China,theAmericas,andsoforth,butratherasaconcept,whichcallsprimarilyforatheoreticalapproachTheconceptofEmpireischaracterizedfundamentallybyalackofboundaries:Empire’srulehasnolimitsFirstandforemost,then,theconceptofEmpirepositsaregimethateffectivelyencompassesthespatialtotality,orreallythatrulesovertheentire‘‘civilized’’worldNoterritorialboundarieslimititsreignSecond,theconceptofEmpirepresentsitselfnotasahistoricalregimeoriginatinginconquest,butratherasanorderthateffectivelysuspendshistoryandtherebyfixestheexistingstateofaffairsforeternityFromtheperspectiveofEmpire,thisisthewaythingswillalwaysbeandthewaytheywerealwaysmeanttobeInotherwords,EmpirepresentsitsrulenotasatransitoryPREFACExvmomentinthemovementofhistory,butasaregimewithnotemporalboundariesandinthissenseoutsideofhistoryorattheendofhistoryThird,theruleofEmpireoperatesonallregistersofthesocialorderextendingdowntothedepthsofthesocialworldEmpirenotonlymanagesaterritoryandapopulationbutalsocreatestheveryworlditinhabitsItnotonlyregulateshumaninteractionsbutalsoseeksdirectlytoruleoverhumannatureTheobjectofitsruleissociallifeinitsentirety,andthusEmpirepresentstheparadigmaticformofbiopowerFinally,althoughthepracticeofEmpireiscontinuallybathedinblood,theconceptofEmpireisalwaysdedicatedtopeaceaperpetualanduniversalpeaceoutsideofhistoryTheEmpirewearefacedwithwieldsenormouspowersofoppressionanddestruction,butthatfactshouldnotmakeusnostalgicinanywayfortheoldformsofdominationThepassagetoEmpireanditsprocessesofglobalizationoffernewpossibilitiestotheforcesofliberationGlobalization,ofcourse,isnotonething,andthemultipleprocessesthatwerecognizeasglobalizationarenotunifiedorunivocalOurpoliticaltask,wewillargue,isnotsimplytoresisttheseprocessesbuttoreorganizethemandredirectthemtowardnewendsThecreativeforcesofthemultitudethatsustainEmpirearealsocapableofautonomouslyconstructingacounterEmpire,analternativepoliticalorganizationofglobalflowsandexchangesThestrugglestocontestandsubvertEmpire,aswellasthosetoconstructarealalternative,willthustakeplaceontheimperialterrainitselfindeed,suchnewstruggleshavealreadybeguntoemergeThroughthesestrugglesandmanymorelikethem,themultitudewillhavetoinventnewdemocraticformsandanewconstituentpowerthatwillonedaytakeusthroughandbeyondEmpireThegenealogywefollowinouranalysisofthepassagefromimperialismtoEmpirewillbefirstEuropeanandthenEuroAmerican,notbecausewebelievethattheseregionsaretheexclusiveorprivilegedsourceofnewideasandhistoricalinnovation,butsimplybecausethiswasthedominantgeographicalpathalongxviPREFACEwhichtheconceptsandpracticesthatanimatetoday’sEmpiredevelopedinstep,aswewillargue,withthedevelopmentofthecapitalistmodeofproductionWhereasthegenealogyofEmpireisinthissenseEurocentric,however,itspresentpowersarenotlimitedtoanyregionLogicsofrulethatinsomesenseoriginatedinEuropeandtheUnitedStatesnowinvestpracticesofdominationthroughouttheglobeMoreimportant,theforcesthatcontestEmpireandeffectivelyprefigureanalternativeglobalsocietyarethemselvesnotlimitedtoanygeographicalregionThegeographyofthesealternativepowers,thenewcartography,isstillwaitingtobewrittenorreally,itisbeingwrittentodaythroughtheresistances,struggles,anddesiresofthemultitudeInwritingthisbookwehavetriedtothebestofourabilitiestoemployabroadlyinterdisciplinaryapproachOurargumentaimstobeequallyphilosophicalandhistorical,culturalandeconomic,politicalandanthropologicalInpart,ourobjectofstudydemandsthisbroadinterdisciplinarity,sinceinEmpiretheboundariesthatmightpreviouslyhavejustifiednarrowdisciplinaryapproachesareincreasinglybreakingdownIntheimperialworldtheeconomist,forexample,needsabasicknowledgeofculturalproductiontounderstandtheeconomy,andlikewisetheculturalcriticneedsabasicknowledgeofeconomicprocessestounderstandcultureThatisarequirementthatourprojectdemandsWhatwehopetohavecontributedinthisbookisageneraltheoreticalframeworkandatoolboxofconceptsfortheorizingandactinginandagainstEmpireLikemostlargebooks,thisonecanbereadinmanydifferentways:fronttoback,backtofront,inpieces,inahopscotchpattern,orthroughcorrespondencesThesectionsofPartintroducethegeneralproblematicofEmpireInthecentralportionofthebook,Partsand,wetellthestoryofthepassagefrommodernitytopostmodernity,orreallyfromimperialismtoEmpirePartnarratesthepassageprimarilyfromthestandpointofthehistoryofideasandculturefromtheearlymodernperiodtothepresentTheredPREFACExviithreadthatrunsthroughoutthispartisthegenealogyoftheconceptofsovereigntyPartnarratesthesamepassagefromthestandpointofproduction,wherebyproductionisunderstoodinaverybroadsense,rangingfromeconomicproductiontotheproductionofsubjectivityThisnarrativespansashorterperiodandfocusesprimarilyonthetransformationsofcapitalistproductionfromthelatenineteenthcenturytothepresentTheinternalstructuresofPartsandthuscorrespond:thefirstsectionsofeachtreatthemodern,imperialistphasethemiddlesectionsdealwiththemechanismsofpassageandthefinalsectionsanalyzeourpostmodern,imperialworldWestructuredthebookthiswayinordertoemphasizetheimportanceoftheshiftfromtherealmofideastothatofproductionTheIntermezzobetweenPartsandfunctionsasahingethatarticulatesthemovementfromonestandpointtotheotherWeintendthisshiftofstandpointtofunctionsomethinglikethemomentinCapitalwhenMarxinvitesustoleavethenoisysphereofexchangeanddescendintothehiddenabodeofproductionTherealmofproductioniswheresocialinequalitiesareclearlyrevealedand,moreover,wherethemosteffectiveresistancesandalternativestothepowerofEmpireariseInPartwethustrytoidentifythesealternativesthattodayaretracingthelinesofamovementbeyondEmpireThisbookwasbegunwellaftertheendofthePersianGulfWarandcompletedwellbeforethebeginningofthewarinKosovoThereadershouldthussituatetheargumentatthemidpointbetweenthosetwosignaleventsintheconstructionofEmpirePARTTHEPOLITICALCONSTITUTIONOFTHEPRESENTWORLDORDERCapitalismonlytriumphswhenitbecomesidentifiedwiththestate,whenitisthestateFernandBraudelTheymakeslaughterandtheycallitpeaceTacitusTheproblematicofEmpireisdeterminedinthefirstplacebyonesimplefact:thatthereisworldorderThisorderisexpressedasajuridicalformationOurinitialtask,then,istograsptheconstitutionoftheorderbeingformedtodayWeshouldruleoutfromtheoutset,however,twocommonconceptionsofthisorderthatresideonopposinglimitsofthespectrum:first,thenotionthatthepresentordersomehowrisesupspontaneouslyoutoftheinteractionsofradicallyheterogeneousglobalforces,asifthisorderwereaharmoniousconcertorchestratedbythenaturalandneutralhiddenhandoftheworldmarketandsecond,theideathatorderisdictatedbyasinglepowerandasinglecenterofrationalitytranscendenttoglobalforces,guidingthevariousphasesofhistoricaldevelopmentaccordingtoitsconsciousandallseeingplan,somethinglikeaconspiracytheoryofglobalizationUnitedNationsBeforeinvestigatingtheconstitutionofEmpireinjuridicalterms,wemustanalyzeinsomedetailtheconstitutionalprocessesthathavecometodefinethecentraljuridicalcategories,andinparticularTHEPOLITICALCONSTITUTIONOFTHEPRESENTgivecarefulattentiontotheprocessofthelongtransitionfromthesovereignrightofnationstates(andtheinternationalrightthatfollowedfromit)tothefirstpostmodernglobalfiguresofimperialrightAsafirstapproximationonecanthinkofthisasthegenealogyofjuridicalformsthatledto,andnowleadsbeyond,thesupranationalroleoftheUnitedNationsanditsvariousaffiliatedinstitutionsItiswidelyrecognizedthatthenotionofinternationalorderthatEuropeanmodernitycontinuallyproposedandreproposed,atleastsincethePeaceofWestphalia,isnowincrisisIthasinfactalwaysbeenincrisis,andthiscrisishasbeenoneofthemotorsthathascontinuouslypushedtowardEmpirePerhapsthisnotionofinternationalorderanditscrisisshouldbedatedfromthetimeoftheNapoleonicWars,assomescholarsclaim,orperhapstheoriginshouldbelocatedintheCongressofViennaandtheestablishmentoftheHolyAllianceInanycase,therecanbenodoubtthatbythetimeoftheFirstWorldWarandthebirthoftheLeagueofNations,anotionofinternationalorderalongwithitscrisishadbeendefinitivelyestablishedThebirthoftheUnitedNationsattheendoftheSecondWorldWarmerelyreinitiate

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[美]麦克尔·哈特[意]安东尼奥·奈格里 著:帝国(英文版)

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